Abhidhamma Lectures 02 - Buddhism, Philosophy, and Khmer Literature


Buddhism, Philosophy, and Khmer Literature

The teachings of the Buddha are aimed solely at liberating sentient beings from suffering. The Basic Teachings of Buddha which are core to Buddhism are: The Three Universal Truths; The Four Noble Truths; and The Noble Eightfold Path.

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Saturday, June 15, 2019

Abhidhamma Lectures 02

Tape #9


Ch. 2  begins on p. 4

Review of Chapter One

Let us mark the columns so I can talk from here and you will know what column I am talking about. The first column is number one. Then the other three are two, three, four. Then there are five, six, seven. And then there are eight, nine, ten and eleven, twelve, thirteen and finally 14-21. The 121 types of consciousness are broadly divided into Mundane and Supramundane. How many are Mundane Consciousness? 81. So that is columns 1-13. Those are called Mundane Consciousness. The remaining columns 14-21 are Supramundane Consciousness. Among the Mundane Consciousness what are the Sense-sphere Consciousness? KÈmÈvacara consciousness is columns 1-7. Altogether there are 54 types of KÈmÈvacara Consciousness. Among them which are the unwholesome Cittas? Column number one. What are the rootless Cittas? Columns 2-4. Then the next group, Beautiful Sense-sphere Consciousness, is columns 5-7. There are twelve Unwholesome Cittas, eighteen Rootless Cittas and twenty four Beautiful Sense-sphere Consciousness.

          Among twelve Akusala Cittas how many are with Lobha? Eight, the first eight. How many are with Dosa? Two, the two green dots. How many are with Moha only? Two, the last two. Moha is with all twelve types of Unwholesome Consciousness. So we should say Lobha and Moha, Dosa and Moha and Moha only. When we say Lobha, we mean Moha also. When we say Dosa, we mean Moha also. There are twelve types of Unwholesome Consciousness.

          The next group is the Rootless Consciousness. How many are there? Eighteen. How are they subdivided? They are divided into three groups. Column number two is the resultants of unwholesome, Akusala VipÈka. Column number three is the resultants of wholesome, Kusala VipÈka. And column number four is Kiriya or functional. In column two, the first one is Eye-consciousness. The second one is Ear-consciousness. The third one is Nose-consciousness. The fourth one is Tongue-consciousness and the fifth is Body-consciousness. In the Akusala VipÈka the body consciousness is unpleasant. The next one is Receiving Consciousness and the last one is Investigating Consciousness.

          Column number three is Kusala VipÈka. The first one is Eye-consciousness, the second Ear-, the third Nose-, the fourth Tongue- and the fifth is Body-consciousness. Here Body-consciousness is pleasant. The next one is Receiving Consciousness. The last two are Investigating Consciousnesses. There are two Investigating Consciousnesses among the eight resultants of wholesome Kamma.
          Then, in column number four, there are three types of consciousness. What is the first one? Five-sense-door-adverting. The second is Mind-door-adverting. The third one is Smile-producing Consciousness.

          Now let us go to the next group. Columns number five, six and seven are called Beautiful Sense-sphere Consciousness. Column number five is Kusala. There are eight wholesome Beautiful Sense-sphere Consciousness. Four are accompanied by pleasant feeling. The other four are accompanied by indifferent feeling. Column number six is Beautiful Sense-sphere Resultant Consciousness. They are also eight–four accompanied by pleasant feeling and four accompanied by indifferent feeling. Column number seven is functional or Kiriya consciousness. Again these are eight, four accompanied by pleasant feeling and four accompanied by indifferent feeling. Altogether there are 24. Twelve plus eighteen plus 24 we get 54. These 54 are called KÈmÈvacara Cittas, Sense-sphere Consciousnesses.

          The next group, columns 8-10, are R|pÈvacara, Fine Material or we can just say Form-sphere Consciousness. The first five or column eight are wholesome. The second five or column nine are resultant. The third five or column ten are Kiriya or functional. Now look across. What are the first three? First JhÈna three. The second line is second JhÈna three. The third line is third JhÈna three. The fourthline is fourth JhÈna three. The fifth line is fifth JhÈna three.

          Next group is columns 11, 12 & 13. What are they? They are Formless-sphere Consciousness. Column number 11 is Kusala. Column number 12 is VipÈka. Column number 13 is Kiriya. What JhÈna are they? Fifth JhÈna. All twelve belong to fifth JhÈna. They are accompanied by two JhÈna factors, UpekkhÈ and EkaggatÈ.

          Form-sphere and Formless-sphere Consciousnesses, fifteen plus twelve, altogether 27 are collectively called Mahaggata Cittas. There are 27 Mahaggata Cittas. How many are first JhÈna? Three. Second JhÈna? Three. Third JhÈna? Three. Fourth JhÈna? Three. Fifth JhÈna? 15. Very good. Altogether we get 81 types of Mundane Consciousness.

          Now let us do a difficult thing. The first column is Akusala. How many Cittas belong to unenlightened persons? All twelve. How many belong to a SotÈpanna? Seven; consciousnesses accompanied by doubt and four accompanied by wrong view are eliminated by SotÈpannas. Only Seven belong to SotÈpannas. How many belong to SakadÈgÈmÊs? The same seven. How many belong to AnÈgÈmÊs? Five. What two do you take out? The two Dosam|la Cittas. AnÈgÈmÊs eradicate Dosa altogether. Dosa does not belong to AnÈgÈmÊs. How many belong to Arahants? None. Good.

          Columns two, three and four–can column two arise in the mind of Arahants? Yes. Column three also? Yes, because Arahants can, for example, see both beautiful and ugly objects. They can hear both ugly and beautiful sounds. Column four, there are three and they can belong to Arahants also. The last one, Smile-producing Consciousness, is peculiar to Arahants and Buddhas only.

          Column number five belongs to ordinary people, SotÈpannas, SakadÈgÈmÊs and AnÈgÈmis. Let’s say it belongs to non-Arahants. Column six belongs to both non-Arahants and Arahants. Column seven belongs to Arahants only.

          Column eight belongs to non-Arahants. Column number nine belongs to both non-Arahants and Arahants. Column ten belongs to Arahants only.

          Column eleven belongs to non-Arahants. Column twelve belongs to non-Arahants and Arahants. Column thirteen belongs to Arahants only.

          Now we go to Supramundane Consciousness. There are eight or forty Supra­mundane Consciousnesses. When we say there are eight, we take column 14 to be just one. It is the Magga or Path of a Stream-entrant. So in columns 14, 15, 16 & 17 there is one Citta in each. When we say there are 89 types of consciousness we take those as one Citta each. When we say there are 121, we take it that there are five for each one. (SotÈpatti Magga, SotÈpatti Phala, SakadÈgÈmi Magga, SakadÈgÈmi Phala and so on) How many Magga Cittas are there? Among the forty Lokuttara, there are twenty. Twenty of the forty Lokuttara Cittas are Path Consciousnesses. The other twenty are Fruit Consciousness. Among twenty Magga Consciousnesses the first column is SotÈpatti Magga. Then column 15 is SaladÈgÈmi Magga. Column 16 is AnÈgÈmi Magga. And column 17 is Arahatta Magga. Number 18 is SotÈpatti Phala. Number 19 is SakadÈgÈmi Phala. Number 20 is AnÈgÈmi fruit. Number 21 is Arahatta Phala. Altogether we get forty Supramundane consciousnesses. Then when we add forty to 81 we get a total of 121 types of Consciousness.

          Let us say there are 89 types of consciousness. Among the 89 types of consciousness, how many are Akusala? Twelve. How many are Kusala? 21 Cittas or columns 5, 8, 11. 14, 15, 16 & 17. How many are VipÈka? Columns 2, 3, 6, 9, 12, 18, 19, 20, 21. How many are Kiriya? Columns 4, 7, 10, 13. There is no Kiriya in Lokuttara. Why is there no Kiriya in Supramundane Consciousnesses? Do you remember? Because Path Consciousness arises only once.

          If we take 121 types of consciousness, how many Kusala Cittas are there? Columns 5, 8, 11 & 14, 15, 16, 17. Altogether there are 37. How many VipÈka Cittas are there? Columns 2, 3, 6, 9, 12 & 18, 19, 20, 21. Altogether there are 52 VipÈka Cittas.

          How many are accompanied by Somanassa? All the red dots, 62. How many are accompanied by UpekkhÈ? All the blue dots, 55. How many by Domanassa? The two green dots. How many by Dukkha? The green cross. How many by Sukha? The red cross. Very good. Altogether we get 121 types of consciousness.

          We used circles only in this chart. In another chart there are circles, triangles and squares. Akusala are represented by triangles. VipÈka are represented by circles. Kiriya are represented by squares. Kusala are represented by diamonds. What is important to know is which is which. So we come to the end of the first chapter.

Still Tape #9

Chapter 2





The Cetasikas

          Now we will go to the second chapter which is a chapter on the Cetasikas. Now you should remember that there are four ultimate truths. The first ultimate truth is Citta. The second Ultimate Truth is Cetasika. The third Ultimate Truth is Rupa. The fourth Ultimate Truth is NibbÈna.

          We have just concluded the section on the first Ultimate Truth which is Citta. Now we go to the second Ultimate Truth which is Cetasika. I have told you the definition of Cetasika. Cetasika means what? Those that arise with Citta are those that arise depending on Citta. Those mental states that arise depending on Citta are called Cetasikas. ‘Ceta’ means mind, and ‘ika’ means depending on. Cetasika means those which depend on Citta for their arising. Only when there is Citta can there be Cetasikas. Cetasikas can arise only when there is Citta, consciousness.

          Cittas and Cetasikas arise together. Citta is said to be the forerunner or the leader of Cetasikas. Citta means awareness of the object. If there is no awareness of the object, there can be no contact with the object. There can be no experience of the object. There can be no perception of the object. That is why Citta is said to be the forerunner, is said to be the chief, of these mental states. Citta is the chief though they arise simultaneously, even though they arise at the same time.

          The Cetasikas are those that give color to the Cittas. Actually Citta is one–awareness of the object. But different Cetasikas arise together with Citta. If the Citta arises with Beautiful Cetasikas, then the Citta is called Beautiful Citta. When Citta arises with unwholesome Cetasikas, then it is called an Unwholesome Citta, an unwholesome consciousness. Actually it is the Cetasikas that differentiate one type of consciousness from another.

The Characteristics of Cetasikas

          There are characteristics of these Cetasikas given in the Manual. I want you to look at the Manual, the second chapter, page 77. One characteristic of Cetasika is that it arises together with consciousness. Another characteristic is that it ceases or disappears together with consciousness. Another characteristic is that it has the same object as consciousness. Another characteristic is that it has the same base as consciousness. These are called the four characteristics of Cetasikas. For something to be called a Cetasika, it must have these four characteristics.

          The first one arising together with consciousness–Cetasikas must arise simultaneously with the Citta. Cittas and Cetasikas exist for only three submoments–arising, continuing and disappearing. They arise together. Those that arise together with Citta are called Cetasikas. Cetasikas must arise together with Citta.

          But that is not enough because material properties also arise at the same time as Citta. Same material properties, for example, those caused by Citta and also those caused by Kamma, arise at the same time together with Citta. The first characteristic is not enough to prevent others from being caled Cetasika.

          The second characteristic is put here. Ceasing together with consciousness–that means Ceasikas disappear at the same time with consciousness. Material properties are said to last for the duration of 17 thought moments. They may arise together with Citta, but they do not cease together with Citta. They stay on until the 17th thought moment. So when this second characteristic is put here, we know that those material properties are not Cetasikas. In order to leave those material properties out the second characteristic is given. A Cetasika must arise together with Citta and cease together with Citta.

          Still that is not enough. You will understand it after you study the sixth chapter. Abhidhamma is like a jigsaw puzzle. Until you put in the last piece the picture is always imperfect. If you don’t understand the explanations, don’t worry. After the sixth chapter you will understand. Nobody has to tell you at that time. There are two material properties called Bodily Intimation and Vocal Intimation. Bodily Intimation means that by gestures we let others know our desires. When I use this gesture, you know that I am calling you in the United States. In Burma it is different. That is bodily intimation. Now I am talking and you are listening to me. My talking is called vocal intimation. It is said that bodily intimation and vocal intimation arise and cease together with Citta. They do not last for 17 thought moments like other material properties. They last for as long as one thought moment.

          It is not enough just having the first two characteristics. So we have the third one–having the same object as consciousness. That means Cetasikas take the same object as consciousness. Bodily intimation and vocal intimation belong to material properties, to material qualities. Since they are material properties, they are objects, but they do not take objects. They are not conscious of the object. They are not cognizing. When we say having the same object as consciousnes, we prevent those two from being called Cetasikas. To leave those two, bodily intimation and verbal intimation, from being called Cetasika we have the third characteristic.

          What about the fourth? There is nothing more to prevent from being called Cetasika. Cittas and Cetasikas when they arise in five aggregate existences always have the same base. Base here means the eye, the ear, the nose, the tongue, the body and the heart. These are called the bases of consciousness. Consciousness depends on one of these bases to arise. For example seeing consciousness depends on the eye to arise. If we do not have the eye, we do not see and so there is no seeing consciousness. If we do not have the ear, we do not hear. So there is no hearing consciousness and so on. When consciousness arises in five aggregate realm, five aggregate existence as in human beings, it always has a base. Citta and Cetasikas must have the same base. If Citta depends on the eye. Then Cetasikas must also depend on the eye. So they have the same base as consciousness. These four are called the characteristics or the marks of Cetasikas. In order for a state to be called a Cetasika it must answer these four conditions. The first one is arising together with Citta. The second one is ceasing together with Citta. The third one is having the same object as Citta. The fourth one is having the same base as Citta. Such states are called Cetasikas.

          There are 52 Cetasiksa. These 52 Ceasikas are given in this manual systematically. The order given in this manual and the order in Abhidhamma books and the Visuddhi Magga are different. But I think the order here is better because it groups Cetasikas with how many Cittas they arise with and so on. These Cetasikas are mentioned in the first book of Abhidhamma and then there is a commentary on that book. Also these Cetasikas are mentioned in the Visuddhi Magga. If you want to read more you may read the Visuddhi Magga or the commentary to the first book of Abhidhamma which is called the Expositor in English. I think that considerable information is given in this manual. I think it is enough if you read this manual, but if you want to read more, you may read those books. In today’s handouts I gave the references to the different Cetasikas in those books.

          You have the chart with the 52 Cetasikas or mental factors. Actually this is just to save you some work. The chart on page 79 is actually the same as the handout, but there are no Pali words there. I want you to know the Pali words. Af first I was going to tell you to write the Pali words in the book. But many of you might find it difficult to do that. So for your easy study I made this chart. I want you to lesrn both the English and Pali.

Cetasikas in Groups

          The 52 Cetasikas are divided into groups. The first group is called in Pali Annasamana. There are 13 Cetasikas in this group. These Cetasikas in the Annasamana group are called in the manual “ethically variable”. They may be with Kusala Cittas, Akusala Cittas, Vipaka Cittas or Kiriya Cittas. They are variable.

          The next group is Akusala. You are familiar with Akusala. There are 14 unwholesome Cetasikas.

          The next group is Sobhana Cetasikas, beautiful mental factors. There are 25 Sobhana Cetasikas.

          The first division is Annasamana or ethically variable 13. Next is Akusala 14. And finally there are 25 Sobhana Cetasikas.


          Why are they called Annasamana? Ethically variable is not thetranslation of the word ‘Annasamana’. Anna means the other. Samana means to be common. So Annasamana means to be common with the other. What does it mean common with the other? The ethically variable are common with both Kusala and Akusala and also with Vipaka and Kiriya as well. When they arise with Kusala, they are also common to Akusala and others, not at the same moment but they can be with Akusala also. When they are with Akusala, They can be with Kusala at some other time. They are called common to others. That means they are common to both. Bhikkhu Bodhi uses the words ethically variable. Anything that can go with both can be called Annasamana. If you can be with this person and then the other person you can be called Annasamana. You can go with both persons. There are altogether 13 of them, Annasamana or ethically variables. When they are with Kusala, they have the quality of Kusala. When they are with Akusala, they have the quality of Akusala. They can vary. What is determining is the Akusala and Kusala.
          Annasamana 13 are subdivided into two groups. The first group is called in Pali Sabbacittasadharana. Sabba means all. Citta means consciousness. Sadharana means common. So sabbacittasadharana means consciousness. Sasharana means common. So Sabbacittasadharana means all consciousness common–common to all consciousness. They are translated as the universals. Since they are universal, since they are common to all Cittas, they will arise with every Citta. Whatever Citta arises, they will arise with every Citta. Whatever Citta arises, they will arise with it. They are the essential mental properties of cognition, essential mental properties of cognizing an object. There are altogether seven of them. These sven are called universals. They will arise with every type of consciousness.


          They are in Pali Phassa, Vedana, Sanna, Cetana, Ekaggata, Jivitindriya and Manasikara. What is Phassa? Contact. Contact here does not mean physical contact. It is mental contact. When some object comes into the avenue of the senses–the eyes, the ears or whatever–there is the awareness of the object. Then there is the vivid experience of that object. That is what is called Phassa, contact. It is the impingement of the object on the mind. Phassa means touching. Although the word ‘touch’ is used, the touch is not physical but mental. Although we do not touch physically, we are always touched by something. We see something there, and we are happy, or we are afraid, or we are sad. Phassa is like that. This Phassa or contact is evident when we see someone eating sour fruit. You have saliva in your mouth. This is caused by Phassa. You may have gone to the circus. When they are walking on the rope, you have some fluttering in your heart, in your chest. That is caused by Phassa. Sometimes when you are very afraid, you paralyzed. You cannot do anything. You are like a cripple. That is caused by Phassa.

          In my younger days I lived in Sagaing Hills. It is a religious sanctuary. Only monks and nuns live there. It is a hill. So there are small trees, thickets and a forest. At night the leopards would come down to drink water in the river. When the dogs got the smell of the leopard, they did not move at all. They were very easy prey for the leopards to pick up. That is Phassa. They were paralyzed. Although there is no physical touch, there is this mental contact.

          If you are a person who is afraid of ghosts, you may see something in the dark and you think it is a ghost. Then you may tremble. All these are the manifestations of Phassa or contact. Whenever an object comes into the avenue of the senses there is always Phassa or contact.

Four Aspects

          When we study these mental states, the commentaries give us four aspects of each Cetasika. Out of the four aspects, three can be seen during meditation. If you have good concentration and you watch them, you will come to see these aspects. It is good to understand these four, although you may not remember them all. In the manual on page 29 they are called “four defining devices by means of which it can be delimited.” They are 1. Characteristic 2. Function 3. Manifestation 4. Proximate Cause. It is good if we can understand these four aspects of each mental property. The’ commentaries always give these four defining devices or four aspects of each mental state.

          The first one is called characteristic or mark. By this mark we know that it is Phassa. By this mark we kbow it is Vedana and so on. That mark is called Lakkhana in Pali. It is the salient quality of the phenomenon. It is the individual characteristic or individual essence.

          Then there is what is called Rasa in Pali. Rasa means directly translated taste, the taste of a mental state. Rasa is said to be of two kinds actually. One is Kicca, function. The other is achievement of the goal, some kind of result. So there are two kinds of Rasa–the function (Kicca) and achievement (Sampatti).

          Number three is manifestation. Here also there are two. Paccupatthana means manifestation to the mind of the Yogi. When a meditator contemplates on Phassa or watches Phassa, he will see how Phassa appears to his mind, how Phassa manifests to his mind. That manifestation is called in Pali Paccupatthana. Also the result is called Paccupatthana. There are two kinds of Paccupatthana–mode of manifestation or the result.

          Number four is proximate cause, what is the near cause of Phassa and so on.These four are given for almost all of the Cetasikas in the Expositor as well as in the Visuddhi Magga. In this manual they are also given. It would be good for you to read those.

          Please look at Phassa on page 78. “In terms of the fourfold defining device used in the Pali Commentaries, contact has the characteristic of touching. (That is not physical touching.) Its function is impingement, as it causes consciousness and the object to impinge (to come together or to touch together). Its manifestation is the concurrence of consciousness, sense faculty and object.” It manifests itself to the mind of the Yogi as the coming together of the three.

          Let us say it is seeing consciousness. There is the eye. There is the visible object. When the visible object comes into the avenue of the eye, there is seeing consciousness. When these three arise, Phassa also arises. Phassa is something like the concurrence, the coming together of these three.

          “Its proximate cause is an objective field that has come into focus.” That means an object that comes into the focus of the sense faculty, something which comes into the avenue of the eye or which comes in front of our eye. If a visible object does not come into the avenue of our eye, we do not see. The statues at my back right now do not come into the avenue of my eye. So I don’t see them and I have no seeing consciousness. So Phassa has touching or contact as its characteristic. Its function is impingement. Its manifestation is the concurrence of the three. Its proximate cause if the object. Because if there is no object, there can be no contact with the object.


          The second one is Vedana. You are very familiar with Vedana. Vedana is feeling. Feeling is a mental factor here. It is not physical. There may be pain as a physical thing. The experience of that pain is what we call feeling. Feeling is actually not in your physical body but in your mind. That mental factor which experiences the object either pleasant, unpleasant or neutral is called Vedana or feeling.

          It is said that other mental factors also experience the object.It is Vedana that experiences the object to the full extent. That is why feeling alone is called Vedana and not the other mental factors. Other mental factors also have some kind of feeling of the object. Their feeling of the object is minimal, but Vedana experiences the taste of the object fully. And so it is called feeling or Vedana.

          Vedana is compared to a king enjoying fully the food offered to him by a cook. The other mental factors are compared to that cook. The cook must cook dishes for the king. Then he must take the food to the king and taste a little of the food to make sure there is no poison or whatever in the food. He has to take just a little of the food. So his enjoyment of the food is minimal. It is the king who sits doen and enjoys the food as much as he likes. In the same way it is feeling, it is Vedana that experiences (I do not want to use the word ‘enjoy’ because that is for pleasant things only. Here it is for unpleasant things also.) to the full extent the ovject. “Feeling is said to have the characteristic of being felt.” I think that is not quite right. He was deceived by the word ‘Vedayita’ in Pali. Vedayita can be either active or passive. Vedayita here should be taken in the active sense, but he took it in the passive sense. The characteristic is not being felt, but feeling. Feeling or experiencing the object is the characteristic or Vedana. “Its function is experiencing, or its function is to enjoy the desirable aspect of the object.” That means if the feeling is a pleasant one. If it is an upleascant feeling, then its function is to experience fully the undesirable aspect of the object. “Its manifestation is the relishing of the associated mental factors.” It arises with other mental factors. It gives something kike a taste to other mental factors. Its proximate cause is tranquility–I mean Sukha. That is for good Vedana only. Gor Dukkha feeling it may be different. Tranquility here means Samadhi. It is meant for Sukha Vedana. For Dukkha Vedana it may be other things. You can read about the different characteristics for the five feelings in the Visuddhi Magga.


          The next one is Sanna. Sanna is translated as perception. “The characteristic of perception is perceiving the qualities of the object. Its function is to make a sign as a consition for perceiving again that ‘this is the same’” perception is actiually making marks. When you experience an object, your mind makes a mark of it. So when you experience it again, you know that you have experienced it. It is compared to carpenters making marks on timber, so that they know where to put which piece. So making a mark is for the sake of recognizing it when you come across it later. Sanna is like making a mark, making a note. It can be correct or it can be wrong Sanna. We have wrong Sanna sometimes. When Sanna is wrong, we get wrong notions. We get wrong views. It is very important that we have correct Sanna.

          We have wrong Sanna about ourselves. We think that there is something like a person or that there is something like a soul. That Sanna makesn usnbelieve there is a person, that there is a soul. Once Sanna has made a mark that something is this or thatsomething is that, it will interpoet the object by way of that mark. Later when it sees it, it will interpret it that way. Once you have a wrong Sanna, you will interpret basing on that wrong Sanna. Its function is recognizing what has been previously perceived. “It becomes manifest as the interpreting of the object by way of the features that had been apprehended.” If the apprehended thing is correct, it is correct Sanna. If the apprehended thing is not correct, we have wrong Sanna. “Its proximate cause is the object as it appears”. So the object as it appears to us, as it appears to Sanna is its proximate cause.

          Animals think that a scarecrow is a human being. They see the scarecrow and run away because they think it is a human being. That is their wrong Sanna, their wrong apprehension.

          “Its procedure is compared to a carpenter’s recognition of certain kinds of wood by the mark he has made on each.” Sanna is like that, making narks. Recognizing it later is also a function of Sanna.


          The next one is Cetana. You are familiar with Cetana also. Cetana is Kamma. You are very familiar with Kamma. Cetana is translated as volition. It is difficult to explain in English. “It is concerned with the actualization of a goal, that is, the conative or volitional aspect of cognition.” Cetana organizes the associated mental factors to act upon the object. It engages the co-arising mental states with the object. It is something that helps or pushes the other mental factors to be engaged on the object.

          This Cetana is compared to a chief pupil. A chief pupil learns himself and also helps others to learn. He learns himself and also urges others to learn. Cetana is the same way. It makes others engage on the object. It is also engaged on the object.

          “Volition is the most significant mental factor in generating Kamma.” Actually volition is Kamma. Buddha once said, “Cetana aham Bhikkhave Kammam vadami”. “Monks I call Cetana Kamma.” What I call Kamma is simply Cetana. So Cetana is actually Kamma. This Kamma determines the ethical quality of the action. That means if it is good Kamma, it is good action. If it is a bad Kamma, it is a bad action. Depending on the quality of Cetana, we determine if a consciousness is Kusala or Akusala.

          Cetena is called by other names also. It is called Kamma. It is called Sankhara in Dependent Origination. Sometimes it is called Kamma and sometimes it is called Sankhara. They mean the same thing, Cetana.


          The next one is Ekaggata. Have you met with Ekaggata before? Definitely yes. It is one of the five Jhana factors. Another name for Ekaggata is Samadhi, concentration. Concentration and Ekaggata are the same. “This is the unification of the mind on its object.” Eka means one. Agga means object. So having one object is the meaning. That means being on one object.

          This Ekaggata becomes prominent in the Jhanas. It can be developed into a factor of Jhana. That means very strong Ekaggata, very strong concentration. It is a universal Cetasika; that means it arises with every type of consciousness. Sometimes we are not concentrated. Perhaps we are doing Akusala. So there is no concentration. But actually there is this Ekaggata, one-pointedness of mind, going with every type of consciousness.For Citta to be engaged with the object Ekaggata is necessary. It may be very weak Ekaggata, but still there must be Ekaggata. It accompanies every type of consciousness. There is a kind of one-pointedness in every type of consciousness,

          It has non-wandering, non-distraction as its characteristic. That means it is not distracted to any other object. Its functionis to conglomerate or unite the associated states. It is compared to water which keeps together the grains of flour. When you make a dough, you have flour and when you put water into it and then knead, it becomes dough. When it becomes dough, then all the particles of flour are kept together. Its function is to conglomerate or unite associated states. It keeps mental states that arise together, together. That is its function. It is manifested as peace. That means tranquility. To be still, it is something like that. It is compared to a flame in a place where there is no wind, no draft. That means like in this room. It is like the flame of a candle. It is still; it doesn’t move when there is no wind. One-pointedness is compared to that flame where there is no draft.

          It is important to understand this. When we talk about Samadhi, we say Samadhi is the ability of the mind to be on the object, to stay on the object for a certain period of time. But actually mind disappears after three submoments. And one-pointedness of mind also disappears after three sumoments. Although we say there is concentration, mind and concentration do not last for more than these three submoments. But what is meant here is like that flame. When you look at a flame, you think it is always the same. But actually at every moment the flame is not the same. In the same way when we say the mind is on the object for a long time, that means the same type of consciousness arises again and again and again. If the object is a material object, then that object also changes after every 17th though moment. When we say we have Samadhi or our mind is on the object for a long time, that does not mean that citta lasts for a long time. It is the nature of Citta to arise and disappear in just three submoments. However the next Citta arises and dwells on the same object or the same kind of object. Similarly another moment of one-pointedness arises dwelling on a similar object. In this way we must understand concentration. So it is like a flame where there is no draft.


          The next one is JÊvitindriya, mental life faculty. Jivita means life. Indriya means faculty. So it is called life faculty. There are two life faculties. One is material and the other is mental. Here the mental life faculty is meant. Physical life faculty we will find in the sixth chapter. So this is mental.

          It has the characteristic of maintaining the associated mental states. Associated mental states arise and then they continue for some time and then disappear. When they are going through these three phases of existence, life faculty keeps them alive. Life faculty does not let them disappear until they reach the third or final stage. Jivitindriya just maintains the mental states. It does not cause them to arise. The function of making them occur–oh it means the same thing–not that mental life faculty produces associated mental states. Making them occur means making them go on until the end of their lives. That life is the three very brief submoments. “Manifestation as the establishing of their presence and its proximate cause is the mental states to be maintained.”

          Mental life faculty is compared to water in the lotus stalk. Water in the lotus stalk keeps the lotus alive. Also it is compared to a boatman. There is a question. If life faculty maintains the other associated mental states, what maintains it? The answer it i maintains itself along with the other associated mental states. So it is compared to a boatman. A boatman rows the boat and takes the people to the other shore. When taking the people to the other shore, he also takes himself. In the same way Jivitindriya maintains itself while maintaining other associated mental states. There are two similes. One is water in the lotus stalk. The other is the boatman.


          The last one is called Manasikara. Manasi means in the mind. Kara means making. The literal translation is making in the mind. That is attention. This attention is responsible for the mind’s advertence to the object. That means it turns the mind to the object. It keeps the mind directed toward the object. That is its function. That is what we call attention. “Its characteristic is the conducting (Sarana) of the associated mental states towards the object.” Channeling or turning the mental states towards the object is its function.

          “Attention is like the rudder of a ship, which directs it to its destination.” When there is no attention, your mind has no aim. It goes here and there, like a boat without a rudder. When there is a rudder, you candirect a boat where you want it to go. In the same way when there is attention, the mental state of attention keeps the mind going toward the object.

          There is a difference between this and Vitakka. Manasikara should be distinguished from Vitakka. While Manasikara turns the concomitants toward the object, Vitakka applies them onto the object. It is very subtle. It is amazing that Buddha could differentiate these mental states. First it is difficult to know that there is Vitakka and that there is Manasikara. It is more difficult to know how they functionarising at the same time. So Vitakka and Manasikara arise at the asme time, but they have different functions. There is a subtle difference between them. One directs the mind to the object. The other puts or mounts the mind onto the object. These two are actually different. Manasikara turns its concomitants towards the object. Vitakka applies them onto the object. “Manasikara is an indispensable congnitive factor present in all states of consciousness.” It there is no Manasikara, our minds cannot be on the object. Manasikara is no Manasikara, our minds cannot be on the object. Manasikara turns our minds to this object and that object. “Vitakka is a specialized factor which is not indispensable to cognition.” That means some types of consciousness can arise without Vitakka. Later on we will study this. How many types of consciousness arise with Vitakka? Only 55 out of 121. There are types of consciousness which can take the object without the help of Vitakka. Without the help of Manasikara no Citta can take the object. Manasikara is an indispensable cognitive factor present in all states of consciousness. Vitakka is a specialized mental factor which is not indispensable. That is why there are many types of consciousness which do not need Vitakka to take them to the object.

          These are the seven mental factors or Cetasikas that are universal, that are common to all 121 types of consciousness. With each type of consciousness they will arise. Later on we will study how many Cetasikas arise with a given citta. These seven will always be there with all of the Cittas.

          Today we learned the seven Universals. I want you to say them in Pali again. Phassa, Vedana, Sanna, Cetana, Ekaggata, Jivitindriya and Manasikara. (Repeated three times) It you do not have Manasikara you cannot say Phassa, Vedana and so on.

Sadhu! Sadhu! Sadhu!

Student: When you say the Buddha says, “Cetana is Kamma”, is that Cetana Kamma or is Kamma Cetana?
Sayadaw: Kamma is Cetana that accompanies Kusala and Akusala Cittas. Cetana as you know now accompanies every type of consciousness. For example Cetana that accompanies resultant types of consciousness is not called Kamma. Cetana that accompanies Kusala and Akusala only is called Kamma. In that case there is a difference.    

          In the Patthana there are two types of Kamma. One is conascent Kamma and the other is called asynchronous Kamma. That means Kamma of different times. Conascent Kamma means there is Cetana with every type of consciousness. When Cetana is with let us say Akusala Citta, it may be Kamma which belongs to different times or it may be conascent Kamma. But when it accompanies Vipaka Cittas it cannot be Kamma of different times. You don’t understand? There are two kinds of Kamma conditions in Patthana. One is conascent Kamma. The other let us say is Kamma of different times. Different times means that you do Kamma here and the result will be in future lives. They belong to different times. There is together Kamma and different times Kamma. When Cetana accompanies Akusala Citta, it can be both, together as well as different times. Because it is really Kamma there. When Cetana accompanies the seeing consciousness, it is only together Kamma, not different times Kamma because seeing consciousness is a resultant consciousness. In that case although we call it Kamma according to Patthana it is not the Kamma that produces results. It is just Kamma.
Student: Is Citta aware of the object or does it only become aware when the other factors are present?
Sayadaw: Actually Citta is the awareness of the object. When there is the awareness, the other Cetasikas come into play. When there is no awareness of the object, there can be no experience of the object. There can be no contact with the object. Although they arise at the same time, these mental factors are said to be subordinate to Citta.

Tape #10
Chapter 2(B)

PakiÓÓaka & Akusala Cetasikas

          Last time we finished the seven universal Cetasikas. Cetasikas are divided into different groups. The first frroup is called AÒÒasamÈana, common to another.There are 13 AÒÒasamÈna Cetasikas. They are subdivided into two subgroups. The first is called SabbacittasÈdhÈraÓa, common to all Cittas. There are seven. The second group is callled pakiÓÓaka.

          Today we will bein our study with pakiÓÓaka group. PakiÓÓakas are those that accompany both kusala and Akusala Cittas and also other Cittas as well. They don't accompany both kusala and akusala Cittas or Akusala Cittas. That is why they  are called pakiÓÓaka. In Venerable Narada's book they they are translated as particulars. Here in this manual they are called occasionals. That means they arise occasionally with Kusala, Akusala and so on. These six Cetasikas arise with many Cittas, but not with all Cittas. They will arise with some Cittas but they will not arise with all Cittas. There are six of them. The first is Vitakka. The second is VicÈra. The third is Adhimokkha. The fourth is Viriya. The fifth is pÈÄi.And the sixth is Chanda. We have already met Vitakka, VicÈra and pÈti as JhÈna factors.

          The first one, Vitakka, is the Cetasika  which takes the mind to the object. Vitakka, is the Cetasikas which takes the mind to the object. Vitakka is the application of the mind to the object, putting the mind onto the object. Its characteristic is the directing on the mind onto the object. Its function is to strike at and thresh the object. That means to act upon the object. "It is manifested as the leading of the mind onto an object. The proximate cause is not mentioned in the commentaries. " It may be the object which is the proximate cause of Vitakka.

          Vitakka arises with 55 types of consciousness. Not all the types of  consciousness that Vitakka accompanies are called JhÈna consciousness. Only Vitakka accompanying some types of consciousness is called JhÈna. Vitakka can be developed or cultivated so that it becomes strong, a strong factor. Thenit is called JhÈna. In the manual you will see it is then termed AppanÈ. This is an important technical term that you have to remember. AppanÈ is a name for JhÈna as well as  Magga. In the fourth chapter this word 'AppanÈ' will be used. Sometimes AppanÈ will just mean the R|pavacara jhanas and Arupavacara JhÈnas. Sometimes it will mean Lokuttara Cittas also. So sometimes Vitakka is called AppanÈ. That is absorption of the mind in the object or applying the mind closely to the object.

      "Vitakka is also called Sankappa, intention, and as such is distinguished as MicchÈsankappa or wrong intention (or wrong thought) and SammÈsankappa or right intention (right thought). Wrong thought means thoughts about sensual pleasures, thoughts about injuring others, thoughts about Dosa - illwill, hate. SammÈsankappa is the opposite of these three–thoughts about getting out of sensual pleasures, thoughts about not injuring others, thoughts about non-hatred. SammÈsankappa is one of the factors of the Noble Path. Vitakka has many names depending on what function it does.

      The second one is VicÈra. You already know VicÈra. "VicÈra has the characteristic of continued pressure on the object." Vitakka puts the mind on the object. VicÈra keeps the mind on the object, engaged on the object in the sense of examining it. It is something like examining the object. That is why sometimes it is close to PaÒÒÈ.

      "Its function is the sustained application of the associated mental phenomena to the object. It is manifested as the anchoring of these phenomena in the object." So it keeps the mind on the object. "The object may be understood to be its proximate cause."
Here also the Commentators do not give the proximate cause of VicÈra. Sometimes they wrote so much about Vitakka and VicÈra that they may have forgotten to give us the proximate cause. They are not mentioned.'

      The difference between Vitakka and VicÈra has been discussed above. You already know the difference between Vitakka and Vicara. What is one example? The bee diving towards the flower is like Vitakka. The bee hovering over the flower is like VicÈra. An airplane taking off is like Vitakka. An airrlane reaching its cruising speed is like VicÈra.
      The third one is Adhimokkha. It is translated as decision. "This word literally means releasing of the mind onto the object. Hence it has been rendered decision or resolution." It dwells on the object and makes the decision that it is the object. It is something like that.

      "It is compared to a stone pillar owing to its unshakable resolve regarding the object." It is compared to a rock pillar which is steady, which is strong, which does not move. It cannot be shaken. Adhimokkha is like that, dwelling on the object firmly. Later on we will come to Saddha, faith. Sometimes Saddha is described as Adhimokkha. But in that case Adhimokkha is not this Adhimokkha, but it is Saddha. Here it is a distinct mental factor, called Adhimokkha or decision.

      The fourth one is Viriya. You are already familiar with the word Viriya and the thing which is Viriya itself. Without Viriya you cannot practise meditation. Its characteristic is supporting exertion and marshalling. It is mental energy and here it is not physical energy. When we say, "I make effort", I may make physical effort or I may make mental effort. Viriya here means the mental effort. "Its function is to support its associated states". With the help of Viriya the associated states can be on the object. They are reinforced by this  Viriya or mental energy. "Its manifestation is non-collapse." That means when something is supported, it doesn't collapse. When a house becomes old and shakey, you put some timbers to support it, to reinforce it. Viriya is something like that. "Its proximate cause is a sense of urgency or a ground for arousing energy, that is anything that stirs one to vigorous action."

      Sometimes we have what are called grounds for arousing energy. Let us say I have something to do tomorrow. So today I will practise meditation. When I am doing that something tomorrow, I won't be able to practise. So I will Practise today. It is something like that. Then after doing that job, you say while I was doing that job I couldn't practise meditation. Now that it is finished, it is time for me to practise meditation. It is like that. You encourage yourself taking some situation as encouragement. This is called the grounds for arousing energy. When there are grounds for arousing energy, you arouse the energy. The grounds for energy is said to be the proximate cause for Viriya.

      "Just as new timbers added to an old house prevent it from collapsing, or just as a strong reinforcement enables the king's army to defeat the enemy so energy upholds and supports all the associated states and does not allow them to recede." So long as there is energy you will not give up. You will not drop out. Once energy is low or once energy is non-existent, then you fall away from meditation. Energy is very important. It is one of the mental faculties. How many mental faculties are there regarding the practice of meditation? Five. Viriya is one of them. Can you name the other four? Faith, energy, mindfulness, concentration and wisdom. Very good. Energy is one of the mental faculties which we have to arouse  and develop especially when we practise meditation. This energy is said to burn the mental defilements. That is why sometimes it is called ŒtÈpÈ. In the MahÈsatipaÔÔhana  Sutta the Buddha used this word again and again–ŒtÈpÊ SampajÈno Satima and so on. That means the monk having effort or making effort. It is called there ŒtÈpÈ. ŒtÈpÈ means heat. It heats up. Heats up means it burns up the mental defilements. When there is Viriya, mental defilements are burned up. It is a very important factor in the practice of meditation.

      The next one is pÊti. It is translated as joy, happiness, zest, pleasurable interest, rapture. It is one of the JhÈna factors. PÊti is not feeling. Its characteristic is endearing the associated mental states. When there is PÊti, the mind is happy, the mind is elated. Its function is to refresh mind and body. When there is PÊti, you are refreshed. Its function is to pervade, to thrill with rapture, when you really experience PÊti. Your whole body feels like it is soaked in oil or in water. Mind and body is its proximate cause because when there is no mind and body, PÊti cannot arise. NÈma and R|pa are said to be its proximate cause.

      The last one is desire, Chanda. Formerly it was translated as conation. I don't know which is better - desire or conation. It is a simple desire or mere will to do. It is not desire as attachment, as craving, as lust. Chanda here is desire to act, desire to perform an action. "This kind of desire must be distinguished from desire in the reprehensible sense, that is, from Lobha, greed and RÈga, lust."

When we want to be specific, we use KÈmacchanda. KÈmacchanda is one of te five mental hindrances. The first mental hindrance is K~macchanda. KÈmacchanda means Lobha. Here Chanda is neutral or it is variable. When it is with Akusala, it is Akusala. it is with Kusala, it is Kusala. It is just a mere will to Its characteristic is just desire to act. Its function is searching for an object. Its manifestation is need for an object, and that same object is its proximate cause because without an object consciousness and mental factors cannot arise.

      "It should be regarded as the stretehing forth of the mind's hand towards the object." It is compared to a man stretehing out his hand to pick up an arrow. An archer when he wants to shoot picks up an arrow from the quiver. He is not attached to the arrow. He does not want to keep the arrow. He wants the arrow so he can shoot. Chanda is like that. It is just the mere will to do. Here it is not attachment, not  lust.

      Sometimes we use the word 'Dhammacchanda'. That means the desire to practise Dhamma.

      These are called PakiÓÓaka, occasionals. 'Ihey will arise with only some types of consciousness, not all. Later we will look at a chart and find out how many types of consciousness arise with Vitakka, Vicara and so on.

      Seven universals and six occasionals make 13 mental factors. These mental factors are called AÒÒasamÈna, ethically variable. That means they go along with both Kusala and Akusala.

     The next group is Akusala. You already know Akusala, unwholesome mental factors. Actually these are the factors that make a type of consciousness unwholesome. Consciousness is like without color. It is like clear water. You put color in the water and it becomes red, or green, or blue, or yellow. In the same way Citta or consciousness has no color. It is just the awareness of the object. When it arises together with some of these Akusala Cetasikas, then it is called an Akusala Citta. Actually the mental factors are what make one type of consciousness different from another type of consciousness. When you come to study the combinations of Cittas and Cetasikas, it will become clearer.

      The 14 Akusala Cetasikas are divided into the following groups:
SabbÈkusalasadhÈrana (unwholesome universals, greed triad, hatred quartet and sloth dyad and then doubt alone. The first four are called unwholesome universals. That means these Cetasikas arise with all twelve types of unwholesome consciousness. Whenever an unwholesome consciousness arises, these four are always with that consciousness. These four are 1. Moha  2. Ahirika  3. Anottappa 4.Uddhacca.

      Moha is delusion. Moha is a synonym for AvijjÈ. You have met the word 'AvijjÈ' in the Paticca SamuppÈda, Dependent Origination. Moha and Avijja are synonymous; they mean the same thing. It is also translated as ignorance. Its characteristic is mental blindness or unknowing. It is a  blindness. That means not knowing or not under­standing the true nature of things. It may understand wrongly, but it will not understand correctly. Its function is non-perception. When there is Moha, we cannot penetrate into the true nature of things, we do not see the true nature of things. So when we practise meditation, we try not to let Moha enter our minds. When Moha is in our minds, we cannot see the true nature of things. Or its function is the concealment of the real nature of the object. It is like a blindfold. When you are blindfolded, you don't see things. In the same way, when Moha is blindfolding us, we don't see the true nature of things. We do not see that things are impermanent, that things are unsatisfactory, that things are insubstantial. It is manifested as the absence of right understanding  or as mental darkness. It is  a darkness. If there is no light in this room, we cannot see things. That is Moha hiding the true nature of things. The opposite of Moha is Amoha, the last mental factor. Amoha is compared to light. When you turn on the light, you see things here. Moha's proximate cause is unwise attention, Ayoniso ManasikÈra. Ayoniso ManasikÈra is the opposite of wisdom or PaÒÒÈ. It should be seen as the root of all that is unwholesome. As you know Moha accompanies all twelve types of Akusala consciousness. It is the root of all that is unwholesome.  Moha, Avijja, sometimes AÒÈÓa (AÒÈÓana means not knowing) are synonyms.

Ahirika & Anottappa
      The second one is Ahirija and the third one is Anottappa. Ahirika is shamelessness. Anottappa is fearlessness. Actually they are shamelessness of wrong doing and fearlessness of wrong doing. "The characteristic of shamelessness is the absence of disgust at bodily and verbal misconduct." Ahirika is compared to a village pig which is not disgusted with eating excretement: When there is shamelessness or Ahirika in our minds, we will not be ashamed of bodily or verbal misconduct. We will not be ashamed to break the precepts. We will not be ashamed to do what is immoral.

      "The characteristic of fearlessness of wrongdoing is absence of dread on account of such misconduct." Fearlessness means not being afraid of the consequences. I'm not afraid of the consequences when I do something wrong. That is because there is the mental factor of fearlessness in my mind. This fearlessness is compared to a moth who is not afraid of the flame. That is why the moth will go right into the flame and gets itself burned. Fearlessness of wrongdoing is compared to a moth. Shamelessness of wrongdoing is compared to a village pig.

      "Both have the function of doing evil things. They are manifest as not shrinking away from evil." When there are Ahirika and Anottappa in our minds, we are not ashamed of doing immoral things and we are not afraid of doing them. We don't care about their consequences.

      "Their proximate cause is the lack of respect for self (that is for shamelessness) and lack of respect for others." If we have self-respect, we will not do what is immoral. If we are not afraid of being criticixed by others, we will not be afraid of doing wrong things. So lack of self  irespect is the proximate cause of shame­lessness. Lack of respect for others is the proximate cause of Anottappa. There are counterparts of these two in the beautiful mental factors. We will come to them later.

      The fourth one is Uddhacca, restlessness. Here restlessness means restlessness of mind. When the mind is restless, the body may be restless too. Restlessness here means mental restlessness, not physical restlessness. "Restlessness (or agitation) has the characteristic of disquietude (It is not quiet.), like water whipped up by the wind." When there is wind, the water is not still, it is rippled. "Its function is to make the mind unsteady, as wind makes a banner ripple." You have seen a flag in the wind and how it flutters.

      "It is manifest as turmoil." It is compared to ashes  which rise up when a rock is thrown into them. When you throw a stone into a heap of ashes, the ashes rise up and so it is clouded. The literal meaning of the word 'Uddhacca' is shaking above, shaking above the object. That means your mind cannot take the object properly. Your mind is not stuck to the object. Your mind is a little removed from the object. Sometimes you don't see the objects closely because of Uddhacca. Also Uddhacca is sometimes described as distraction. In Burmese sometimes we say distraction for Uddhacca, mind being not  on the object." Its proximate cause is unwise attention to mental disquiet." That means it doesn't understand the real nature of mental disquiet. So it doesn't care whether there is mental quietness or mental disquietness.

      These four are grouped as one group because they are present with all types of unwhoelsome mental consciousness. Whenever an unwholesome consciousness arises, these four arise. There is an element of ignorance or delusion, there is an element of shame­lessness and fearlessness and also of restlessness when there is an unwhoelsome consciousness. These four are called unwholesome universals.

Then we have a group of three. They are Lobha, DiÔÔhi and MÈna. Lobha is translated as greed; DiÔÔhi is translated as wrong view; and Mana is translated as conceit.

      You know Lobha both the word and the Cetasika itself. It is not new to you. The first unwholesome root covers all degrees of selfish desire, longing, attachment, clinging, craving. All these are shades of Lobha. You are desirous of something with selfishness then there is Lobha. You long for something, there is Lobha. You are attached to something, there is Lobha. You cling to something, there is Lobha. You  crave for something, there is Lobha. All these are included in Lobha.

      Its characteristic is grasping an object, taking hold of an object. When you are attached to something, your mind takes hold of that object. So its characteristic is said to be grasping an object. "Its function is sticking, as meat sticks to a hot pan." You put a pan on the fire and it is hot and dry. You throw a piece of meat into the pan. The meat will stick to the pan. When there is Lobha, your mind sticks to that thing. If you want to get something very strongly, you will see that your mind is stuck to that object or to that person. Lobha as to its characteristic is grasping an object.

      It is compared to a pitch trap. In order to catch monkeys you take a sticky substance which is like glue from a tree. It has a shiny surface. A monkey who is always curious about things will come and touch it with one hand. Then he cannot take the hand back. In order to get that hand free he will take hold of it with the other hand. And then that one is stuck there. Soon one foot and the other foot are stuck also. Then his face or muzzle gets stuck. So in all five places he is stuck to the pitch or glue. Then he is caught by the man and killed and eaten. That simile is given in one of the discourses in the SaÑyutta NikÈya. There the Buddha said, "In those parts a hunter set the trap of pitch at the monkey's back to catch the monkeys. Now those monkeys who are free from folley and greed on seeing that pitch trap stay far away from it. But the greedy foolish monkey comes up to the pitch and handles it with one paw. Then his paw sticks fast to it. Then thinking, 'I will free my paw' he seizes it with another paw, but that too sticks fast. To free both paws he seizes them with one foot and that too sticks fast. To free both paws and one foot he lays hold of them with another foot, but that too sticks fast. To free both paws and both feet, he lays hold of them with his muzzle, but that too sticks fast. That monkey there stuck in five ways or five places lies down and howls, thus fallen on misfortune, fallen on ruin as prey for the hunter to work his will on him. The hunter spits him and prepares him for eating. Then over a charcoal fire he goes about his pleasure." Lobha is compared to that sticky substance. In PÈÄi  it is called monkey glue or something like that. They catch monkeys with that sticky substance from the trees.

The next one is DiÔÔhi, wrong view. The literal meaning of DiÔÔhi is just view or seeing. If we want to be specific, we use the words 'MicchÈ' or 'SammÈ: MicchaÈdiÔÔthi means wrong view. Samma diÔÔhi means right view. When it is used alone, it mostly means wrong view. That is why we have Somanassa Sahagata DiÔÔhigata SaÑpayutta. We don't use MicchÈ there. But actually DiÔÔhi there is MicchÈditt hi. DiÔÔhi here means wrong view, seeing wrongly. "Its characteristic is unwise or unjustified interpretation of things." It takes things to be permanent, to be satisfactory, to be an Atman. Also it is the belief that there are no results of either good or bad Kamma. Or it is the belief that there is no Kamma and there are no results of Kamma. It is the belief that there is no this world and no other world. These are called wrong views. "Its function is to preassume." That means to take wrongly. "It is manifested as a wrong interpretation or belief. Its proximate cause is unwillingness to see the Noble Ones (Anyas) and so on." If you associate with Noble Ones, if you associate with knowledgable people, good people, then you will hear from them right views. You will not get wrong views. If you do not associate with Noble Persons, good people, then you tend to get this DiÔÔhi or wrong view. So unwillingness to see the Noble Ones and to associate with them is said to be the proximate cause of MicchÈditthi, getting a wrong view.

      The next one is Mana, conceit. "Conceit has the characteristic of haughtiness. Its function is self-exaltation. It is manifested as vainglory. Its proximate cause is greed disassociated from views. It should be regarded as madness." Conceit is a kind of mental madness. Sometimes it is compared to a flag waving in the wind. We put a flag up in the air. We put it at the top of everything. Conceit also wants to be on top of other people. It is called MÈna. Sometimes it may be overestimation of one's self.

      The next group is four, the Dosa quartet. It is a group of four headed by Dosa. They are Dosa, IssÈ, Macchariya and Kukkucca. I gave you the handouts because I want you to be familiar with the PÈÄi names also, not just the English translation. You have to know both the PÈÄi and English.

      The first of the four is Dosa. Dosa is translated here as hatred. Dosa means hatred, anger, illwill. The second unwholesome root is comprised of all kinds and degrees of aversion, illwill, anger, irritation, annoyance, animosity, depression, sorrow. All these are understood under Dosa. "Its characteristic is ferocity." When there is Dosa, you are very fierce, you are very rough, you are very cruel. It is compared to a snake that is hit by someone. When you hit a snake, especially a cobra, it will strike at you. It will raise its head. Dosa is like that. When you are angry1 it is like a cobra standing up.

      "Its function is to spread, or to burn up its own support." If you put poison in water for example, it spreads all over. In the same way when there is anger in you, when there is hatred in you, it spreads all over your mind. So its function is to spread. "Or to burn up its own support"–that is the mind and body in which it arises. Anger can burn your physical body as well as your mental states. Anger can cause a person to get a stroke or high blood pressure. Anger can cause a lot of physical ailments. Also when there is anger in our minds then our mind is contaminated and there is Akusala. Arger as a rule leads to rebirth in hell.

      Its characteristic is ferocity. Its function is' to spread or burn up its own support. It is manifested as persecuting - I mean inflicting. When you are angry, actually you are inflicted by that anger. Before you do anything to that other person, you yourself are inflicted with suffering.

      "Its proximate cause is a ground for annoyance." Have I told you the grounds for annoyance?  I think so. This person has done harm to me. Therefore I am angry with him. This person is doing harm to me. This person will do harm to me. And then what next? This person has done harm to a person that is dear to me. This person is doing harm to a person who is dear to me. This person will do harm to a person who is dear to me. And then this person has done something good to the person that I hate. This person is doing good to the person that I hate. This person will do good to the person that I hate. These are the nine grounds for annoyance, the nine grounds for anger. Thinking in one of these nine ways, we get angry. That is what is called here grounds for annoyance, reasons for annoyance. Sometimes that is true. Sometimes we don't like it when someone we hate gets something good.

      The next one is IssÈ, envy. Envy has the characteristic of being jealous of other's success. Success really means anything - his wealth, his appearance, his beauty, whatever it is. "Its function is to be dissatisfied with other's success." You don't like other people's success. "It is manifested as aversion towards that. Its proximate cause is other's success." Success means everything. Envy takes another person's success as object.

      The next one is Macchariya or avarice. "The characteristic of avarice or stinginess is concealing one's own  success when it has beer or can be obtained." That means with regard to what you already have, you have this kind of concealing. You want to conceal your success or whatever. Sometimes when you think you are going to get something, you don't want it to be common to other persons. Let us say I am going to get this thing. Before I get this thing, before it becomes my property '(but I know it is going to become mine)1 then I will not like you using this. That is also Macchariya. Macchariya takes the object  which is already one's own property or which is going to be one's property as object. It is not able to bear sharing the property with other people. Macchariya is commonly understood as stinginess. I don't know what stinginess means. You don't want to lose anything. Macchariya always arises with Dosamula Cittas, which is notLobha. So it isn't really stinginess. It is not being able to bear sharing your things with others. Another person comes and uses the thing you possess. You become angry. You don't like it. That is Macchariya.

Student: Could it be meanness?
Sayadaw: Meanness, yes. We will find the, word 'meanness' a little later. It is manifested as shrinking away from sharing. You don't want to share with other people. It is manifested as meanness or sour feeling. Its proximate cause is one's own success. It takes one's own success, one's own property as object. I don't want my property1 my things to be shared by other people. I want to use it only for myself. Do you remember the rich man who cokked cakes in his house? He was called Macchariya Kosiya. He was very stingy. He could not share even with his wife. He said, "Only for me are you to cook."

Five kinds of Maccariya
      There are five kinds of Macchariya. There is avarice with regard to dwelling place. That means when I am living here, I don't want you to come and live with me. That is one kind of Macchariya. I don't want to share my room, my house with you. The second one is avarice regarding family. This is mostly for monks, nuns and great teachers. Now you are my students. I want you to be my students only. I don't want you to be the students of another teacher. I cannot bear to share you with other teachers. I want you to be my supporters. I don't want you to support other monks. That is called avarice regarding families. Then there is avarice regarding gain. Suppose I am a famous monk and I get many things offered by devotees. And I want people to give to me only. I don't want people to give to other monks. That is a kind of avarice regarding gain, regarding things one gets. Then there is avarice regarding one's own appearance. Suppose I am beautiful. I only want to be beautiful myself. I don't want other people to be beautiful. If I am famous I want that only I shall be famous. I don't want other people to be famous. That is avarice regarding one's appearance or one's fame. The last one is avarice with regard to Dhamma. Dhamma here means learning. I want that only I should understand. I want that I alone will understand. I don't want to share my understanding with others. I will keep my understanding for myself. That is avarice regarding Dhamma.

      There is an element of hate or illwill in Macchariya or avarice. That is why it will only accompany the two Cittas with Dosa and not the other Cittas accompanied by Lobha or Moha. Although it may be called stinginess, it is not attachment to things or persons. It cannot bear to share those things with other persons. That is what is meant by Macchariya.

      The next one is Kukkucca. Kukkucca is worry or remorse after having done wrong. There are two kinds of past actions - bad actions and good actions. With regard to bad actions done in the past you have remorse, you have regret. You think, "I have done that wrong thing." There is also remorse with regard to good things you did not do in the past. You think, "Oh I should have done that." Here worry or remorse has two kinds of objects–good actions, good Kamma which one has not done in the past and bad Kamma which one has done in the past. With regard to both there is a kind of remorse or regret which is called Kukkucca.

"Its characteristic is subsequent regret." That means regret comes after having done or having not done. "Its function is to sorrow over what has been done and what has not been done. You say "Oh, I have done this Akusala." And then you sorrow over that. "I have not done this Kusala", you think and then you sorrow over it. "It is manifested as remorse. Its proximate cause is what has and what has not been done, i.e. wrongs of comission and omission." We tend to get Kukkucca or remorse about things done and things not done.

      The word 'Kukkucca' has another connotation. You may not come across this connotation because it has to do with Vinaya. In the Vinaya literature Kukkucca can mean something positive. It is a good quality for monks to have Kukkucca. It is called Vinaya Kukkucca. That means you try to find out or you try to understand whether it is allowed for monks or whether it is not allowed for monks - whether he can do this or whether he cannot do this. If it is not allowable, then you do not do it. That is sometimes what is also called Kukkucca, Vinaya Kukkucca. That is not Akusala. It may be Kusala. That you will only find in Vinaya when it 'describes a good monk.  In Abhidhamma here Kukkucca is unwholesome. It is remorse.

      I prefer the word 'remorse' to the word 'worry' because worry may not necessarily be Kukkucca. If you worry about past actions,, it may be Kukkucca. But sometimes you worry about the future. Worry about the future is not Kukkucca. I think remorse or regret is better than the word 'worry'. These four are grouped together.

      Then next comes the two, the twin, Thina and Middha, sloth and torpor. They always arise together. We call them sleepiness. When you are sleepy or when your mind is not alert, then it is sure that sloth and torpor have come into your mind. "Sloth is sluggishness or dullness of mind." That means consciousness. "Its characteristic is lack of driving power. Its function is to dispel energy. It is manifested as the sinking of the mind. Its proximate cause is unwise attention to boredom, drowsiness etc." This is sluggishness of Citta.

      The next one, Middha "is the morbid state of the mental factors." That means sluggishness of mental factors, Cetasikas. One has to do with Citta. The other has to do with Cetasikas. Since Citta and Cetasikas always arise together, Thina and Middha also always arise together. They are never separated. However Thina and Middha are two separate mental factors. When there is Thina and Middha, you don't want to do things. Your mind is not alert. Its characteristic is said to be unwieldiness. "Its function is to smother. It is manifested as drooping, or as nodding and sleepiness. Its proximate cause is the same as that of sloth"

"Sloth and torpor always occur in conjunction, and are opposed to energy." When you have energy, sloth and torpor cannot come into your mind. If you have energy, you do not feel sleepy. "Sloth is identified as sickness of consciousness (CittagelaÒÒa), torpor as sickness of mental factors (KÈyagelaÒÒ). As a pair they constitute one of the five mental hindrances which is overcome by initial application (Vitakka)."

There is one controversy about Middha. Do you have the sheet for Middha? 'Middha is not R|pa', do you have that sheet? There are some teachers who thought Middha was R|pa. There is a book called the Vimutti Magga, that is considered to be older than the Visuddhi Magga. In the Vimutti Magga Middha is mentioned among the material properties. Middha is mentioned as a material quality, not a mental quality. Vimutti Magga is said to belong to one sect in Sri Lanka. "Some say that this Middha is R|pa. That is not correct because like sense-desires etc. it was included in those which should be eradicated." In Abhidhamma there are Dhamms which are to be eradicated by the first enlightenment. Among them Middha is mentioned. Since Middha is mentioned among those which can be eradicated, Middha is not R|pa because R|pa is said not to be eradicable. Since Middha is included in those that can be eradicated, Middha cannot be Rupa. Middha is NÈma, Middha is a mental factor.

      "It is indeed mentioned by the Buddha among the hindrances to be eradicated." This is giving support to his statement. "But R|pa is not stated among those that are to be eradicated by the First Path, etc."  R|pa is mentioned as not to be destroyed, not to be eradicated. You will find that in the sixth chapter. So Middha cannot be R|pa since it is mentioned among the things that can be eradicated.

      Then the other party said, "Because of the words. 'Monks, R|pa is not your own; give it up." The Buddha said, "Monks, R|pa is not your own; give it up." The other party picks' up that sentence, that statement of the Buddha. And then that other party argues against those who take Middha to be NÈma. Since the Buddha said, "R|pa is not your own; give it up.", there seems to be an indication that R|pa can be eradicated. It is a dialogue. The other party also based his argument on the words of the Buddha. Buddha said, "R|pa is not your own; so give it up."

      Then let us say the other party and our party. Our party is always correct. The explanation given by our party is that what the Buddha meant there is not to give up R|pa, but to give up attachment to R|pa. Attachment to R|pa is meant when Buddha said, "Give it up." The eradication of attachment which has R|pa as an object was meant there. What the Buddha meant was not to give up R|pa but to give up your attachment which takes R|pa as an object. "That is why it was said there." Because Buddha continued saying  throwing away attachment to that R|pa and so on in the same discourse. It is very important that when we read something that we read the whole thing and not just a portion of it and then make our conclusions. In that Sutta the Buddha did not just say, "R|pa is not your own; give it up." But he continued by saying throwing away attachment to R|pa and so on. What is meant there is not  to give up R|pa, but to give up attachment which takes that R|pa as object.

Then the other party might say, "Among physical and mental Middhas" - they took that there were two kinds of Middha. One is R|pa Middha and the other is NÈma Middha, one physical and one mental. Among these two Middhas mental Middha is meant or preached there in that passage. There is still another Middha which is R|pa is what they would say.

      Then our party answered, "No, because it was not specifically said that mental Middha was meant there." Buddha did not use the words 'mental Middha'. Buddha used just Middha. Since just Middha was used without specification, we cannot say there are two Middhas and that mental Middha was meant there.

      Then our party continued, "It is possible to infer that Middha which you (of the other party) take to be R|pa is, like mental Middha, a hindrance because it is Middha." Since it is called Middha and Middha is included among the mental hindrances (Mental hindrances are those that are to be eradicated.), so it is a hindrance.

      "Yet it is to be decided that Middha is not R|pa because it was mentioned as a co-associate." It is another reason given by our party. Middha is said to be a co-associate. It is associated with consciousness. It is associated with other mental factors. This co-association is mentioned of mental aggregates only. Only the mental aggregates, only the mental states, only the consciousness and mental factors are said to co-associate. Mind is not said to co-associate with matter or matter is notsaid to be co-associated-with mind. You will understand it when you study PaÔÔhÈna. So Middha is not R|pa because it is mentioned as a co-associate. It was mentioned as a Cetasika.

      "Moreover, it (Middha) cannot be a R|pa because of the Text that mentions its arising in the Arupavacara realm." In the PaÔÔhÈna it is stated that Middha arises in the minds of formless Brahmas. Since Middha is mentioned among the states that arise in formless beings, it must be NÈma and not R|pa because there is no R|pa in formless states.

      Then the other party asked about Arahants going to sleep. Is that not Thina and Middha? The answer is: "Sleep of Arahants, who are free from mental defilements, is caused by the fatigue of the physical body."  When Arahants go to sleep, it is not because of Thina Middha. The Arahants have eradicated Thina and Middha altogether. When their body becomes fatigued, when their body becomes tired, then the weakness of that sentient body causes their mind to lapse into Bhava~ga, life continuum, a sleep-like process. It is a series of sleep-like consciousness. Owing to the fatigue and weakness of the physical body the minds of these Arahants lapses into life-continuum. That is what we call the sleep of Arahants. When the Arahants go to sleep, they do not go to sleep like we do. When we go to sleep, we go to sleep with Thina and Middha. Thina and Middha come to us and we surrender to them. They overpower' us and we go to sleep. When Arahants go to sleep, they do not sleep because they are overpowered by Thina and Middha. It is because their physical bodies become tired. The physical body needs some kind of rest. The sleep of Arahants is not caused by or accompanied by Thina and Middha. So you cannot say Middha is R|pa. This is the opinion of the majority of teachers in the ancient days. According to TheravÈda Abhidhamma, the Abhidhamma we are studying, Middha is not R|pa. Middha is not physical. Middha is a mental factor. It is included in the mental factors that accompany unwholesome types of consciousness.

The last one is doubt, VicikicchÈ. Have you met Vicikiccha before? Where? In the Akusala Cittas. Which one? Eleven or twelve? It is eleven. The consciousness accompanied by doubt is number eleven or the first of the two Moham|la Cittas. Doubt here signifies spiritual doubt. From a Buddhist perspective it is an inability to place confidence in the Buddha. It is doubt about the Buddha, about the Dhamma, about the Sa~gha, ab6ut the training (Training means training of SÊla, SamÈdhi and PaÒÒÈ.) Also it is doubt about aggregates, bases, elements, both in the past and the future. It is also doubts about the teaching of Dependent Origination.

      Its characteristic is doubting. Its function is to waver. When there is doubt you waver, you cannot choose, you are not sure. It is manifested as indeciseveness. So you cannot decide which is correct. It is like when you are at a crossroad, you do not know which way to take. Its proximate cause is unwi6e attention. Here doubt means doubt about the Buddha, Dhamma, Sa~gha and so on. Sometimes at the crossroads you are not sure whether to turn left or right. That doubt is not Akusala doubt. It is just lack of understanding. Even Arahants can have such doubt. Sometimes even they don't know if a particular action is allowable or not if they are not well versed in Vinaya. So not every doubt is Vicikiccha. In a Buddhist perspective it is doubt about Buddha, Dhamma and Sa~gha. If you have doubt about the Buddha–whether there was a Buddha at all, whether Buddha really possessed omniscience or whether the Buddha was really enlightened–this kind of thinking is called doubt.

This doubt is described in Visuddhi Magga and AtthasÈlinÊ as doing harm to the practice. The English translations both of Visuddhi Magga and AtthÈsalinÊ are a little inaccurate. The PÈÄi sentence used there is "PaÔipattÊ antaraya kara." That means doing harm to PaÔipatti. Do you know paÔipatti? You have heard this word many times. PaÔipatti means the practice, the practice of meditation, the practice of duty, the practice of keeping the precepts. That is called PaÔipatti. The word PaÔipatti' in PÈÄi has two meanings. It also means understanding. So one person translated it as doing harm to attainment. But actually PaÔipatti does not mean attainment. Patipatti means 1;he practice of VipassanÈ or the practice of meditation. Another person translated it as obstructive of theory. I think that is fartlier  away  from the real meaning. That is Nan, amoli. What it actually means is that doubt can so harm to your practice. If you have doubts practising your meditation, you cannot go on practising your meditation. Doubt is a very damaging mental hindrance. It is one of the mental hindrances. When doubt arises in your mind, it is very difficult for you to go on practising meditation. It is said to be doing harm to practice–not doing harm to attainment, not being obstructive to theory. Whenever there is doubt in your mind during meditation, while in meditation, you have no other thing to do but to noee it–"doubt, doubt, doubt" until it disappears. Outside meditation you can have discussion with knowledgable people.  You can read books. This doubt is called VicikicchÈ.

      I think I told you about the meaning of VicikicchÈ before. What is the meaning? There are two meanings. One meaning is no remedy, no remedy of understanding. When there is doubt, there is no wisdom, there is no knowledge.Vi  means no. Cikiccha means remedy or curing. There is another meaning. We divide the word into Vici and KicchÈ.  Vici means investigating. KicchÈ means getting tired. When you have VicikicchÈ you think about something and cannot come to a conclusion, and so you become tired and frustrated. VicikicchÈ is doubt. It is one of the mental hindrances.

      We have come to the end of the 14 Akusala Cetasikas. I want you to say the 14 in PÈÄi. Moha, Ahirika, Anottappa, Uddhacca, Lobha, DiÔÔhi, MÈna, Dosa, IssÊ, Macchariya, Kukkucca, Thina, Middha and VicikicchÈ. Very good.

SÈdhu! SÈdhu! SÈdhu!

Tape #11
Chapter 2©

Sobhana Cetasikas

Last week we finished the 14 unwholesome mental factors. Today we will study the beautiful mental factors or Sobhana Cetasikas. Actually the name ' Sobhana'  is the name of mental factors. Originally it was the name of the mental factors. When consciousness is accompanied by these beautiful or sobhana mental factors, then that consciousness is called a beautiful conscousness. Originally the name was for Cetasikas, mental factors.

There are altogether 25 beautiful mental factors. They are divided into four groups. The first 19 are called universal beautiful mental factors. That means these mental factors will arise with every beautiful mental consciousness. They are common to all beautiful types of consciousness. Do you remember the beautiful consciousness? Which are the beautiful consciousness? All types of consciousness except Akusala and Ahetuka. That means beautiful sense sphere consciousness, R|pÈvacara  consciousness, Ar|pÈvacara consciousness and Lokuttara (supramundane) consciousness. These 19 Cetasikas will accompany every one of these 59 consciousness. Then there is another group called the abstinences. Then there are two as a group, the limitless ones. Then the last one alone is the faculty of wisdom.

The first one is SaddhÈ. It is translated as faith or confidence. Sometimes we use confidence rather than faith. Faith may indicate blind faith not a accompanied by understanding. But here we mean confidence which is mostly accompanied by understanding.

"The first of the beautiful Cetasikas is faith, which has the characteristic of placing faith or trusting." There are four aspects for each mental factor. The first one is characteristic. The second one is function. The third is manifestation. The fourth is proximate cause. When we study mental factors, not only mental factors but the subjects of Abhidhamma, we try to understand them with  reference to these four aspects. If you cannot memorize all of them, just try memorize the first one, characteristic, because it is important. You must know the characteristic of each mental state. So SaddhÈ has the characteristic of placing faith or of trusting something - having faith in the Buddha, Dhamma, Sa~gha,and so on.

"Its function is to clarify, as a water-clearing gem causes muddy water to become clear." It is explained in the AtthasÈlinÊ  and also in the Vibhanga that a universal monarch has a precious gem. That gem has the quality to clarify water. Suppose he went out fighting. Then he was tired and he wanted to drink water. He tells his followers that he wants to drink water but the water may be muddy at that time because they were fighting in the river. When there is the gem with him, then he puts the gem in the water. The mud will subside and the water will become clear. When SaddhÈ arises in our minds , then our minds become clear. Its function is to clarify, to cleanse the mind like the water-clearing gem.

"Or its function is to set forth, as one might set forth to cross a flood." ' Set forth' really means going right into, plunging into, entering into. Here the Commentaries explain with a simile. People were trying to cross a river. The river was filled with crocodiles and other animals. So it was not safe. These people were not brave enough so they were just standing on the bank looking here and there. Then a brave man comes along and asks them what they are doing. They said they wanted to cross the  river, but that they were afraid of the crocodiles and other animals. He picked up his sword and said, "Just follow me". He plunges into the river and went ahead of them to scare away the crocodiles and others. So he safely took the people from this bank to the other bank with help of that man, following that man, people were able to the cross the river, cross the flood. In the same way when there is SaddhÈ then you are able to perform meritorious deeds. When you have confidence, when you have faith in the Buddha, Dhamma, Sa~gha, the training, and in yourself then you can do things. SaddhÈ is like a brave man who takes people across the river  which is full of crocodiles and others.

"It is manifested as non-fogginess," (When mind is clear, it is not foggy.)" i.e. the removal of the mind's impurities, or as a resolution. "You have met Adhimokkha. There is a mental factor called Adhimokkha. It is among the six occasionals-Vitakka, VicÈra Adhimokkha. Adhimokkha is resolution. There Adhimokkha is occasional and it is variable. It may accompany both wholesome and unwholesome types of consciousness. In faith or in Sattha there is and element of resolution. First we must understand that there are two kinds of Adhimokkha. There is the  ordinary Adhimokkha which is common to both Kusala and Akusala. And there is this  faith Adhimokkha. When you have faith, you have this the kind of resolution. "This is it! This is the thing to have faith in! " In such a way you this. You have this resolution and follow it. There is an element of resolution, an element of making up your mind, of making a decision in faith or in SaddhÈ. SaddhÈ does not mean simply having faith. Here having faith is based on understanding. And when you understand the something is a real object of your faith, you will decide that it is good. Then you have faith in it or confidence in it. There is an element of resolution in SaddhÈ.

"Its proximate cause is something to place faith in. "That means the  Buddha, the Dhamma, the Sa~gha and others. Or hearing of the Good Dhamma etc. that constitute the factors of Stream-Entry." 'That constitute the factors of stream-Entry' - there are some things that lead to the attainment of SotÈpatti Magga and SotÈpatti Phala. Associating with Noble people, listening to the Dhamma, wise reflection and the factors of VipassanÈ, these are called the constituents or factors of Stream-Entry. If you want to reach SotÈpannahood, then you follow these four things. Associating with Noble people or people that are knowledgable, listening to Good Dhamma, wise reflection and factors or VipassanÈ are the proximate causes of SaddhÈ.

          SaddhÈ is compared to many things in the Suttas. SaddhÈ  is compared to a hand. If you have a hand you can pick up the good  things you want. Even if there are precious thing in front of you, without a hand you cannot pick them up. In the same way if you do not have SaddhÈ, if you do not have confidence, you  cannot pick up Kusala. You cannot pick up good qualities, good mental states. So SaddhÈ is compared to a hand.

          Also SaddhÈ is described as a treasure. There are treasures which are called Noble Treasures. SaddhÈ is one of them. SaddhÈ Treasure can lead to the attainment of enlightenment. So it is the best of treasures. The other kinds of treasures cannot help us to reach the state. Without SaddhÈ  can help us  reach that state. Without SadddhÈ  confidence we will not even Listen to a treasure, to wealth.

          SaddhÈ is compared to seed. If you want to have a tree or fruit, you must grow the seed. If you do not have the seed, you cannot have fruit and flowers. In the same way if you do not have SaddhÈ you cannot have Kusala. So SaddhÈ is compared to a seed.

          SaddhÈ  is one of the five mental faculties. Do you remember the fivemental faculties? What are  they? Faith,energy,mindfulness, concentration and wisdom. Faith or SaddhÈ is one of the mental faculties. These five mental faculties are to be kept in balance. You understand that. If any one of them is in excess, you meditation will go wrong. SaddhÈ is to be balance especially with paÒÒÈ, understanding. Too much SaddhÈ and you will believe in anything. Too much paÒÒÈ and you will become deceitful. SaddhÈ is one of the five mental faculties which are important in meditation.

The next one is Sati, mindfulness. You all know mindfulness. You have been practising mindfulness for many years now. The PÈÄi word for mindfulness is Sati. Sati is derived from a root meaning to remember. Here as a mental factor it is not remembering actually, but presence of mind, attentiveness to the present, rather than the faculty of memory. Sati here means not remembering but to pay attention to the object at the present moment. When you practise SatipaÔÔhhÈna, mindfulness meditation, you are mindful of the object at the present moment. In some places Sati does mean remembering. The supernormal knowledge of remembering past lives the Buddha attained this knowledge in the first watch of the night before he became the Buddha. That knowledge is called pubbenivÈsÈnussati. Sati there means to remember. The Buddha was able to remember his past lives. In certain contexts Sati can mean remembering. But here as a Cetasika  Sati means not remembering but mindfulness, to be with the object.

          Its characteristic is not wobbling. That means not floating on the surface. The Commentary explains that some dry wood or let us say a ballon floats on the surface of the water. It does not go into the water. Sati is not like that. Sati must go into the object. Another way of saying non-wobbling is non-superficiality. If it is Sati, it is not superficial. I must be squarely with the object; it must go into the object.

          Its function is absence of confusion or non-forgetfulness. That means actually not losing the object. When you pay attention to something, your mind is with that object. Your mind does not lose that object. You do not lose that object because Sati is there. It has the function of non-confusion or of not losing the object.

          It is manifested as guardianship or as a guard. When you put a guard at a gate, a guard can keep out unwanted animals, unwanted people. In the same way when you put Sati as a guard at your mind door, it can keep out the unwholesome mental states from entering your mind. When Yogis concentrate on Sati itself, it appears to them as a guard. Sati is there at the six sense doors. So long as Sati is at these six doors, no unwholesome state can enter the mind.

          That is why the Buddha said, "This is the only way for the purification of beings." Many people do not like that statement. They would say there must be some other ways, not just this only. The other day I met a woman who said, "I don't like this statement that this is the only way. I didn't say anything to her. That is the truth that this is the only way to keep the mental defilements from entering your mind. There is no other way. If you keep mindfulness with you, you can keep them at bay. The moment you lose mindfulness, they come in. So mindfulness is the only way. That you must accept. The Buddha expressly said that. This is the only. Way, there is no other way. Mindfulness can be practised in different ways. There is mindfulness of breathing, mindfulness of postures of the body, mindfulness of small activities, mindfulness of the four elements in the body, mindfulness of different parts of the body. There are many kinds of mindfulness practice. But whenever you practise, it must be mindfulness, so that you can keep the mental defilements away from your mind. That is why the Buddha said, "This is the only way for the purification of the minds of begins." It is like a guard. So long as there is mindfulness as guard at the six sense-doors, there is no chance for the mental defilments to enter your mind.

          "It manifests as the state of confronting an objective field." That means coming to the object or something like that. So there is Sati. Mind is not only aimed at the object but actually touches the object. Mind is turned toward the object. Confronting means turning face to face with the object.

          Its proximate cause is strong perception. If you have strong SaÒÒÈ, you can remember many things. You can memorize a book or maybe many books. Actually that is because you have strong SaÒÒÈ. Strong SaÒÒÈ helps you remember things.

          The four foundations of mindfulness is also the proximate cause. You practise the four foundations of mindfulness, and you develop mindfuness. The previous mindfulness is a proximate cause or a condition for the practice of mindfulness. So one moment of mindfulness has another moment of mindfulness, and another moment of mindfulness. So that is why it is said that the four foundations of mindfulness is the proximate cause.

Hiri & Ottappa

          The next two are Hiri Ottappa. Hiri is the shame of wrong doing. Ottappa is the fear of wrong doing. We met the opposite of these two among the unwholesome mental factors. They are Ahirika and Anottappa. We leave out the negative particles and we get Hiri and Ottappa. Hiri is shame, shame for wrong doing or disgust for wrong doing. Ottappa is fear of wrong doing.

          Shame has the characteristic of disgust at bodily and verbal misconduct. Fear of wrong doing has the characteristic of dread in regard to such misconduct. They both have the function of not doing evil. They are manifested as the shrinking away from evil. When you have Hiri and Ottappa you do not do evil. You don't do Akusala. You shrink from Akusala. You keep away from Akusala.

          Their proximate causes are respect for self and respect for others. The proximate cause for Hiri (shame) is respect for one's self. The proximate cause for Ottappa (fear) is respect for others. If I should want to do some evil and then I will say to my self, "such as person as I should not do this. I come from a good family. I am the student of a great teacher. I have been a monk for many years. Such a person as I should not do evil. Conserding for myself I will refrain from evil." That is Hiri.

          Ottappa is if I do something wrong, people will blame me. I will lose face with that. So I'm afraid of being criticized by you. I refrain from doing evil because I fear criticism. That is respect for others, not for myself. So respect for one's self is the proximate cause of Ottappa.

          These two mental factors are called by the Buddha the guardians of the world because they protect the world from falling into widespread immorality. If there were no Hiri and Ottappa in the world there would be as it is said in the book widespread immorality. So these two qualities, these two mental factors keep the society in good shape. Once society gives up these two qualities, has no respect for these two qualities, then that society becomes violent, immoral. So Buddha described these two as LokapÈla. Loka means world and PÈla means protection or guardian. So Lokapala means guardians of the world.

          Sometimes you are ashamed to do something good. That is not Hiri. Hiri is shame for doing evil. Shame to do good things is not Hiri.


          The next one is Alobha, non-greed. It is the opposite of Lobha. Lobha is attachment. Alobha is non-attachment. "Non-greed has the characteristic of the mind's lack of desire for its object." Even though the object is presented to it, the mind has no interest in it. It has no desire to possess that object, to be attached to that object. That is Alobha. "Or its characteristic is non-adherence to the object like a drop of water on a lotus leaf." It is a very good example. You put a drop of water on a lotus leaf and it immediately falls away. When there is Alobha (non-greed)then your mind will not be attached to anybody or anything at all. It is like a drop of water on a lotus leaf.

          Its function is not to lay hold, not to take hold of something, not to cling to something. "Its manifestation is detachment. It should be understood that non-greed is not the mere absence of greed. " That is very important because of greed. If it is absence of greed, it must be PaÒÒatti. It must be a concept. It would not be a reality, like absence of first Ar|pÈvacara consciousness. Alobha does not mean the absence of Lobha but something that is the opposite of Lobha. It is actually positive virtue such as generosity or renunciation. It is not the mere absence of greed, but it is a positive mental state, a positive virtue. 


          The next one is Adosa. Here once again it is not the absence of Dosa, not the absence of hatred. "It is the opposite of Dosa. So its characteristic is a lack of ferocity or of non-opposing. When there is Dosa, there is opposition to the object in the mind. So here when there is Adosa, there is no opposition. " Its function is to remove annoyance or to remove fever". 'Fever' means fever of mind. When there is Dosa mind is said to be feverish. Adosa removes that fever. " Its manifestation is agreeableness. Non-hatred comprises such positive virtues as loving-kindness, gentleness, amity, friendliness etc. " Anything which is the opposite of Dosa, of anger, of harted is Adosa.

          This Adosa appears as the sublime quality of loving-kindness. When you practise loving-kindness, loving-kindness is actually Adosa. But not every Adosa is loving-kindness. So loving-kindness is narrower in scope than Adosa. Only when you practise saying, "May all beings be happy" is there loving-kindness. Now you are studying or you may be thinking of the Buddha, at those moments there is no loving-kindness but there is Adosa. Only when you deliberately develop this desire for the well-being of all beings like saying, "may all beings be well, happy and peaceful" is it them called loving-kindness. Loving-kindness is essence is Adosa but not all Adosa is loving-kindness.

           You have to specifically develop it for it to be called loving-kindness. " When it becomes loving-kindness it has the characteristic of promoting the welfare of living beings". That means the desire for the welfare of all beings. "Its function is to prefer their welfare. Its manifestation is the removal of illwill". When you practise loving-kindness, you get rid of anger. "Its proximate cause is seeing beings as loveable. Such loving-kindness must be distinguished   from selfish affection, its' near enemy."

          When you practise loving-kindness, you have to be careful of two enemies - the near enemy and the far enemy. The far enemy is not difficult to see and not difficult to overcome. The far enemy is hate. It is the opposite; it is the direct enemy. The near enemy is affection  love. It is very difficult to distinguish loving-kindness from love. A mother has love for her child. That love for her child - is it RÈga or is it MettÈ? I think both. Sometimes it may be RÈga. Sometimes it may be pure loving-kindness. Once a man told me, "I have a grand. daughter and I am sending loving-kindness toward her." But what I thought was that what you are sending is not pure loving-kindness. There was attachment. So attachment comes to us in the guise of loving-kindness. That is why it is called the near enemy. It is more difficult to see than the far enemy, Dosa. We can easily see that Dosa is the enemy of MettÈ. This selfish affection or attachment is not so easy to see. It is called the near enemy. When we practise loving-kindness meditation, we must be careful that we do not get into the hands of this near enemy.

When practising loving-kindness meditation, when you are sending loving-kindness thoughts to specific persons, it is instructed in the Visuddhi Magga that you are not to send thoughts to a person of the opposite sex because affection or lust can arise out of the development of loving-kindness towards a person of the opposite sex. While practising loving-kindness meditation, we must take care not to allow the near enemy, affection or lust to enter our minds.

          The next one is TatramajjhattatÈ. "The PÈÄa term for this Cetasika literally means 'there-in-the-middleness'." 'There' means among the  Cetasikas.  It is impartial.  It is neutral. When you are in the middle, you do not fall into either group. You are impartial. You are neutral. "It is a synonym for equanimity (UpekkhÈ), not as a neutral feeling, but as a mental attitude of balance, detachment and impartiality."

          Whenever you find the word 'UpekkhÈ' be careful. It can mean the feeling UpekkhÈ, neutral feeling, neither pleasant nor unpleasant feeling. Also it can mean this mental factor which is neutrality of mind, which is not feeling. VedanÈ is feeling. UpekkhÈ is one of the five kinds of feelings. This UpekkhÈ is not VedanÈ, not feeling. It is a mental state  which is called neutrality of mind. Many people have been misled by the word 'UpekkhÈ'. Please be careful when you read books and find the word 'UpekkhÈ'. Try to find out what it means in that context. "It is a synonym for equanimity (UpekkhÈ), not as neutral feeling, but as mental attitude of balance, detachment and impartiality." "It has the characteristic of conveying consciousness and the mental factors evenly." Consciousness and mental factors arise together. They arise at the same time. They must do their respective functions. For them to do their respective functions properly, they need this mental factor. It is like a supervisor. It is compared to a charioteer. That is a driver of a cart drawn by three or four horses. When the horses are running evenly, the driver does not have to make much effort to keep the chariot going. This mental factor keeps consciousness and other mental factors going smoothly. When under its regulation consciousness and mental factors function properly. It is a time of neutrality.

          "Its function is to prevent deficiency and excess." In doing their respective functions the Citta and Cetasikas may do their functions in excess. Sometimes they may not do their functions well. When they do not do their functions well or they over-function, then the balance of the mental factors will be disturbed. This mental state prevents or regulates the functions of ether associated mental states. Or its function is to prevent partiality, not to fall into this side or that side.

          "It is manifested as neutrality. It should be seen as the state of looking on with equanimity in the Citta and Cetasikas, like a charioteer who looks on with equanimity at the thoroughbreds progressing evenly along the roadway." I always compare this to cruise control in your car. When you put the cruise control on in the car, you don't have to make effort for the car to go. There is a kind of TatramajjhattatÈ there.

          "Neutrality of mind becomes the sublime quality of equanimity towards living beings." There are four Brahma VihÈras, four sublime states, four abodes of the Btahmas. Among them there is UpekkhÈ. The first one is MettÈ, loving-kindness. The second one is KaruÓÈ,  Compassion. The third one is Mudita, sympathetic joy. And the fourth one is equanimity. That equanimity is called UpekkhÈ in PÈÄi. That UpekkhÈ is this TatramajjhattatÈ, and notfeeling UpekkhÈ.

          "As such it treats beings free from discrimination, without preferences and prejudices, looking upon all as equal. This equanimity should not be confused with its near enemy the worldly-minded indifference due to ignorance." That means not paying attention. In that case it means not knowing. That is ignorance. UpekkhÈ here is not turning away from the object. It is with the object but it does not fall into partiality. So its near enemy is this worldly-minded indifference due to ignorance. That is something like careless apathy.

          When a son behaves badly and does not listen to his parents advice or admonitions, sometimes his parents may say, "I do not think about you, I will not be concerned about you, I do not care about you." That kind of feeling is not this UpekkhÈ. That is turning yourself away from the object. UpekkhÈ takes the object, but takes it with impartiality.

          Then we have what? The next twelve universal beautiful Cetasikas fall into six pairs. Now come the pairs each one containing one term that extends to the 'mental body' (KÈya) and another that extends to consciousness (Citta). In this context the mental body is the collection of associated Cetasikas, called 'body' in the sense of an aggregation."

KÈya-passaddhi & Citta-passaddhi
          The first pair is KÈya Passaddhi and Citta Passaddhi. Passaddhi means tranquility, calm. KÈya here does not have the usual meaning of body, our physical body. KÈya here means an aggregation, a combination. In other words KÈya here means NÈma KÈya. NÈma KÈya means simply Cetasikas. KÈya here actually means the Cetasikas. So KÈya Passaddhi means tranquility of Cetasikas or you can just say tranquility of NÈma KÈya. Citta Passaddhi means tranquility of consciousness. The first one is the tranquility of Cetasikas and the second one is the tranquility of Citta.

          "The twofold tranquility has the characteristic of the quieting down of disturbances (Daratha) in the mental body and consciousness, respectively. Its function is to crush such disturbances. It is manifested as peacefulness and coolness." When there is KÈya Passaddhi and Citta Passaddhi, you will be very peaceful. "Its proximate cause is the mental body and consciousness. It should be regarded as opposed to such defilements as restlessness and worry."

          When there is restlessness and worry, you don't have tranquility of Cetasikas and tranquility of Citta.

KÈya-lahutÈ & Citta-lahutÈ
          The second pair is KÈya LahutÈ and Citta LahutÈ. LahutÈ means light. So LahutÈ means lightness–lightness of the Cetasikas and lightness of the consciousness. When there is lightness, there is no heaviness. So their characteristic is the subsiding of heaviness in the mental body and consciousness, respectively. Its function is to crush heaviness. It is manifested as non-sluggishness. Its proximate cause is the mental body and consciousness. It should be regarded as opposed to such defilements as sloth and torpor, you become heavy. First your eyelids become heavy and then they overpower you. You become a very heavy thing. When you are alert, then there will be lightness in your body and mind.

KÈya-mudutÈ & Citta-mudutÈ
          The third pair is KÈya MudutÈ and Citta MudutÈ. The literal meaning of MudutÈ is softness. Softness here means malleability. It means they are not rigid. They are compliant. "It has the characteristic of subsiding rigidity." They are not rigid when they are malleable. "It should be regarded as opposed to such defilements as wrong views and conceit." When there is wrong view, you are very stubborn. You don't want to give up your view easily. And when you are conceited, when you have pride, you are rigid, you are stiff. When you have MÈna or conceit, you don't want to bow down. You don't want to let other people  ???????. And so they are rigid mental states. This pair is the opposite of these mental states. They are called KÈya MudutÈ and Citta MudutÈ.

KÈya-kammaÒÒatÈ & Citta-kammaÒÒatÈ
The next pair is KÈya KammaÒÒatÈ and Citta KammaÒÒatÈ, wieldiness. "The twofold wieldiness has the characteristic of the subsiding of unwieldiness." That doesn't tell us much. Sometimes the explanations are like that. Wieldiness means you can do what you like with it.

          The simile given here is gold. When gold is purified it becomes  wieldy, it becomes pliable. You can shape gold into anything without there being resistance. If the gold is hard it may not lend itself to being made into different kinds of ornaments. So first a goldsmith has to purify gold by treating it with fire. When the gold is purified, you can make it into any ornament you like. The state of such a thing is called wieldiness, KammaÒÒatÈ. It is agreeable to being shaped. It is agreeable to being made into anything.

Student: Inaudible.
Sayadaw: Sometimes it is difficult to get a satisfactory word for a PÈÄi word. I would use softness rather than malleability for MudutÈ. I think that is better.

          "Its function (KammaÒÒatÈ) is to crush unwieldiness. It is manifested as success of the mental body and consciousness in making something an object. Its proximate cause is the mental body and consciousness. It should be regarded as opposed to the remaining hindrances which create unwieldiness of the mental body and consciousness."

KÈya-pÈguÒÒatÈ & Citta-pÈguÒÒatÈ
The next pair is KÈya PaguÒÒatÈ and Citta PaguÒÒatÈ, the twofold proficiency. This word also causes a little problem. PaguÒÒatÈ comes from Paguna. Paguna has three meanings. One is straight. That is not needed here because straightness will come later. The second meaning is proficiency. Proficiency means being familiar with.  If I am familiar with a book, I can say I am Paguna with the book. That means I know this book well, thoroughly. And then there is another meaning - being in a good state, being in a good condition. I think that would fit here. Because when you read the characteristic it is the healthiness of mental body and healthiness of consciousness. I think we can put it this way. Nowadays people are saying healthiness of mind. Always KÈya PaguÒÒtÈ is translated as proficiency. I think it is healthiness of Cetasikas and healthiness of Citta. "Its function is to crush unhealthiness" and so on. "It should be regarded as opposed to lack of faith etc. "When you do not have faith, when you do not have mindfulness and so on, your mind has a kind of disease. Your mind is not healthy. So it is opposed to lack of faith and so on.

Kay’ujukatÈ & Citt’ujukatÈ
          The last pair is KÈya UjjukatÈ and Citta UjjukatÈ. Uju means straight. So UjjukatÈ means straightness, rectitude, straightness of mental body and straightness of consciousness. "It has the characteristic of uprightness of the mental body and consciousness, respectively. Its function is to crush tortuousness of the mental body and consciousness and its manifestation is non-crookedness." When there are unwholesome states in the mind, the mind is said to be crooked. Mind is said not to be straight. So it manifests itself as non-crookedness. "Its proximate cause is the mental body and consciousness. It should be regarded as opposed to hypocrisy and fraudulence etc. which create crookedness' in the mental body and consciousness." It is the opposite of such states.

          These mental states are listed in pairs here. The explanation given in the commentaries as to why these are listed in pairs and why others like SaddhÈ and Sati and so on are listed separately is that they crush their opposite qualities when they are together. That is why they are put together as pairs here.

          Also another explanation is that rectitude of consciousness is just the state of consciousness. But rectitude of KÈya can also imply rectitude of the physical body. When there is rectitude of mental states, there is also rectitude of physical body. If there is tranquility in the mind, then your physical body is also tranquil. In order to show that they are described in pairs.
          There are 19 mental factors which arise with every type of Sobhana consciousness. Now we go to the next group.

Viratis: SammÈvÈcÈ, SammÈkammanta & SammÈ-ÈjÊva
          They are called Virati, abstinences. They are SammÈvÈca (right speech), SammÈkammanta (right action) and SammÈ ŒjÊva (right livelihood). You are very familiar with these three mental factors because they are included in the eight factors of the Noble Path. In the constituents of the Noble Eightfold Path you find these three factors SammÈvÈca, SammÈ­kammanta, SammÈ ŒjÊva, right speech  right action, right livelihood. These three are collectively called Virati, abstinences. Abstinence from what? Abstinence from wrong conduct. Abstinence from wrong conduct by bodily action, abstinence from wrong conduct by speech or verbal action, abstinence from wrong livelihood. They arise only when a person really abstains from for example killing or stealing. When you are studying like this or when you are paying homage to the Buddha, there is no Virati present in your mind. These abstinences only arise in your mind only when you deliberately refrain from abstaining from wrong doing.

Three Kinds of Viratis
          There are three kinds of Virati mentioned in the Commentaries. The first one is called natural abstinence. I think we should say abstinence on occasion. The second is abstinence by undertaking precepts. The third is abstinence by eradicating all mental defilements. So there are three types of Virati, three types of abstinences.

          The first one is called Sampatta-virati. Sampatta really means arrive. Some occasion reaches you or arrives and you refrain from doing wrong. Then there is this Virati. Here the abstension is done not because one has taken precepts. It just happens to be there and the person refrains from doing it. "It is the abstinence from evil deeds when the opportunity arises to engage in them, due to the consideration of one's social position, age, level of education etc. An example is refraining from theft out of concern that one's reputation would be hurt if one is caught." If there is an occasion for a man to pick up something easily, but he may say to himself "such a person as I would not do such a thing", so he refrains from wrong doing, he refrains from taking anything. At that time there is abstinence of' right action, SammÈkammanta. When there is occasion for telling a lie, then you refrain from it, that is SammÈvÈca or right speech. When you abstain from wrong bodily conduct and wrong verbal conduct which is your livelihood, then there is SammÈ ŒjÊva. So there is SammÈvÈca and SammÈkammanta on the one hand and SammÈ ŒjÊva on the other. They are all abstinences from wrong doing. The difference is that the wrong doing is one's livelihood then the abstinence for that is called Samma ŒjÊva. If it is not so, it is called Sammavaca or Sammakammanta. If a fisherman abstains from killing fish, then there is SammÈ ŒjÊva  (right livelihood) because killing fish is his livelihood. When a person of another profession refrains from fishing, there is SammÈkammanta, mot SammÈ ŒjÊva.

          There is no SammÈ ŒjÊva, because fishing is not his livelihood. Refraining when occasion arises is called Sampattavirati.

          In the Commentary, the AtthasÈlinÊ, a story is given. There was a mother and her sons. The mother had a disease. The physician told her she needed raw flesh of a rabbit to cure that disease. When the physician said this, the elder brother sent the younger brother to the forest to catch a rabbit. So the younger brother went into the forest. Then there was a rabbit. When the rabbit heard the man coming it ran away. When it ran away it was caught in the creepers. Since it was caught it made noise. The younger son heard it and caught the rabbit. The he thought to himself, "I cannot kill this rabbit. I cannot take the life of this rabbit even to cure the disease of my mother." So he let it go. And he returned home. The elder brother when he saw him asked, "Have you got the rabbit?" The younger brother replied, "I caught a rabbit but I didn't want to kill it even to cure the disease of my mother. So I let it go." The elder brother then scolded him  But he went to his mother and made an asservation of faith. He said, "Ever since I have become knowlegable ever since I know what  is right and what is wrong, I have never taken the life of any living being. By the asservation of this truth, by the saying of this truth may the disease of my mother be healed.' Then it is said she was healed. That kind of abstention is called Sampattavirati, abstention when occasion arises. He had not taken any precepts before he went out. There was an occasion to kill and he didn't do it. He abstained from killing the rabbit. That kind of Virati or abstinence is called Sampattavirati, abstinence on occasion.

          The second one is abstinence by undertaking precepts, SamÈdÈna-virati. SamÈdana means taking. So it is abstinence because of taking precepts. "It is the abstinence from evil deeds because one has undertaken to observe precepts, for example, the five precepts of abstaining from killing, stealing, sexual misconduct, false speech and intoxicants."

          There is a story. This time there was a farmer. One day he went out to work in the field. His cows got lost. So he went into the forest in search of his oxen. Then a big snake, perhaps a python caught him. When the python coiled round him, he had something like a sword in his hand. Wait a minute. Before going out to his field to work, he had gone to a renowned monk and took precepts from that monk. So after taking the five precepts, he went to the field to work. At first when he was caught by the snake, he thought he would cut off the snake's head. Then he thought further: "I have taken precepts from such a holy monk, so I should not break the precepts." Then he thought again I will cut off the snake's head  Then again he thought it is not proper that I break the precepts since I have taken them from a monk. Three times he thought this way. Then he thought, "Let the snake kill me. I will not kill it." At that moment the snake uncoiled and went away. He kept the precept of not killing because he had taken the precept of not killing from the monk. That kind of abstention is called SamÈdanavirati, abstention because one has taken precepts.

          The last one is called Samuccheda-virati. That is abstention which is accomplished when the mental defilements are eradicsted. When are the mental defilements eradicated? At the moment of enlightenment. At the moment of enlightenment mental defilements are eradicated. When the mental defilements are eradicated, the disposition towards evil deeds is also eradicated. Since even the disposition towards evil deeds is eradicated, abstention from all evil deeds is accomplished. Although there is no occasion, although he may have not taken precepts  he has eradicated all mental defilements. He has eradicated even the disposition towards them. And so it is said that at the moment of enlightenment all three virati arise together. The abstinences are accomplished at that moment even though there may be no occasion for killing etc. He is sitting in meditation, getting enlightenment, so there is no occasion for him to break any of the rules. But since all mental defilements have been eradicated alorg with the disposition to do evil, the abstinences are said to be virtually accomplished. That kind of abstinence is called Samuccheda­ virati. Samuccheda means cutting off altogether. So it is abstinence by cutting off altogether mental defilements. So there are three types of abstinences–abstinence on occasion, abstinence because of taking precepts, abstinence because of the eradication of mental defilements.

There are three abstinences. The first is right speech. Right speech really means deliberate abstinence from wrong speech. It is important. Just saying what is true is not abstinence. You say what is true. That is not abstinence. Abstinence comes only when one has an occasion for saying what is not true and you refrain from saying that. That is the time of right speech. So right speech will not arise always. It will arise only when there is abstinence. It is abstinence from false speech, abstinence from slander, abstinence from harsh speech and abstinence from frivilous talk or abstinence from talking nonsense. These are the four wrong doings by speech. There are four wrong doings by speech–telling lies, slandering, using harsh words and speaking nonsense.

The next one is right action, SammÈkammanta. Here also deliberate abstinence from wrong bodily action is meant. That means killing, stealing and sexual misconduct. When you abstain from killing etc there is right action. But when you are paying homage to the Buddha it is not right action as abstinence or it is not an abstinence. It is a right action because you are doing what is right. It is not called SammakammÈnta, an abstinence.

The last one is SammÈ ŒjÊva. That is deliberate abstinence from the four wrong doings by speech and the three wrong doings by body. Abstaining from these seven is right livelihood. Dealing in poisons, dealing in intoxicants, dealing in weapors, dealing in human beings for slavery and dealing in animals for slaughter for food are wrong    trades. These five trades a follower of the Buddha is not to follow, not to do.

Only when there is abstinence from wrong doing is there one of these abstinences - right speech, right action or right livelihood. Later on we will come to them again.  So they do not always arise with Sobhana Cittas. They will arise only occasionally. They cannot arise three at a time with KÈmÈvacara Cittas. with the supramundane Cittas the three will arise simultaneously.

The next group is called AppamaÒÒÈ. AppamaÒÒÈ means no limit, limitless, the limitless ones. Why are they called limitless? Because they take limitless beings as object. When you practise Karuna and Mudita or even when you practise Metta and UpekkhÈ, you must practise toward all beings. There must be no limit to the beings towards whom you practise one of these four qualities. That is why they are called AppamaÒÒÈ. AppamaÒÒÈ means no limit.

Also when you are practising loving-kindness toward just one person, it is still called AppamaÒÒÈ because when you send loving-kindness to a person you do not limit it to the upper part of the body only or lower part of the body only. You send it to the whole being as object without any restriction. That is why these four are also called AppamaÒÒÈ.

The first AppamaÒÒÈ here is compassion. KaruÓÈ is compassion. KaruÓÈ has the characteristic of removing the suffering in others. That means the desire for the removal of 'suffering from other beings is called KaruÓÈ. Whether suffering is really removed or not is one thing. But when you practise KaruÓÈ you say, "May he or she be free from suffering." Whether or not the person really gets free from suffering is another thing, but we practise that way. When we practise compassion, it is important that we do not fall prey to its enemy.  It succeeds when it cuases cruelty to subside, and it fails when it produces sorrow." Cruelty is the opposite of KaruÓÈ. In practising KaruÓÈ sometimes you may fall into sorrow. You are sorry about those who are suffering. Sometimes you are angry with those who inflict injury on those who are suffering and you step over the boundary of compassion and fall into Akusala - fall into sorrow or fall into anger. Compassion in Buddhism is purely wholesome. The moment you experience sorrow or anger, it is no longer KaruÓÈ. You no longer have KaruÓÈ in your mind. You are no longer practising KaruÓÈ. It is very important when you are practising KaruÓÈ  that you just stop there and don't go over to sorrowing with those in suffering or getting angry with those who inflict pain on them. There are two enemies here. The direct enemy is cruelty. The near enemy is sorrow.

The second one is MuditÈ, appreciative joy. That means you are happy when you see other people that are 'prosperous or other people that are happy. At such times you have MuditÈ, joy. It has the characteristic of gladness at the success of others. When other people are successful, when other people are well off, when other people are happy, you are also happy. "Its function is being unenvious at others' success. It is manifested as the elimination of aversion. Its proximate cause is seeing the success of others. It succeeds when it causes aversion to subside, and it fails when it produces merriment." Its direct enemy is aversion. That means like jealousy. When someone is successful, you don't like it. That is called aversion here, the direct enemy of MuditÈ. The near enemy is merriment. That means getting happy, not wholesome happiness. Here it is getting merry with attachment and so on. That is the near enemy of MuditÈ. Somebody is very successful, and you are very happy, but not just wholesome happiness, but merriment comes in. That is the near enemy of MuditÈ.

          KaruÓÈ and MuditÈ are among the four sublime states or the four Brahma VihÈras. We have altogether four of them - MettÈ, KaruÓÈ, MuditÈ and UpekkhÈ. Metti is represented by Adosa. UpekkhÈ is represented by neutrality of mind. That is why in this manual only two are mentioned as limitless ones. But actually four of them are called limitless ones. But as I said before Adosa and neutrality of mind - these two may or may not be Metta and UpekkhÈ. So although in essence MettÈ is Adosa and UpekkhÈ is TatramajjhattatÈ, every Adosa and every TatramajjhattatÈ is not MettÈ and UpekkhÈ. Only when they appear in the mode of promoting the welfare of others, only when they are in the mode of neutrality of mental states are they respectively called mettÈ and UpekkhÈ. There are four Brahma VihÈras, but hre only KaruÓÈ and MuditÈ are mentioned as AppamaÒÒÈ.

                                      SÈdhu! SÈdhu! SÈdhu!

Tape #12
Chapter 2(D)

Pannindraya & Sampayoga Method

          Last week we finished Karuna (compassion) and Mudita (appreciative joy).  They are called limitless ones or measureless ones.  They are so called because their objects should always be limitless, limitless beings.  Actually there are four states that are called limitless or measureless.  These four are Metta, Karuna, Mudita and Upekkha.  Metta and Upekkha are not included in the limitless ones here because they are represented effectively by non-hatred and neutrality of mind.  Although Metta is Adosa (non-hatred) and Upekkha is neutrality of mind, not every Adosa and not every netrality of mind is Metta or Upekkha that belong to limitless states.  Because when you are paying respect to the Buddha, when you are studying there is Adosa in your mind but not Metta.  In order for it to become Metta you have to practise specially like “may all beings be well, happy and peaceful.”  Metta and Upekkha as limitless states are narrower in scope than the mental states of Adosa and Tatramajjhattata.

Amoha or PaÒÒindriya
          Now we come to the last mental factor which is Amoha or Pannindriya.  In Abhidhamma as it is said in the manual Panna is sometimes called Panna, sometimes Nana and sometimes Amoha.  There are other synonyms too.  These words are used synonomously in Abhidhamma.  Whether it is Panna, Nana or Amoha we mean the same thing, the same mental factor.

          This mental factor here is called Pannindriya.  Indriya means faculty.  That means it exercises predominance over other mental factors in comprehending things, in understanding the real nature of things.  So it is called the faculty of wisdom or the faculty of knowledge.

          It has the characteristic of penetrating things according to their intrinsic nature, seeing them in their true nature, seeing the true nature of things.  Sometimes the characteristic is described as the sure penetration.  When a sharpshooter shoots, he always hits the target.  In the same way Panna always hits the target, the target.  Panna or Nana or Amoha is that which penetrates or understands the true nature of things.

          “Its function is to illuminate the objective field, like a lamp.”  Panna is compared to a lamp.  Moha is compared to darkness.  When there is no light in this room, we cannot see things.  We cannot see each other.  If there is light, if the room is illuminated, then we see things clearly.  In the same way when there is Moha in our minds, we don’t see things clearly, we don’t see things as they are.  But when Panna comes it is like illuminaaating the object, we see things clearly.  So Panna has the function of illuminating the object, like a searchlight.

          “It is manifested as non-bewilderment.”  When you understand something clearly, when you understand the true nature of things, you are sure about that thing.  You are not deluded.  Panna is here compared to a guide.  A guide can take you through the wilderness without making mistakes.

          “Its proximate cause is wise attention (Yoniso Manasikara).”  According to Abhidhamma not every knowledge is called Panna.  Panna is that which understands the real nature of things.  Sometimes there may be some kind of knowledge of weapons to kill people or something like that.  That is not called Panna according to abhidhamma.  It may be some kind of strong Vitakka.  Sometimes it may even be Akusala.

          Panna is best demonstrated with respect to Vipassana meditation.  You practise Vipassana meditation.  You make notes of the objects you observe.  As your mind becomes concentrated, you begin to see the objects clearly.  And then their characteristics and others will show their true nature.  Panna is best demonstrated by Vipassana meditation.


          There are three states which share understanding.  There is Sanna (perception).  There is Vinnana or Citta.  And there is Nana or Panna.  They look similar.  In each word you find Na- San-na, Vin-na-na,  Pan-na.  All of them know the object, but their mode of knowing is different.  Sanna is knowing the object- here knowing the object means just perception of the object, just making notes of the object- it is blue, it is yellow, it is red and so on.  Vinnana is described as something which knows that the object is blue or yellow or whatever and also knows the characteristics, the characteristics of Anicca, Dukkha and Anatta.  But it cannot achieve the eradication of mental defilements.  It cannot achieve the penetration of the Four Noble Truths.  Panna can do that.  That is the difference between Sanna, Vinnana and Panna.  Sanna makes a mark.  Vinnana makes a mark and knows the object.  It cannot help penetration arise just by itself.  This is done by Panna.

          These three are compared to a child, a villager or ordinary man and a money changer or a thief.  When these people see a coin, their understanding is different.  When the child sees the coin, he may just know that it is round, has figures on it, is big or small or something like that.  The child does not know that it can be used to buy something.  The villager knows that it is a coin, that it has figures on it, that it is round or square etc. and also he knows that it is valuable for human use.  It can be used to exchange for other things.  But he does not know whether that coin is a genuine coin or false or whether it is just half value.  This he does not know.  This knowledge is for the money changer or a thief.  A moneychanger is familiar with money or coins.  So he knows all three modes.  It is a round thing with figures on it, it can be used for exchanging things, and also he knows if it is false or genuine, and also he knows it is made in some year or some place or made by certain people.  So his knowledge is thorough with regard to the coin.  The villager’s understanding is not so thorough.  He knows it is a coin.  He knows it can be used in exchange for things.  A child’s understanding is very limited.  He just knows it is a round thing.  He may play with it.  This is the difference between Sanna, Vinnana and Panna.

          This difference is given in the books actually with reference to Vipassana meditation.  When you practise Vipassana meditation, first you see the characteristics, you penetrate the characteristics with Panna.  Vinnana also takes them as object.  Vinnana can take the characteristics, ignorance, suffering and soulless nature as object.  It cannot by itself achieve the penetration of the Four Noble Truths.

          There is another kind of difference between these three.  Sanna knows the object whethere it is right or whether it is wrong.  Whether it is right or wrong, Sanna may just make a note.  Sanna makes a note of a snake while the object is really a rope.  It may make a note of a human being when the object is actually just a scarecrow.  Sanna is just knowing the object by making notes- it is yellow, it is white and so on.  Panna peneteates into the nature of things and understands it thoroughly.  Vinnana is just the awareness of the object.  Although they arise simultaneously they arise at the same time and take the same object,  their relationship to the object, their understanding of the object is different.  One just makes a note of it.  One is just aware of it.  The last one penetrates into the true nature of the object.  That is the difference between the mental states of perception consciousness and wisdom or understanding.

          With this we come to the end of the 52 mental states.  Again let us go back to the beginning.  How are the 52 mental states dicided?  First there are 13 annasamana, common to another.  Then there are 14 Akusala that are unwholesome.  There are 25 that are beautiful.  Again the first 13 are divided into two.  The first seven are universals.  The other six are occasionals or particulars or Pakinnaka.  The 25 Sobhana Cetsikas are divided into 19 that are common to all beautiful consciousness.  Then there are three that are called abstinences.  There are two limitless ones.  And the last is Panna.  So altoghther there are 52 mental states.  At least some of these 52 mental states are emotions.  What we call emotions are just some of them like Lobha, Dosa, worry or remorse.  All these are included in 52 Cetasikas.  What we call emotions nowadays are in these 52 mental states.

          We should understand each of them with respect to their characteristic, function, manifestation and proximate cause.  Understanding their proximate cause I think is important because if we want to get rid of or if we want to diminish some bad mental states, we have to work with the proximate cause.  Proximate cause of Lobha is what?  Taking things as beautiful.  So if you have too much Lobha is what?  Taking things as beautiful.  So if you have too much Lobha and you want to get rid of Lobha, you should attack the proximate cause.  You should try to see them as not beautiful, as not attractive, but as loathsome.  If you are attracted to a person, if you love a person too much, you have to see the body of that person as loathsome, and he is impermanent and so on.  So understanding these four aspects of each one of the mental states can help us trying to develop or trying to diminish or trying to get rid of particular mental states.  These mental states are all mentioned in abhidhamma or Dhammasangani.  They are put in an organized form in this manual.  Cetasikas are divided into 13 common to other, 14 unwholesome, and 25 beautiful.

          After we know the 52 Cetasikas we must know how these 52 Cetasikas come into association with the 121 types of consciousness.  Today you have some work to do, not just listening.  There are two kinds of combinations.  I called them- Cetasika-Citta combination and Citta-Cetasika combination.  You take a Cetasika and then you say this Cetasika is associated with or connected with so many Cittas.  That is called Cetasika-Citta method.  In Pali it is called Sampayoga method.  If you take one type of consciousness and say this type of consciousness arises along with 19 Cetasikas or 21 Cetasikas, this method is called Citta-Cetasika combination.  We take Citta and try to find out how many Cetasikas arise with it.  In the manual it is called Sangaha method.  The first one is Sampayoga method and the second one is Sangaha method.

Sampayoga Method

          We can read the manual or you can look at the Chart.  You can look at this chart or in the manual, but there are some errors in the manual.  I hope this chart is correct.  Please look at this chart.  First we will look at the Sampayoga method.  In order to understand the Sampayoga method, you read the columns down.  It is called Cetasika-Citta method.  If you have this chart, it is  very easy.  You know at a glance how many Cittas arise with a particular Cetasika and how many Cetasikas arise with a particular Ccitta.  We will go through it one by one.

          In the first column there are Lobhamula eight Cittas.  Then there is Dosamula two and Mohamula two.  In the next group is Dvipancavinnana.  Do you know which are Dvipancavinnana? Dvipancavinnana are two eye consciousness, two ear consciousness, two nose consciousness, two tongue vonsciousness and two body consciousness.  Then there are two Sampaaaticchanas, one belonging to Akusala Vipaka and one belonging to Lusala Vipaka.  There are three Santiranas, investigating Cittas.  There are two Santirana Cittas accompanied by Upekkha and one that is accompanied by Somanassa.  Then there is Pancadvaravajjana, five sense door adverting.  There is only one.  Then there is Manodvaravajjana, also only one.  The last one is Hasituppada, smile producing consciousness.  Next is Kamavacara one and two, three and four, five and six, seven and eight.  Then there are Kamavacara Vipaka, secse sphere resultants one and two, three and four, five and six, seven and eight.  And there are Kamavacara Kiriya functional consciousness one and two, three and four, five and si, seven and eight.  Then there are the Rupavacara, the 15 Jhanas.  There are first Jhana three.  Which are the three?  One is Kusala, one is Vipaka and one is Kiriya.  For second Jhana there are three.  Third Jhana there are three.  Fourth Jhana there are three and fifth Jhana ther are also three.  There are 15 Rupavacara cittas.  Then there are twelve Arupavacara Cittas.  They all belong to fifth Jhana.  Then there are the Lokuttara cittas.  The fist is Sotapatti Magga followed by first, second, third, fourth and fifth Jhanas.  You have to combine Sotapatti Magga with all these Jhanas.  Similarly there is Sakadagami first, second, third, fourth and fifth Jhana.  Also there is Anagami first, second, third, fourth and fifth Jhana.  The phala or fruition is the same.  Sotapatti Phala  there is first Jhana, second Jhana, third Jhana, fourth Jhana and fifth Jhana.  Then there are Sakadagami Phala, Anagami Phala and Arahatta Phala first, second, third, fourth and fifth Jhana.  Can you identify those on the Citta chart?  You must be able to do that.

          Let’s go to the Cetasikas.  Sabbacittasadharana, seven universals do you know what the seven universals are?  Contact, feeling perception, volition, one-pointedness of mind, life faculty and attention.  These seven are called in Pali Saabbacittasadharana, the universals.  With regard to the universals we have no difficulty. They arise with every type of consciousness, so 89 or 121 types of consciousness. Whenever a consciousnessarises these seven will always be with it. There is no problem here.

          The next one is Vitakka. With how many Cittas does Vitakka arise? 55. Since Vitakka is one of the Jhana factors we take into account the forty lokuttara Cittas, not eight Lokuttara Cittas. We look among 121 types of consciousness.

          Vitakka is associated with all twelve Akusala Cittas. It is not concomitant with ten Dvipancavinnana. So it does not arise with seeing consciousness, hearing consciousness and so on. With others it arises. Then you go down to first Rupavacara Jhana. It arises with first Rupavacara Jhana. Why? Because there are five Jhana factors arising with first Rupavacara Jhana. But with second Jhana it soes not arise. Also with the third, fourth, fifth Rupavacara and Arupavacara Jhanas it does not arise. Then with Lokuttara it arises with first Jhana. So there are altogether eight Lokuttara Cittas it arises with. It does not arise with second, third, fourth and fifth Jhanas in thelokuttara Cittas. Vitakka arises with all Kamavacara Cittas except Dvipancavinnana two fivefold sense consciousness. It does not arise with second, third, fourth and fifth Jhana Cittas both Mahaggata and Lokuttara. When you count the Cittas, you get 55 Cittas.

          What I want you to do is color in the blank circles for where Vitakka arises. That will be one card. Then for Vicara there will be another card. For Adhimokkha there will be another card. If you have these cards, you can see them very clearly. You can pick up a card and know that this is for Vitakka. You may write Vitakka, 55. This is for instant reference. Nowadays people are for instant thing instant soup, instant coffee. So here we have instant Abhidhamma. If you have these cards, you have instant Abhidhamma. So if you want to know which Cittas Vitakka arises with you pick up this card and know Vitakka arises with Akusala Cittas, Sampaticchana, Santirana, with Kamavacara Sobhana Cittas, first Rupavacara Jhana and first Jhana Lokuttara Cittas. When you put in the colors, you need good concentration. Once you have done it, you will say I have accomplished something. These are very hand. I want you to color them and study them. So you will do a card for Vitakka and another for Vicara.

          Vicara arises with all twelve Akusala Cittas. It does not arise with Dvipancavinnana ten. It arises eith both first and second Rupavacara Jhanas, but it does not arise with third, fourth and fifth Rupavacara Jhanas. And also with Arupavacara Jhanas it does not arise. Vicara arises with first and second Jhana Lokuttara Cittas and the rest it does not arise with. So altogether there are 55 plus 11 Cittas, so it arises with 66 types of consciousness. It arises with 55 Cittas plus eleven second Jhana Cittas.

          There is a question here. We learned that Vitakka does not arise with Dvipancavinnana and second Jhana and so on. We learned that Vitakka is the mental factor that takes the mind to the object, that puts the mind on the object. How come the Dvipancavinnana are without Vitakka? How could they take the object without the help of Vitakka? If there is no Vitakka to take consciousness to the object, how can consciousness go to the object? For these ten the impact is so great that these ten do not meed Vitakka to take them to the object. The visible object and the eye sensitivity come into contact. Thein impact is so great that they don’t need Vitakka to take them to the object. Without Vitakka they are able to take the object.

          With the second Jhana and so on it is because of disgust with Vitakka that they get the second Jhana. Vitakka is eliminated in second Jhana be force of mental development, by force of Bhavana. That is why second Jhana and so on are without Vitakka. There also the higher Jhanas can take the object without Vitakka. The meditators have developed the mind to such a degree, to such an intensity of experience that they can take the object without Vitakka. The same is true for Vicara also. There is no Vicara in third Jhana because of the force of mental development. If you remember how a person tries to get the higher Jhanas–you know a person who has the first Jhana tries to find fault with Vitakka. He tries to eliminate Vitakka. As a result of his practice when the Jhana arises next time that Jhama is without Vitakka. By force of practice, by force of brain power, by force of mental development Vitakka is eliminated. Without the help of Vitakka and Vicara these kinds of consciousness can take the object.

          The next one is Adhimokkha. Adhimokkha does not arise with doubt. It is the Mohamula Citta accompanied by doubt which it does not arise with. Adhimokkha is what? Decision. Adhimokkha is decision or resolution. If you have doubt you cannot make a resolution. So they are incompatible. That is why Adhimokkha does not arise with first Mohamula Citta which is accompanied by doubt.

          Adhimollha does not arise with the Dvipancavinnana also. It is said that these ten Cittas are actually weak in their experience of the object. So since they are weak, Adhimokkha does not arise with them also. Then if you go down the column you see that Adhimokkha arises eith all the other Cittas. So Adhimokkha does not arise with the one Mohamula Citta and the ten Dvipancavinnana,  So eleven Cittas. 89 minus 11 is 78. If we apply it to 121 types of consciousness we get 110.

          Then there is Viriya, effort or energy. Viriya does not arise with the Dvipancavinnana and so on. The subcommentary to the manual does not give any reason. One teacher said that they are weak and so not compatible with Viriya or energy which is strong. Viriya does not arise with 16 Cittas. So Viriya arises with only 73 types of consciousness or 105 types of consciousness.

          Now comes Piti. Piti means zest. It has the nature of joy. So it will not arise with tose that are accompanied by Upekkha and also those accompanied by Domanassa. It does not arise with four Lobhamula Cittas, two Dosamula Cittas, two Mohamula Cittas. It arises with only four from Akusala.

          Then the Dvipancavinnana are accompanied by what feeling? Upekkha, (except for Kaya Vinnana two) Sampaticchanas are accompanied by Upekkha. Two of the Santiranas are accompanied by Yupekkha. One is accompanied by Somanassa. Piti arises with the Santirana which is accompanied by Somanassa. Pancadvaravajjana and Manodvaravajjana are accompanied by Upekkha. Piti will not arise in them because they are neutral. Then there is Hasituppada, smile-producing consciousness. Since it is smile-producing there is pleasurable feeling and Piti arises with it.

          In Kamavacara Sobhana Kusala the first four are accompanied by Somanassa. So Piti arises with those four. The last four are accompanied by Upekkha, so Piti does not arise with them. The same is true for Kamavacara Sobhana Vipaka and Kamavacara Sobhana Kiriya.

          Then we go to the Rupavacara. With first Jhana there is Piti. With second and third Jhana there is Piti. Wioth fourth and fifth Jhana there is no piti. Please not that the fourth Jhana is accompanied by Somanassa. Piti does not arise with that Somanassa because of the force of mental development. In order to get the fourth Jhana Piti is eliminated. That is why Piti dies not acemopany fourth Jhana Cittas even though they are Somanassa. So Piti only arises with the first, Second and third Jhanas. It does not arise with twelve Arupavacara Cittas. It arises with first, second and third Jhana Magga and Phala Cittas, It does not arise with fourth and fifth Jhana Magga and Phala Cittas. Piti arises with 51 types of consciousness. Do you  remember how many types of consciousnss are accompanied by Somanassa feeling? 62. You take eleven fourth Jhana Cittas from 62 and you get 51. If you know that way, you get it easily. There are 62 types of consciousness accompanied by Somanassa. Among them eleven fourth Jhana Cittas are not accompanied by Piti. 62 minus eleven you get 51 types of consciousness.

          The last one is Chanda, conation, desire to do or will to do. Mohamula Cittas are dull Cittas so Chanda is not compatible with all Ahetuka Cittas. With others it is compatible. Chanda does not arise with twenty types of consciousness. 89 minus twenty you get 69 and with 121 you get 101 types of consciousness that Chanda arises with. This is the Cetasika-Citta method for thirteen Annasamana Cetasikas.

          Then we come to the fourteen unwholesome Cetasikas. It is easier with them because you have to look among only the twelve Akusala Cittas. The range is narrower. It is said that Moha, Ahirika, Anottappa and Uddhacca accompany all Akusala Cittas. Every time an Akusala consciousness arises they also arise. When Akusala Citta arises there is some kind of not understanding. For example with Lobha there may not be the understanding that Lobha leads to four woeful states and so on. There is also a shade of non-disgust for Akusala and non-fear of Akusala. And also there is some kind of restlessness. These four accompany every type of unwholesome Citta.

          In the manual it says, “For every unwholesome Citta involves a  mental blindness to the danger of evil (i.e. delusion), a lack of shame and moral dread, and an  underlying current of agitation (i.e. restlessness).” That is why they are called Akusala univeresalea.

          Then there is Lobha, attachment. It arises only with the eight Lobhamula Cittas. It is very easy.

          Then Ditthi, wrong view, accompanies only four, those that are accompanied by wrong view.

          Mana accompanies only four of the Lobhamula Cittas. It accompanies those that are not accompanied by wrong view. In the manul on page 95, “ Both of these factors (Mana & Ditthi) are found only in the Cittas rooted in greed, for they involve some degree of holding to the five aggregates. “They are based on Lobha. Only when there is Lobha, there is wrong understanding of the object and also pride with regard to that object.

          “However, the two exhibit contrary qualities (Although they are based on Lobha, they have different qualities.) and thus they cannot coexist in the same Citta. “ They cannot arise with one and the same Citta. If Ditthi arises in the Citta then Mana will not arise in that Citta. If Mana arises in the Citta, Dittha will not arise in it. Their mode of apprehanding the object is different. “ Wrong view appears in the mode of misapprehending i.e. interpreting things in a manner contrary to actuality. “ Ditthi takes impermanent things to be permanent, unsatisfactory things to be satisfactory, insubstantial things to be substantial and so on. Its understanding of the object, its reaction to the object is ????? . It takes them wrongly.

          “But Mana occurs in the mode on self evaluation i.e. of taking oneself to be superior.” I’m brtter than they are, or sometimes I am the same as they are, or sometimes I am not as good as they are. But still I have pride or conceit. Its relationship to the object is in a different mode than wrong view. So wrong view and conceit cannot arise with the same object. They are compared to two lions of equal strength who cannot live in ona cave.

          “Whereas wrong view is necessarily present in the four Cittas rooted in greed accompanied by wrong view, conceit is not a necessary concomitant of the four greed-rooted these Cittas, but these Cittas can occur without conceit.” We will come to that later. Here we have to know that Ditthi and mana cannot arise simultaneously. Although they may spring from Lobha their mode of reacting to the object is different. So they cannot arise at the same time.

          Dosa, Issa, Macchariya and Kukkucca, these four arise with two Dosamula Cittas only. Yhey are found in these two Cittas. Among them Dosa is always found in these ytwo Cittas. But Issa, Macchariya and Kukkucca do not always arise with these two Cittas. Among them Dosa is always found in these two Cittas. Among them Dosa is always found in these two Cittas. But Issa, Macchariya and Kukkucca do not always arise with these two Cittas, sometimes only. We will come to that later too. We have to count all that accompany Dosamula Cittas. So we say four unwholesome mental factors can accompany the two Cittas that are accompanied by Domanassa.

          Issa is jealousy or envy. Issa takes what object? What is the object of Issa? Other people’s success. Macchariya? One’s own success.Kukkucca takes what as object? Some good thing that is not done and some bad thing that is done. So their objects are different. If the objects are different, they cannot arise at the same time. When there is Issa, there can be no Macchariya and so on. This also we will come to later.

          Then we come to the two, sloth and torpor. They are dull mental states, so they cannot arise with those that are unprompted. They arise only with those that are unprompted. They arise only with those Cittas that are prompted. When there is Thina and Middha we have to prompt, we have to encourage ourself. When the Citta is strong by itself, we don,t need the prompting. so Thina and Middha only arise with those that are prompted - that is #2, 4, 6, 8 & 10.

          The last one is doubt, Vicikiccha. It arises with only one Citta. Among the 52 Cetasikas Vicikiccha arises with the least number of Cittas, only one Citta.

          Next group-the first 19 are easy. Since they are common to all Sobhana (beautiful) Citta, they arise with all beautiful Cittas. So they arise with all beautiful Cittas.So they arise with all Kamavacara Sobhana Kusala,Vipaka and Kiriya, and also all Rupavacara,Arupavacara and Lokuttara. They arise with 59 types of consciousness or 91 types of consciousness. It is 89 minus thirty or 121 minus thirty. Next are the Virati three, the three abstinence. Abstinences are right speech, right action, right livelihood. Since they are called abstinences, they arise only when there is abstinence. When you are paying homage to the Buddha, they don’t arise. these three arise with eight Kamavacara Kusala Cittas and eight  or forty Lokuttara Cittas. They arise with  Kamavacara Kusala and Lokuttara. There is difference in their mode of arising. It is said in the manual when they arise with Lokkuttara Cittas  they arise  in entirely or in all modes,and they arise together, and they arise always. Whenever a supramundane consciousness arises, these three arise. They arise together at the same time. And when they arise, they arise in the mode of destroying all  inclinations towards evil doing. It is a little difficult to understand here  because if the abstinences arise with mundane Cittas, Kamavacara Kusala  Cittas, they arise occasionly, only when there is something to be abstained from. When they arise ,they arise one at a time .When there is right speech, there is no right action or right livelihood.When there is right action, there is no right speech or right livelihood.If there is right livelihood, the other two do not arise. But in Lokuttara Cittas it is different. It is the power  of Lokkutara Cittas. When a Lokuttara Cittas arises, it eradicates all mental defilements.When it eradicates all mental defilements,it eradicates all inclination towards transgression of wholesome states. When a supramundane consciousness arises and eradicates all mental defilements,it is actually abstaining from all evil not only wrong doing by body, wrong doing by speech, wrong livelihood.That is why when Virati arise with Lokkutara Cittas, they arise in all modes of eradicating the inclination toward evil.And they arise together, and they arise always. Whenever a supramundane consciousness arises, these three arise. They arise together at the same time. And when they arise, they arises in the mode of destroying all inclinations towards evil doing . It is a little difficult to understand here because if the abstinences arise with mundane Cittas, Kamavacara Kusala Cittas, they arise occasionally, only when there is something to be abstained from. When they arise, they arise one at a time. When there is right speech, there is no right action or right livelihood. When there is right action, there is no right speech or right livelihood. If there is rightlihood, the other two do not arise. But in Lokuttara Cittas itnis different. It is the power of Lokuttara Cittas. When a Lokuttara Citta arises, it eradicates all mental defilements. When it eradicates all mental defilements, it eradicates all inclination towards transgression of wholesome states. When a supramundane consciousness arises and eradicates all mental defilements, it is actually abstaining from all evil not only wrong doing by body, wrong doing by speech, wrong livelihood. That is why when Virati arise with Lokuttara Cittas, they arise in all modes of eradicating the inclination toward evil. And they arise together and they arise always. But when they arise with Kamavacara Kusala Cittas they arise one at a time and sometimes only. That is the difference.

          That is explained or given on our sheets too at the end of Citta-Cetasika combination. “The three Virati Cetasikas arise in the eight Kamavacara Kusala Cittas, sometimes only and separately. Only when abstaining fro  evil speech, or evil deed or wrong livelihood, and not at other times is it a Virati.” So they do not arise at all times. When they arise in mundane Cittas, they arise one by one, separately. “But when they arise with the eight or forty Lokuttara Cittas, they arise by all modes of crushing evil speech, evil deeds and wrong livelihood.” There is no such thing as crushing livelihood one by one because the Maggas can completely eradicate all evil and wrong livelihood and the inclination toward all evil and wrong livelihood all at once. When they arise, they arise always. Whenever a Lokuttara Citta arises, they will arise. When they arise, they arise all three at once, not like in Kamavacara Cittas where they arise one by one. That is the difference. When they arise with Lokuttara Cittas, they don’t have to abstain from false speech at one time or backbiting at one time. They eradicate the inclination to all these evil deeds and wrong livelihood. With Lokuttara Cittas they arise together and they arise always. But with Kamavacara Kusala Cittas they arise sometimes only and when they arise, they arise one at a time.

          The next group is Appamanna, limitless ones. Here there are two linitless ones - Karuna and Mudita. They arise with how many Cittas? Kamavacara Kusala eight, Kamavacara Kiriya eight, Rupavacara first Jhana three, second Jhana three, third Jhana three, and fourth Jhana three. So altogether there are 28 types of consciousness - eight plus eight plus twelve. Karuna arises with 28 types of consciousness and Mudita also arises with 28 types of consciousness. Here they arise with Kusala and they arise with Kiriya. And they also arise with first, second, third and fourth Jhanas. They do nost arise with fifth Jhana because when one reaches fifth Jhana, it is accompanied by Upekkha and not Somanassa. When you practise Karuna or Mudita there is Somanassa.

          There is a difference of opinion among teachers about these two. This is the common opinion of teachers that Karuna and Mudita arise with 28 types of consciousness. Look at the Kamavacara Kusala eight. Four are accompanied by Somanassa. Four are accompanied by Upekkha. They think that if you practise Karuna and Mudita they must always be accompanied by Somanassa. They cannot be accompanied by Upekkha. According to them you have to take out four.

          But the author of the manual did not like that opinion. So he said in the manual, “Some teachers say that Karuna and Mudita do not arise with Cittas accompanied by Upekkha.” He said that way. We must understand from his style of writing that he did not approve of that opinion of some teachers. Whenever the authors use “some” in Pali “Keci”, that means ‘I don’t like that’. It is not acceptable. It is not good. That is why it is very difficult to really understand when we read the Commentaries. They don’t say expressly, “I don’t like it.” I am above that, but they will put some signs here and there.  Whenever they use the word “Keci” (some), then we know the author doesn’t like it.  Here also the author of the manual used the word”Keci” (some)–some teachers said this and this.  That means he doesn’t like it. 

          Why did he not like it?  When you practise let us say Mudita, in the beginning it must be accompanied by Somanassa.  Only when there is Somanassa can Mudita arise.  You are happy with other people’s success.  You are happy with other people’s property, other people’s well-being.  There must be Somanassa.  So it is true at the very beginning of the practice of Karuna and Mudita that they must be accompanied by Somanassa.  But after you have experience in practising Karuna and Mudita sometimes you may practise them, you may develop them with Upekkha.  It can be developed that way. 

          They give two examples.  The first example is that you can recite a thoroughly learned passage without actually paying attention to it.  For example you may sing a song and be thinking of other things.  You can recite some prayer or some other thing and then you can say it.  That happens many times to us.  When you practise Vipassana meditation- Vipassana is Panna.  Logically Vipassana must always be accompanied by Nana, wisdom.  We can practise Vipassana with consciousness accompanied with Nana only?  Wrong.  We practise Vipassana with Nana Sampayutta Cittas.  But when we are very familiar with comprehending the characteristic of phenomena, sometimes we may be practising with Nana Vipayutta Cittas by force of habit.  In the same way when you have become very familiar with the practice of Karuna and Mudita sometimes you may develop them with Citta accompanied by Upekkha.  That takes place before you reach the stage of Jhana.  When you reach the stage of Jhana, when Jhana arises, it must definitely be accompanied by Somanassa, no Upekkha at that time.  Here it says, “Of course in the Jhana thought process they arise only with the Somanassa Sahagata cittas that there can be no Asevana (repetition) condition to those of different rationale.”  In order to understand this you must understand Patthana and also some thought processes.

          I think you are familiar with thought process.  I have talked about it many times.  There are seven Javana moments. When a person reaches Jhana, there is a Jhana thought process.  In that Jhana thought process there are four Kamavacara Javanas and then one Rupavacara Kusala or there may be millions of Rupavacara Kusala.  These Jhana moments enjoy this repetition condition.  That means the present one is reinforced by the preceding one.  It is something like the preceding one imparting some of its qualities to the succeeding one.  That can only be done to ones of the same genus, the same feeling.  If the four Kamavacara Javanas are accompanied by Upekkha, the Jhana cannot be accompanied by Somanassaa.  There can be no repetition condition between them.  It is said in the Patthana that they have this repetition condition.  So that is why in the Jhana thought process they must always be accompanied by Somanassa.  Before that Jhana thought process when you are developing your mind to reach that stage, you can develop Karuna and Mudita that are sometimes accompanied by Upekkha.  So since Karuna and Mudita can be accompanied by Upekkha feeling, the opinion of some teachers is said to be unacceptable.  That is why it is said, “some say”.  By saying “some say” he shows that he does not accept their opinion.  According to this let us say that Karuna and Mudita arise with 28 Cittas.

          What about Metta?  If it is Metta, it accompanies these 28 Cittass.  If it is Adosa, it accompanies all 59 beautiful consciousness.  There is difference between Adosa developed as Metta and just Adosa.  When it is developed as Metta, it accompanies 28 Cittas.  When it is just ordinary Adosa it accompanies 59 types of consciousness.  Tatramajjhattata is also something like that.  If it is Upekkha, it will not accompany first, second, third and fourth Jhana, but it will accompany fifth Jhana.  If it is ordinary neutrality of consciousness, it will accompany all 59.  Tatramajjhattata that is ordinary accompanies 59 Cittas.  Tatramajjhattata that is developed as Upekkha Brahma Vihara or Upekkha of sublime abode accompanies eight Kamavacara Kusala and Kiriya and fifth Rupavacara Jhana.  We must understand these differences- Adosa developed as Metta accompanies 28; ordinary Adosa accompanies 59; ordinary Tatramajjhattata accompanies 59; Tatramajjhattata when it is developed as Upekkha Brahma Vihara, it accompanies Kamavacara Kusala and Kiriya and then the fifth Jhana.

          The last one is Panna.  It will not accompany those Cittas that are not associated with knowledge or understanding.  It will accompany from Kamavacara Kusala 1,2,5 & 6.  From Kamavacara Vipaka it accompanies 1,2,5& 6.  And from Kamavacara Kiriya also it accompanies 1,2,5 & 6.  With regard to Rupavacara, Arupavacara and Lokuttara it accompanies all because they cannot arise without Panna or Nana.  Panna arise with altogether 47 types of conciousness- four from Kamavacara Kusala, four from Kamavacara Vipaka, four from Kamavacara Kiriya, all Mahaggata and Lokuttara Cittas.  So we get 47.  If we take it to be 121, then it is 79 types of consciousness.  Panna accompanies 47 or 79 types of consciousness.

          In the manual on page 112 there is an error.  Bhikkhu Bodhi sent us some corrections.  I will give them out to you.  Under the Cetasika wrong view, the boxes for greed-rooted Cittas# 7 and #8 should be clear.  Under the Cetasika Mana the box for greed-rooted #6 should be clear.  You have to white out three boxes – two boxes under wrong view and one box under conceit. Also on page 113 under wisdom you don’t see the number 79. It is put under the illimitables. It should not be there but under 47, like in this chart. They did not see this error.

          We have what are called fixed adjuncts and unfixed adjuncts. What are the unfixed adjucts? Where are they? On the page for Sampayoga method, bottom of that page, Aniyatayogi Cetasikas eleven. Niyata means fixed. So Aniyata means unfixed, not always. Issa, Macchariya and Kukkucca arise separately and occasionally. That means only one can arise at a time. When Issa arises then Macchariya cannot arise. Kukkucca cannot arise. If Macchariya arises, Issa and Kukkucca cannot arise and so on. As I said before Issa has one kind of object and Macchariya has another kind of object and Kukkucca has yet another kind of object. Since their objects are different, they cannot arise at the same time. When they arise, theyt arise one at a time. Also when they arise, they only arise occasionally. That means for example only when you are jealous of other’s success can Issa arise. Sometimes you are just angry. If you are just angry, they will not arise with that Citta. So they arise only when you are jealous of other’s success, when you cannot tolerate your property to be common to others and when you have remorse about things done and things not done in the past. They arise one by one and sometimes only.

          Next are the Virati three, the three abstinences. When they arise with mundane Cittas they arise separately. That means just one at a time.And they arise only when you refrain from wrong speech, wrong action or wrong livelihood.

          Appamanna also arise separately and occasionally. When there is Karuna there can be no Mudita. When there is Mudita there can be no Karuna. Karuna takes beings in distress. Mudita takes beings in happiness. Their objects are different, so they cannot arise at the same time.

          Then there is Mana, conceit. Although it is said that Mana arises with four Lobhamula Cittas, it will not arise with those Cittas every time they arise. We cannot say “separately” since it is only one. Mana arises occasionally, only when we have that kind of feeling I ambetter than other people or something like that. Mana just arises occasionally.

          Then there is Thina and Middha. They arise always together, but they arise occasionally. Sometimes they may not arise. They arise with prompted Cittas, but that is occasionally.

          Altogether there are eleven. These eleven are called unfixed adjucts, Aniyatayogi Cetasikas. The remaining 41 Cetasikas are called Niyatayogi Cetasikas. That means the 41 remaining Cetasikas arise whenever the consciousness assigned to them arises. For example Lobha will arise whenever one of the eight Lobhamula Cittas arises. It is not so for Issa, Macchariva and so on. They are called Aniyatayogi, unfixed adjuncts, and the others are Niyatayogi.

Sadhu! Sadhu! Sadhu!

Student: The Virati are fixed for supramundane and unfixed for mundane?
Sayadaw: Yes, right. For the supramundane they are fixed and always and they arise altogether.    

Tape# 13
Chapter 2
Sa~gaha Method and the
Mixture of Two Methods

Sa~gaha Method

[1]      Today we study the combination of Citta and Cetasikas, the Sa~gaha method.  Sa~gaha-method is the Citta-Cetasika combination.  First you have the Citta and then you find out how many Cetasikas are associated with that Citta.  If you are familiar with the Sampayoga method, Cetasika-Citta combination, then the Sa~gaha method is not difficult.  If you have this Chart with you, it is all the more easier.  For Sa~gaha method you read the Chart across.

In the Manual (i. e., in the Abhidhammattahsa~gaha) the Sa~gaha method is described beginning with the Supramundane Cittas.  Then it goes back to Mahaggata Cittas, KÈmÈvacara Cittas, Akusala Cittas and Ahetuka Cittas.  So the order described there is not the same as this Chart.  This Chart is easier to follow.

We will look at the Chart and find out how many Cetasikas are associated with a particular Citta.  First you make yourself familiar with the Cittas. I think you are already familiar with the Lobham|la Cittas.  Then the Cetasikas, SabbacittasÈdhÈraÓa (the Universals), and then Vitakka, VicÈra and so on you must be familiar with.

Let us find out how many Cetasikas go with the first Lobham|la Citta.  The first Lobham|la Citta is accompanied by what feeling?  Somanassa feeling.  It is associated with what view?  Wrong view.  The first Citta is prompted or unprompted?  Unprompted.  Let us look at the Cetasikas.  Seven Universals will be with every Citta.  We don't have to worry about them.  And then Vitakka, VicÈra, Adhimokkha, VÊriya, PÊti and Chanda are present.  So all 13 AÒÒasamÈna Cetasikas are associated with the first Lobham|la Citta.  Among the 14 Akusala Cetasikas, the first four–Moha, Ahirika, Anottappa and Uddhacca–are what?  They are Akusala Universals.  So they will arise with every type of Akusala Citta.  So we take those four.  And then what comes next?  Lobha.  Since [2] it is Lobham|la Citta, it must be accompanied by Lobha.  Then what about DiÔÔhi?  Since it is accompanied by wrong view, we get DiÔÔhi.  And then is there MÈna?  No. Why? MÈna and DiÔÔhi cannot arise at the same time together.  Why?  Give me a simile?  MÈna and DiÔÔhi cannot coexist.  Why?  Because they are like two lions of the same strength which cannot live in the same cave.  We do not get MÈna.  What about Dosa, IssÈ, Macchariya and Kukkucca?  They arise with two Dosam|la Cittas only.  Next is Thina and Middha.  They will not accompany those that are unprompted.  And VicikicchÈ, doubt?  No. VicikicchÈ only accompanies one type of consciousness out of the 89 or 121.  So we do not get VicikicchÈ.  Then do we worry about Sobhana Cetasikas?  No, because these are Akusala Cittas.  We don't have to look at the 25 Beautiful Cetasikas.  We only have to look at the first 13 and the second 14, so altogether 27.  Out of the 27 we have to find out which accompany and which do not accompany the first Lobham|la Citta.  With the first Lobham|la Citta there are how many Cetasikas? 19 Cetasikas.  If we get the 19, then the others will become easy.  You may add one or substract something, just that.

The second Citta is accompanied by what feeling?  Somanassa feeling.  It is associated with wrong view.  Is it prompted or unprompted?  Prompted.  If it is prompted, it may be accompanied by Thina and Middha.  So there are 19 plus two (Thina and Middha).  We get 21.  The second Lobham|la Citta is accompanied by 21 Cetasikas–13 AÒÒasamÈnas, Moha, Ahirika, Anottappa, Uddhacca, Lobha, DiÔÔhi and then Thina and Middha.  It's easy.  When you have this Chart it is very easy, but if you lose it, it may be very difficult.

What is the third Citta?  What feeling?  Somanassa feeling.  With or without wrong view?  Without wrong view.  So you will not get DiÔÔhi here.  If you do not get DiÔÔhi, who will come in?  MÈna will come in. [3] So we still get 19–13 AÒÒasamÈnas, Moha, Abirika, Anottappa, Uddhacca, Lobha, no DiÔÔhi, but MÈna.  So that's all, 19.

Then the fourth is prompted or unprompted?  Prompted.  So with the fourth we add Thina and Middha.  So we get 21 again.  So far we have 19, 21, 19, 21.

Now we come to the fifth Citta.  The fifth Citta is accompanied by what feeling?  UpekkhÈ feeling.  Since it is accompanied by UpekkhÈ feeling, can we get PÊti?  No. So we take PÊti out.  So from among the 13 AÒÒasamÈnas we will get only twelve.  The others are the same.  So Moha, Ahirika, Anottappa, Uddhacca, Lobha, DiÔÔhi will arise.  So we get 18.  That means 19 minus PÊti (one).

The sixth Citta is prompted or unprompted?  Prompted.  So add two, Thina and Middha.  So you will get twenty.

Then the seventh one is with UpekkhÈ feeling.  It is without DiÔÔhi.  Is it prompted or unprompted?  Unprompted.  So from among 13 we get twelve because there is no PÊti.  There is Moha, Ahirika, Anottappa, Uddhacca, Lobha, no DiÔÔhi but MÈna.  So there are 18.

Then number eight or the last of the Lobham|la Cittas is accompanied by UpekkhÈ feeling and not accompanied by DiÔÔhi.  It is prompted.  It is twelve plus four plus one and then MÈna and Thina and Middha.  So we get twenty.  It is very easy now.  If you want to memorize 19, 21, 19, 21, 18, 20, 18, 20.  Good.

The next two are Dosam|la.  So they have Dosa as m|la.  Since they have Dosa as m|la, they will not have Lobha.  They will not have DiÔÔhi or Mèna either.  But they will have Dosa, IssÈ, Macchariya and Kukkucca.  Will they have PÊti?  No. So from thirteen we get twelve.  Then there is Moha, Ahirika, Anottappa, Uddhacca because they accompany every type of Akusala consciousness.  Then there is no Lobha, no DiÔÔhi, no MÈna.  But we have Dosa, IssÈ Macchariya and Kukkucca.  Altogether [4] there are twelve plus eight, so twenty because this is unprompted.

The next one is prompted.  So we add two and get 22.  Very smooth today.

The first Moham|la Citta is accompanied by UpekkhÈ.  And what else?  Doubt (VicikicchÈ).  Doubt and resolution are opposites.  They cannot coexist.  So we have to leave out Adhimokkha (decision or resolution).  Doubt is wavering.  They are not compatible with each other.  So we take out Adhimokkha, and also PÊti and Chanda (desire to do).  Chanda is something like active.  Moham|la Cittas are very deluded Cittas and so they are not strong.  So it is said that Chanda does not accompany two Moham|la Cittas and all Ahetuka Cittas.  For the first Moham|la Citta we get only ten from the thirteen AÒÒasamÈnas.  We take out Adhimokkha, PÊti and Chanda.  Then there arise the four Akusala Universals. Lobha, DiÔÔhi, MÈna, Dosa, IssÈ, Macchariya, Kukkucca, Thina and Middha do not arise.  But there is VicikicchÈ.  So we have altogether–ten plus four plus one–15.  The first Moham|la Citta is accompanied by 15 Cetasikas.

The next one, the last of the Akusala Cittas, is accompanied by what feeling?  UpekkhÈ feeling.  Is it accompanied by doubt?  No. It is accompanied by restlessness (Uddhacca).  Here there is Adhimokkha, but there is no PÊti and no Chanda.  From the thirteen we get eleven plus Akusala Universal four.  We get only 15.  Both Moham|ula Cittas have 15 Cetasikas each.  They are not the same however.  With the first Moham|la Citta there is no Adhimokkha but there is VicikicchÈ.  With the second Moham|la Citta there is Adhimokkha but no VicikicchÈ.  So both the first and second Moham|la Cittas are accompanied by 15 Cetasikas.

With regard to Akusala Cittas we have to look at only two groups AÒÒasamÈna and Akusala.  We only have to look at 27 Cetasikas.  We do [5] not have to worry about the other 25.

Now we come to Rootless Consciousness.  How many rootless Cittas are there? 18.  How are they divided?  I am refreshing your memory.  There are three groups.  The first group is Akusala VipÈka.  The second is Kusala VipÈka, resultants of Kusala.  The third group is Ahetuka Kiriya.  The first two groups are VipÈka and the last is Kiriya.

What are DvipaÒcaviÒÒÈÓa Cittas?  In the chart you see DvipaÒcaviÒÒÈÓa. What are they?  Ten Cittas connected with senses–seeing, hearing, smelling, tasting and touching.  Each has two, so there are ten.  ‘Dvi’ means two.  ‘PaÒca’ means five.  So it is two five consciousnesses.  Please remember the chart with circles also.

Seeing consciousness whether it is the result of Kusala or Akusala is accompanied by how many Cetasikas?  Only seven, the Universals.  They are not accompanied by any other Cetasikas.

The same is true for hearing consciousness, smelling consciousness, tasting consciousness and touching consciousness.  With all these ten Cittas there are only seven Cetasikas for each one.  So eye-consciousness has seven Cetasikas.  Ear-consciousness has seven Cetasikas, and so on.

The next one is SampaÔicchana.  There are two, one from Akusala VipÈka and one from Kusala VipÈka.  What feeling do they have?  UpekkhÈ.  SampaÔicchana two are accompanied by ten Cetasikas–seven plus Vitakka, VicÈra and Adhimokkha. PÊti, Viriya and Chanda do not arise with them.  Viriya is strong and active.  Ahetuka Cittas are not strong enough.  They are rootless.  They are like a tree without roots, so they are not strong.  Since they are accompanied by UpekkhÈ feeling, there can be no PÊti.  Since they are weak, Chanda does not accompany them.  With two SampaÔicchana Cittas there are only ten Cetasikas–seven Universals, Vitakka, VicÈra and Adhimokkha.

[6] Next come the SanÔÊraÓas.  There are three SantÊraÓa Cittas.  One is accompanied by Somanassa and two are accompanied by UpekkhÈ.  Now the two accompanied by UpekkhÈ are accompanied by how many Cetasikas?  The same ten–the seven Universals, Vitakka, VicÈra and Adhimokkha.  But with Somanassa SantÊraÓa there are how many Cetasikas?  What do you have?  Since there is Somanassa, there will be PÊti.  So we add PÊti and we get eleven Cetasikas.

Next is PaÒcadvÈrÈvajjana, Five-sense-door-adverting.  It is accompanied by what feeling?  UpekkhÈ.  PaÒcadvÈrÈvajjana has only ten Cetasikas–Universal seven, Vitakka, VicÈra and Adhimokkha.

The next one is ManodvÈrÈvajjana, Mind-door-adverting.  With Mind-door-adverting there are eleven Cetasikas.  Viriya accompanies ManodvÈrÈvajjana.  ManodvÈrÈvajjana has two functions.  We have not come to the functions yet.  It will be explained in the third chapter.  ManodvÈrÈvajjana has two functions.  When it arises in five sense doors, it functions as VoÔÔhabbana, determining consciousness.  You may not know it yet because it involves the thought process, but I think you are familiar with at least one thought process.  It has two functions.  When it arises through five sense doors, it is called determining.  When it arises through mind door, it is called ManodvÈrÈvajjana and it has the function of turning toward the object.  It has the function of adverting.  ManodvÈrÈvajjana is accompanied by Viriya.  Those that arise in ManodvÈra are stronger than those that arise in PaÒcadvÈra.

The last one is HasituppÈda, Smile-producing consciousness.  You are going to smile, so there will be Piti.  So there are seven Universals, Vitakka, VicÈra, Adhimokkha, VÊriya and PÊti.  Only Chanda is missing there.  Altogether there are twelve Cetasikas that arise with HasituppÈda, Smile-producing consciousness.  This Smile-producing consciousness [7] arises in the minds of Buddhas, Pacceka Buddhas and Arahants only.

The Ahetuka Cittas have the least number of Cetasikas arising with them compared with Akusala Cittas or KÈmÈvacara Sobhana Cittas and so on.  With regard to Ahetuka Cittas we have to look only at, the AÒÒasamÈna group of Cetasikas.  We don't have to worry about Akusala Cetasikas and Sobhana Cetasikas.  We look only at thirteen Cetasikas and see which ones accompany which Abetuka Cittas.  They are not difficult.  Everything is not difficult today.

Next we come to KÈmÈvacara Sobhana Cittas.  How many of them are there? 24–Kusala eight, VipÈka eight and Kiriya eight.  Here the first and the second are put together, and then third and the fourth, the fifth and the sixth, the seventh  and the eighth.  If you want to stretch it out you can say KÈmÈvacara one, KÈmÈvacara two, KÈmÈvacara three and so on.  I put them together here so the chart will not run out of the sheet.

So the first and second KÈmÈvacara Kusala, the first KÈmÈvacara Kusala is accompanied by what feeling?  Somanassa feeling.  And it is associated with knowledge, PaÒÒÈ Because it is Somanassa-sahagata ©ÈÓa-sampayutta.  Is it prompted or unprompted?  Unprompted.

The second Citta is also accompanied by Somanassa.  Is is with ©ÈÓa or without ©ÈÓa?  With ©ÈÓa.  That is why they are joined together here.  These two Cittas, how many Cetasikas arise together with them?  38 Cetasikas.  Which are the 38?  Thirteen AÒÒasamÈnas (Common to Others) and all 25 Sobhana Cetasikas arise with KÈmÈvacara Kusala first and second Cittas.  They are accompanied by ©ÈÓa, so PaÒÒindriya is also with them.

We say the first and the second KÈmÈvacara Kusala Cittas are accompanied by 38 Cetasikas.  But can all 38 Cetasikas arise at the same time?  No. Why?  What about Viratis?  What about AppamaÒÒÈs?  These are unfixed adjuncts.  That means, they arise only when there is occasion for them.

[8]      When there is occasion for refraining from wrong doing, the Viratis will arise.  So the three Viratis may or may not arise with these two Cittas.  Here we count all that can arise with these Cittas.  At one time, at a given time these Cittas cannot be accompanied by all 38 Cetasikas.  The three Viratiss may not arise with these at all.  When you are paying homage to the Buddha they will not arise in your mind.  Only when you refrain from killing, only when you refrain from telling a lie, only when you refrain from wrong livelihood do they arise.  And when they arise, they arise only one at a time.  When there is Right Speech, there are no Right Action and Right Livelihood.  Even when they arise, they can only arise one at a time in the KÈmÈvacara Cittas.

The next two AppamaÒÒÈs, KaruÓÈ and MuditÈ, may or may not arise with these two Cittas.  KaruÓÈ and MuditÈ only arise when you practise KaruÓÈ, only when you practise MuditÈ.  When you are studying like this, when you are paying homage to the Buddha, there is no KaruÓÈ or MuditÈ.  They may or may not arise with the KÈmÈvacara Kusala Cittas.  Even when KaruÓÈ and MuditÈ arise, can they arise together?  No. When KaruÓÈ arises, MuditiÈ cannot arise.  When MuditÈ arises, then KaruÓÈ cannot arise.  Why?  Because they have different objects.  KaruÓÈ takes beings in suffering, beings in distress as object.  MuditÈ takes beings in success, beings in happiness as object.  Their objects are different.  When the objects are different, they cannot arise together at the same time.  So even though they may arise, they will only arise one at a time.  So can you tell me how many Cetasikas always arise with KÈmÈvacara Kusala Cittas one and two? 38 minus five, only 33 Cetasikas arise.  That is 38 minus three Viratis and two AppamaÒÒÈs, so 33 Cetasikas always arise with KÈmÈvacara Kusala Cittas one and two.

[9] Student:    What about prompted and unprompted?
Sayadaw:       Because there is no Thina and Middha to bother about.

Whether it is prompted or unprompted the number of the Cetasikas is the same.  Only 33 Cetasikas arise always with these two Cittas.

At one time how many Cetasikas at most can arise? 34.  That means one of those five may arise. When there is Right Speech, there is only Right Speech, no Right Action, no Right Livelihood, no KaruÓÈ (Compassion), and no MuditÈ (Sympathetic Joy).  Among these five only one may arise at a time.  At most there can only be 34 Cetasikas with these two Cittas.  Always there are 33 Cetasikas with them.  If you add all the Cetasikas that may arise, you get 38.  We must understand this.

The rest is easy.  The third and the fourth KÈmÈvacara Kusala Cittas are not accompanied by PaÒÒÈ.  They are ©ÈÓa-vippayutta.  If they are ©ÈÓa-vippayutta we have to subtract or leave out PaÒÒindriya, the last one.  So there are only 37 Cetasikas arising with them.  Here also the three Viratis and two AppamaÒÒÈs arise sometimes only and when they arise, they arise one at a time.

Then the fifth and the sixth KÈmÈvacara Kusala Cittas have what feeling?  UpekkhÈ feeling.  Since they are accompanied by UpekkhÈ feeling, there is no PÊti. 38 minus PÊti, again we get 37.  Number three and four arise with 37 Cetasikas, and number five and six also arise with 37 Cetasikas.  Although the number is the same 37, the individual Cetasikas are different.  The difference is what?  PÊti without ©ÈÓa and ©ÈÓa without PÊti.

Then the seventh and the eightth are accompanied by UpekkhÈ.  So there is no PÊti.  Are they accompanied by ©ÈÓa?  No. we have to take both out.  So without PÊti and ©ÈÓa you get only 36.  KÈmÈvacara Kusala seven and eight are accompanied by 36 Cetasikas.  It is 38 minus PÊti and ©ÈÓa or PaÒÒindriya.

[10]    KÈmÈvacara VipÈka are again divided up as one and two, three and four, five and six, seven and eight. One and two are accompanied by ©ÈÓa.  Three and four are without ©ÈÓa.  Five and six are with ©ÈÓa, but without PÊti.  Seven and eight are without ©ÈÓa and PÊti.  For KÈmÈvacara first and second Cittas there are the thirteen AÒÒasamÈna Cetasikas, 19 Sobhana SÈdhÈraÓas, but no Viratis, no AppamaÒÒÈsa.  Why?  It is said that if Viratiss are mundane, they have the nature of Kusala.  When do they arise?  Only when you refrain from wrong doing, only when you refrain from killing, when you refrain from telling a lie, when you refrain from wrong livelihood do they arise.  When you refrain from killing, you get Kusala, not VipÈka.  The Viratis, when they arise with Mundane Cittas, have the nature of Kusala.  That is why they do not arise with VipÈka Cittas.

What about the AppamaÒÒÈs, KaruÓÈ and MuditÈ?  Do they arise?  No. Why?  It is said that KÈmÈvacara VipÈka Cittas take KÈmÈvacara objects only.  When we come to the third chapter, the section on objects, we will understand that.  The KÈmÈvacara VipÈka Cittas only take objects that are called KÈmÈvacara.  That means 54 KÈmÈvacara Cittas, 52 Cetasikas and 28 R|pas.  They take those things only as objects.  KÈmÈvacara Kusala can take many more objects.  KÈmÈvacara VipÈka can only take those that are called KÈmÈvacara objects.  Since they take only KÈmÈvacara objects, KaruÓÈ and MuditÈ cannot arise with them.  What object does KaruÓÈ take?  What does Compassion take as an object?  Here beings means concept of beings, PaÒÒatti, not ultimate reality. KaruÓÈ and MuditÈ take PaÒÒatti or concept as object.  KÈmÈvacara Vipitka Cittas take KÈmÈvacara objects which are ultimate reality as object.  Their objects are different. We divide objects into KÈmÈvacara objects, R|pÈvacara objects, Ar|pÈvacara objects.  KÈmÈvacara VipÈka Cittas only take [11] KÈmÈvacara objects. KÈmÈvacara objects means 54 Cittas, 52 Cetasikas and 28 R|pas.  KaruÓÈ and MuditÈ take the concept of beings.  When you take beings as object, those beings are not ultimate reality.  What is real in that being is NÈma and R|ipa or the five aggregates.  When we take a being as an object, or a man, or a woman as an object, we are taking the concept as an object and not the reality.  So KaruÓÈ and MuditÈ take concept as object, but KÈmÈvacara VipÈka Cittas take KÈmÈvacara objects.  So their objects are different.  That is why KaruÓÈ and MuditÈ cannot arise with KÈmÈvacara VipÈka Cittas.  So both the Viratis and the AppamaÒÒÈ Cetasikas cannot arise with the KÈmÈvacara VipÈka Cittas.  We have only how many Cetasikas going along with the first and the second KÈmÈvacara VipÈka Cittas?  Only 33–thirteen AÒÒasamÈna Cetasikas, 19 Sobhana SÈdhÈraÓa Cetasikas and the last one, PaÒÒÈ or PaÒÒindriya.

Number three and number four, you know what to substract.  There is no PaÒÒÈ.  So there are 32 Cetasikas.

Number five and number six are without PÊti, but with PaÒÒÈ.  So again there are 32 Cetasikas.

Then number seven and number eight are without PÊti and without PaÒÒÈ also.  So there are 31 Cetasikas that accompany them.  So there are 33, 33, 32, 32, 32, 32, 31, 31.

Next are KÈmÈvacara Kiriya.  Again they are listed as one and two, three and four, five and six, seven and eight.  With KÈmÈvacara Kiriya only the Viratis do not arise.  KaruÓÈ and MuditÈ can arise with them.  Arahants can practise KaruÓÈ and MuditÈ, not only can practise but they do practise KaruÓÈ and MuditÈ.  So KaruÓÈ and MuditÈ arise with KÈmÈvacara Kiriya Cittas.  The objects of KÈmÈvacara Kiriya Cittas are not limited to KÈmÈvacara objects only as it is with KÈmÈvacara VipÈka Cittas.

 [12]   The first and second KÈmÈvacara Kiriya Cittas are accompanied by how many Cetasikas? 35 Cetasikas.  Only the three Viratis are missing.  For the same reason they do not arise with KÈmÈvacara Kiriya.  They have the nature of Kusala.  Is there an occasion for an Arahant to refrain from killing?  No. They have cut off the inclinations toward wrong doing altogether.  So they don't have to refrain from doing like other persons do.  Viratis do not arise with KÈmÈvacara Kiriya Cittas.  Viratis do not have the nature of Kiriya.  They have the nature of Kusala.  They do not arise with KÈmÈvacara Kiriya Cittas.  So 35 Cetasikas arise with first and second KÈmÈvacara Kiriya Cittas. 13 plus 19, and then two AppamaÒÒÈ and PaÒÒindriya.  The first and the second KÈmÈvacara Kiriya Cittas are accompanied by 35 Cetasikas–38 minus three.


The third and the fourth are accompanied by 34 Cetasikas.  We subtract PaÒÒÈ.

The fifth and the sixth Cittas are minus PÊti but with PaÒÒÈ.  So again the number is 34.

The seventh and the eighth Cittas are without both PÊti and PaÒÒÈ.  So we get 33.

Next are R|pÈvacara Cittas.  Here we go by JhÈnas and not by Kusala, VipÈka and Kiriya.  If we want to go by Kusala, VipÈka and Kiriya we can do so.  Please remember the dots, so you see three columns with five dots in each column.  The first column is Kusala.  The second column is VipÈka.  The third column is Kiriya.  The first of the first column is First JhÈna.  And then there is second JhÈna, third JhÈna, fourth JhÈna and fifth JhÈna.  Also there is first JhÈna VipÈka and first JhÈna Kiriya.  There are three first JhÈna Cittas–one Kusala, one VipÈka and one Kiriya.  Similarly there are three second JhÈna Cittas, three third JhÈna Cittas, three fourth JhÈna Cittas and three fifth JhÈna Cittas.

[13]    R|pÈvacara first JhÈna Cittas are accompanied by how many Cetasikas? 35. Which are the 35? 13 AÒÒasamÈna Cetasikas, 19 Sobbana SÈdhÈraÓa Cetasikas, but, no Viratis.  Again why?  Because their objects are different.  What is the object of first JhÈna?  You have not come to the section on objects.  So you do not know yet.  JhÈnas take concept as object.  For example, a person practises meditation with a KasiÓa object.  He memorizes the KasiÓa and when he has memorized it, he can see it clearly in his mind.  It becomes a concept.  That concept becomes the object of the first JhÈna.  First JhÈna takes KasiÓa sign or concept of KasiÓa as object.  There are other objects too.  They are all PaÒÒattis.  Viratis take what?  Something to transgress.  For example, killing, lying or having a wrong livelihood. So they take a different object than the JhÈnas. JhÈnas take concept as object. Viratis take something to be transgressed, something to be broken as object.  Since their objects are different, they cannot arise together.  So there are no Viratis with JhÈna Cittas.  Just by getting concentration, you get JhÈnas. You don't have to deliberately refrain from killing, lying and wrong livelihood. You don't need Viratis to attain JhÈna.  So the Viratis do not arise with JhÈnas.

KaruÓÈ and MuditÈ arise with JhÈna Cittas.  You can get first JhÈna practicing KaruÓÈ, practicing MuditÈ.  You can get second, third and fourth JhÈnas by practising KaruÓÈ and MuditÈ.  Both AppamaÒÒÈs arise with JhÈna Cittas, but the Viratis do not arise with JhÈna Cittas.  So 13 plus 19 plus two plus one.  PaÒÒÈ always accompanies all these Cittas–JhÈna Cittas and Lokuttara Cittas.  So there are 35 Cetasikas arising with first R|pavacara JhÈna. With R|pÈvacara second JhÈna how many Cetasikas are there? 34 Cetasikas, one less.  Which one is that?  Vitakka because that person doesn't want Vitakka.  So he practises meditation and eliminates [14] Vitakka.  As a result his JhÈna is without Vitakka.  So second JhÈna has 34 Cetasikas.

Then the third JhÈna has eliminated both Vitakka and VicÈra.  So third JhÈna has 33 Cetasikas.

The fourth JhÈna eliminates Vitakka, VicÈra and PÊti.  It is strange here.  Fourth JhÈna is accompanied by Somanassa, but there is no PÊti here.  That is because the person who has attained the third JhÈna wants to get the fourth JhÈna.  In order to get the fourth JhÈna he must find fault with PÊti.  He thinks that PÊti is shaking.  He thinks that PÊti is not as peaceful as Sukha and UpekkhÈ.  So he tries to eliminate PÊti.  As a result of his meditation, the fourth JhÈna arises without PÊti, but it is accompanied by Somanassa.  Although the fourth JhÈna is accompanied by Somanassa, there is no PÊti with it.  Here PÊti is eliminated by force of meditation, by force of practice, not by its own nature.  That is why PÊti cannot arise with the fourth JhÈna.  How many Cetasikas arise? 32 only.

Then the three fifth JhÈna Cittas arise with how many Cetasikas? 30. KaruÓÈ and MuditÈ are gone here.  The fifth JhÈna is accompanied by UpekkhÈ.  KaruÓÈ and MuditÈ are accompanied by Somanassa, so they cannot arise with the fifth JhÈna.  So you subtract two from 32 and you get 30 Cetasikas.

There are four sublime states or Brahma VihÈras.  When you practise MettÈ, what JhÈnas can you get?  First, second, third and fourth JhÈnas.  When you practise KaruÓÈ how many JhÈnas?  The same–first, second, third and fourth.  MuditÈ?  Four JhÈnas.  UpekkÈ?  Fifth JhÈna.  The fifth JhÈna is accompanied by UpekkhÈ.  So there is no PÊti and also no KaruÓÈ and no MuditÈ.  So it is accompanied by only 30 Cetasikas.

The fifth JhÈna is accompanied by UpekkhÈ.  That UpekkhÈ is feeling UpekkhÈ.  UpekkhÈ among the Brahma VihÈras is TatramajjhattatÈ.  The [15] fifth JhÈna is accompanied by UpekkhÈ feeling and there is also TatramajjhattatÈ.  That TatramajjhattatÈ is so developed that it becomes a Brahma VihÈra.

Ar|pÈvacara Cittas, all twelve are put together here.  If you want to go one by one, you can.  How many Ar|pÈvacara Cittas are there?  Twelve–four Kusala, four VipÈka and four Kiriya.  Can you tell me the names of each one ? In English?  Infinite space, first Ar|pÈvacara consciousness, nothingness, neither-perception-nor-non-perception.  All twelve Ar|pÈvacara Cittas are reckoned as fifth JhÈna.  Why?  You will hear too many whys today.  So why?  They are included in fifth JhÈna because they only have two JhÈna factors.  We will see it right now.  What are the two JhÈna factors?  UpekkhÈ and EkaggatÈ.  We will find UpekkhÈ and EkaggatÈ in the Cetasikas.  All Ar|pÈvacara Cittas are accompanied by thirty Cetasikas.  They are all accompanied by UpekkhÈ feeling.  Also they are accompanied by the JhÈna factor EkaggatÈ.  Where do you find UpekkhÈ and EkaggatÈ in this chart?  EkaggatÈ is among the SabbacittasÈdhÈraÓa Cetasikas, the first seven.  Where is UpekkhÈ, feeling UpekkhÈ?  It is also among the SabbacittasÈdhÈraÓa Cetasikas.  You find both of them among the first seven Cetasikas.  These two JhÈna factors are among the SabbacittasÈdhÈraÓa, seven Universal Cetasikas.  They are like fifth R|pÈvacara JhÈna, so they are accompanied by thirty Cetasikas.  Those thirty are the AÒÒasamÈna minus Vitakka, VicÈra and PÊti, and then 19, no Viratis, no AppamaÒÒÈs, but PaÒÒÈ.  So we get thirty Cetasikas.

Next group is SotÈpatti Magga, SakadÈgÈmi Magga, AnÈgÈmi Magga, Arahatta Magga and then in brackets first, second, third, fourth and fifth JhÈnas.  I’ve told you how to read this portion.  So there is SotÈpatti Magga first JhÈna, SotÈpatti Magga second JhÈna, SotÈpatti Magga third JhÈna, SotÈpatti Magga fourth JhÈna and SotÈpatti [16] Magga fifth JhÈna.  Then there are SakadÈgÈmi first JhÈna through fifth JhÈna.  There are AnÈgÈmi first JhÈna through fifth JhÈna.  And finally there are Arahatta Magga first JhÈna through fifth JhÈna.  There is only one SotÈpatti Magga first JhÈna Citta.  How many Cetasikas go with it? 36 Cetasikas.  All 13 AÒÒasamÈna, 19 Sobhana SÈdhÈraÓas, three Viratis.  Do you remember when Viratis arise with Lokuttara how they arise?  They arise together and they arise always.  Whenever a Lokuttara Citta arises, they arise.  So they arise together and they arise always.  It is very strange.  When they arise with KÈmÈvacara Cittas they arise one by one.  But when they arise with Lokuttara Cittas they arise altogether because the attainment of enlightenment or Magga eradicates all inclinations towards these wrong doings once and for all.  So there is no occasion to eradicate them one by one.  That is why these three arise together with Lokuttara Cittas.  When Magga Citta actually arises a person is not refraining from any of the wrong doings.  But at that moment all inclination, all liability towards these evils is destroyed.  Since all inclination towards these evils is destroyed, they arise together.  With Lokuttara Cittas there will always be three Viratis.  SotÈpatti Magga first JhÈna has 36 Cetasikas.  Those are thirteen AÒÒasamÈna, MÈna, nineteen Sobhana SÈdhÈraÓas, three Viratis, no AppamaÒÒÈ and one PaÒÒÈ, so 36.

First JhÈna R|pÈvacara has 35 Cetasikas.  First JhÈna Magga Citta has 36 Cetasikas.  The difference is Viratis and AppamÒÒÈ.  With JhÈna there are AppamaÒÒÈs, but no Viratis.  With Lokuttara there are Viratis but no AppamaÒÒÈs.  Vitati are three and AppamaÒÒÈs are two, so there is a difference of one.  So first JhÈna Sotapatti Magga has 36 Cetasikas.

Second JhÈna SotÈpatti Magga is easy.  You take out Vitakka. [17] Third JhÈna you take out Vitakka and VicÈra.  Fourth JhÈna you take out Vitakka, VicÈra and PÊti.  Fifth JhÈna is the same.  You take out Vitakka VicÈra and PÊti.  Since Viratis arise with all Lokuttara Cittas, there is no difference between fourth and fifth JhÈna Cittas.  There is 33 Cetasikas for both fourth and fifth JhÈna Cittas.  So we get 36, 35, 34, 33 and 33.

The same is true for SakadÈgÈmi Magga.  There are five JhÈnas for SakadÈgÈmi Magga also.  The Cetasikas are the same–36, 35, 34, 33 and 33.  The same is true for AnÈgÈmi Magga first, secomd, third, fourth and fifth.  Also the same is true for Arahatta Magga first, second, third, fourth and fifth.

Then we go to Phala Cittas, Fruition Consciousnesses.  There also we have SotÈpatti Phala first JhÈna, second JhÈna, third JhÈna, fourth JhÈna and fifth JhÈna.  And then there are SakadÈgÈmi first JhÈna, second JhÈna, third JhÈna, fourth JhÈna and fifth JhÈna.  Then we have AnÈgÈmi first, second, third, fourth and fifth JhÈna.  And finally there are Arahatta first, second, third, fourth and fifth JhÈna.

With first JhÈna SotÈpatti Phala, how many Cetasikas are there? 36–13 AÒÒasamÈna, 19 Sobhana SÈdhÈraÓas, three Viratis and one PaÒÒÈ.  For second JhÈna Citta take out Vitakka.  For third JhÈna Citta take out Vitakka and VicÈra.  For fourth JhÈna Citta take out Vitakka, VicÈa and PÊti.  And the fifth JhÈna is the same.  So here the numbers are the same–36, 35, 34, 33 and 33.

We have come to the end of the Sa~gaha method.  It may be difficult to memorize but if you have the chart it is easy.  If you want to memorize, you may do so.  Please read the Manual also.

Mixture of Two Methods

There is one more method.  Do you have the sheet, the mixture of [18] two methods?  This method is not mentioned in the Manual.  So it is not taught in it.  This is the mixture of Sampayoga and Sa~gaha methods.  Here it is like touching your finger with your finger, it is said.  It is very difficult because it is a mixture of both Sampayoga and Sa~gaha methods.  In other words, we find out how many Cetasikas arise with a certain Cetasika, not Cetasikas with Citta, not Citta with Cetasikas, but Cetasika with Cetasikas.  In order to find that out, we have to mix both methods.  We have to find out first how many Cittas go along with that Cetasika and how many Cetasikas go along with those Cittas.  So there are two steps.  If you are not very familiar with the first two methods this will be very difficult.

But let us try a little.  How many Cetasikas go with Phassa.  Phassa is a Cetasika and we want to know how many Cetasikas can arise with Phassa.  In order to know this we must know how many Cittas Phassa accompanies.  You know that Phassa accompanies all 89 Cittas.  How many Cetasikas arise with 89 Cittas?  All 52.  So we get 52.  But Phassa cannot arise with Phassa, so you take Phassa out.  The Cetasikas left are 51.  So we say Phassa Cetasika can arise with 51 Cetasikas.  This is the mixture of two methods.  It is not so difficult as it seemed before.  Look at the sheet.  Phassa arises with 89 Cittas.  That is Sampayoga method.  The 89 Cittas arise with 52 Cetasikas.  That is Sa~gaha method.  Phassa arises with 51 Cetasikas, that is 52 minus itself.

If you know Phassa, you also know VedanÈ.  How many Cetasikas arise with VedanÈ? 51–52 minus VedanÈ.  With all of the seven Universals there is the same answer.

Let's go a little further.  Vitakka arises with how many Cittas? 55 Cittas.  How many Cetasikas arise with those 55 Cittas?  You can [19] imagine that among the 55 Cittas there are Akusala Cittas, there are Kusala Cittas, there are JhÈna Cittas and there are Lokuttara Cittas.  So just by guessing you can say there are all 52 Cetasikas.  And that is right.  Then you take out Vitakka because Vitakka cannot arise with Vitakka.  So Vitakka arises with 51 Cetasikas.  The same is true for VicÈra.  VicÈra arises with 51 Cetasikas.

Now we come to Adhimokkha.  Adhimokkha arises with 50 Cetasikas, not 51.  Adhimokkha and VicikicchÈ are incompatible.  So Adhimokkha arises with only 50 Cetasikas.  You can also find out by the Sampayoga method and Sa~gaha method.  Adhimokkha does not arise with the first Moham|la Citta, VicikicchÈ Sampayutta Citta.

Then VÊriya is similar to Phassa.  It arises with 51 Cetasikas.  VÊriya does not arise with DvipaÒcaviÒÒÈÓa, SampaÔicchanas, SantÊraÓas and PaÒcadvÈravajjana.  It arises with Akusala Cittas, Kusala Cittas, JhÈna Cittas and other Cittas.  All 52 Cetasikas arise with those Cittas.  So VÊriya arises with 51 Cetasikas.

PÊti, can PÊti arise with Domanassa?  No. Dosa, IssÈ, Macchariya and Kukkucca arise with Dosam|lla Cittas only.  They can never arise with PÊti.  And then VicikicchÈ arises with first Moham|la Citta only and that Citta is accompanied by UpekkhÈ.  So 52 minus six, we get 46 Cetasikas.
Now the last one, Chanda does not arise with VicikicchÈ-sampayutta, the first Moham|la Citta.  It also does not arise with Ahetuka Cittas.  But it does arise with Alusala and Kusala Cittas.  So it arises with almost all the Cetasikas except Chanda.  So it arises with 50 Cetasikas.  That means 52 minus VicikicchÈ and Chanda itself.

This is the way you find out how many Cetasikas can arise with a particular Cetasika.  It is called the mixture of two methods.  This method was introduced by a very learned Burmese teacher who was known as MahÈvisuddhÈrama SayÈdaw.  He [20] wrote a book on the Abhidhammatthasa~gaha and introduced this method.  It is very good for those who want to familiarize themselves thoroughly with the Citta and Cetasika combinations.  The first two methods are good.  If you can become familiar with the mixture of two methods, then you become thoroughly familiar with Citta and Cetasika combinations.

We have come to the end of the second chapter today.  These Cetasikas are very interesting.  In the manual the characteristic, function, mode of manifestation and proximate cause of each Cetasika are given.  They are very interesting.  Among them the proximate cause is most interesting.  What we nowadays call emotions are all among these 52 Cetasikas–Lobha, Dosa etc.  You have to deal with these emotions.  You find out what causes them and then treat those causes.  The knowledge of the proximate causes of some of the Cetasikas can help you in your daily life and will give you good results.  So they are very interesting.  Even if you cannot study all four of them, you should know at least two of them–characteristic and the proximate cause.  If you cannot study proximate cause, you must know the characteristic.  You must understand the characteristic of each and every Cetasika.  Phassa has the characteristic of impinging on the object.  VedanÈ has the characteristic of experiencing or enjoying the object, and so on.  At least please try to remember the characteristic of all these Cetasikas.  If you can do a little more, learn the proximate causes.  If you can do still more, learn all four of them.

SÈdhu!  SÈdhu!  SÈdhu!

Today you see these two monks.  They are from Taungpulu Monastery. There are two gentlemen in the back of the room dressed in white. They are from Mexico and they come here to study Abhidhamma with me. And I am teaching them Abhidhamma, a crash course.  First I planned to [21] teach them at the monastery but now we cannot have classes or gatherings at the monastery.  So I gave them choice of where they could have classes, either at TathÈgata Meditation Center or at Taungpulu.  They preferred Taungpulu.  So I was there and came over here today.  There are now ten of them.  Imagine people from Mexico interested (Already they are Buddhist.) in Abhidhamma and VipassanÈ.  Actually not just interested, they have been practising VipassanÈ for years with teachers from Thailand.  Now they want to study Abhidhamma more.  So I am teaching them Abhidhamma now.  So I will go back to Taungpulu and next week I will come back.  What I want to say is Abhidhamma is spreading. First it is spreading among your people.  Most of you are Vietnamese people.  Now it is spreading south of the United States.  I'm very excited about it.  I am lucky I have this monk, Venerable U Nandisena, with me.  He is from Argentina.  So he speaks the same language they speak, Spanish.  So I am teaching through him because there are some people who don't understand English.  So with the translator I am teaching them Abhidhamma.  Maybe they will pass you because I am teaching them twice a day, no weekend, no day off.  Today I taught them the twelve Akusala Cittas and I let them say each one like they were children.  I hope you can say those Cittas now.

SÈdhu!  SÈdhu!  SÈdhu!

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