DHAMMAPADA-Verse 60-75 - Buddhism, Philosophy, and Khmer Literature


Buddhism, Philosophy, and Khmer Literature

The teachings of the Buddha are aimed solely at liberating sentient beings from suffering. The Basic Teachings of Buddha which are core to Buddhism are: The Three Universal Truths; The Four Noble Truths; and The Noble Eightfold Path.

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Thursday, June 13, 2019

DHAMMAPADA-Verse 60-75

DHAMMAPADA: (5-Bāla-vagga)
45- The story of King Pasenadī-Kosala:
            Once while the Buddha was living at Jetavana - Vihāra in Sāvatthi, king Pasenadī-Kosala was obsessed by lust and tried to confiscate the wife of a man. Late at night he was terrified by four kinds of frightening voices. In the next morning, he approached the Buddha and asked him whether any misfortune might befall him. The Buddha replied that nothing would happen to him thereby, but those were the cries of the persons who were reborn in hells because of their adultery committed in the past existence. In this regard the Buddha uttered the following stanza:
Dīgha  jāgarato ratti
Dīghaṃ santassa yojanaṃ
dīgho bālāna saṃsāro
saddhammaṃ avijānataṃ.

~    Dīgha                    long is
~    Ratti                       the night
~    jāgarato                 to the wakeful/ sleepless
~    Dīghaṃ                 long is
~    yojanaṃ                a/ the league
~    santassa                 to the weary/ tired
~    dīgho                     long is
~    saṃsāro                 Saṃsāra ( the cycle/ round of rebirths)
~    bālanaṃ                to fools
~    avijānataṃ            who know not
~    saddhammaṃ        the sublime Truth
46. About a pupil/ follower of the venerable Mahākassapa

          Once while the Buddha was living at Jetavana-Vihāra in Sāvatthi, the venerable Mahākassapa was staying in the Pippali Cave. Then one of his pupils being, admonished held a grudge against him and burnt down his dwelling and fled while Thera was on his alms-round. In this connection, the Buddha uttered the following stanza.
Carañce nādhigaccheyya
seyyaṃ sadisa' mattano
ekacariyaṃ daḷhaṃ kayirā
natthi bāle sahāyatā.
~     Ce                             should/ if
~     caraṃ=caranto         a seeker (of the Dhamma)
~     nādhigaccheyya      find/ get not
~     seyyaṃ                     a companion who is better than
~     sadisaṃ                    or equal to
~     Attano                      himself,         
~     so kayirā                   he should pursue/ follow
~     daḷhaṃ                     resolutely/ firmly
~     ekacariyaṃ               a solitary course;
~     natthi                        There is no
~     sahāyatā                    fellowship/ companionship
~     bāle                           with the fool.

­47. About the rich man Ānanda
            Once while the Buddha was living at Jetavana-Vihāra in Sāvatthi, a miserly/ niggardly/ stingy rich man of 80 crore wealth named Ānanda neither spent money for his own use nor for others. He admonished his son Mulasiri to follow in his footsteps. On his death, as a result of stinginess, he was rebo in a beggar's family. He was grown up and on one day he stood in front of his former son's house for begging. However, he was hit by the servants and dragged away. The Buddha on seeing the sorrowful event told Mulasiri that the young beggar was his former father and uttered the stanza in this connection as follows:

Puttā matthi dhanam matthi
iti bālo vihaññati
attā hi attano natthi
kuto puttā kuto dhanaṃ.
~    Bālo                    The fool
~    Vihaññati iti       is worried about (thinking)
~    Me atthi              "I have
~    Puttā                   sons,
~    dhanaṃ              Wealth
~    Hi                       "Indeed/ Verily,
~    Attā                    he himself
~    Natthi                 is not
~    Attano                his own,
~    kuto puttā           whence sons?
~    kuto dhanaṃ      kuto dhanaṃ
48. About the Bundle - untying Thieves
            Once while the Buddha was living at Jetavana-Vihāra in Sāvatthi, two thieves came to the monastery in order to listen to the Dhamma. Of them, one thief became a stream-winner and another was still stealing. The latter said he got something by stealing, while his friend got nothing. The former told the Buddha about that, and the Buddha uttered the following stanza in this context.
Stanza 63:
Yo bālo maññati balyaṃ
Paṇḍito vāpi tena so
Bālo ca paṇḍitamānī
Sa ve bāloti vuccati.
~     Yo bālo                 a fool
~     maññati                 knows
~     attano balyaṃ       his folly/ foolishness
~     tena                        thereby/ thereupon,
~     so                           he/ that fool
~     (hoti) vāpi             migh yet become
~     Paṇḍito                  wise
~     Bālo ca                  though being a fool
~     paṇḍitamānī          if he thinks himself wise
~     Sa-so vuccati         he could be caled
~     bālo                       a fool
~     ve                          indeed
49. About Udāyi-Thera
            While the Buddha was staving at Jetavana-Vihāra in Sāvatthi, some visiting monks posed questions to Udāyi bhikkhu whom they held in high esteem is as very learned monk. But he could not answer well. In this connection. the Buddha uttered the following stanza.
Stanza. 64:
Yāvajīvampi ce bālo
Paṇḍitaṃ pavirupāsati
Na so dhammaṃ vijānāti
Dabbī sūparasaṃ yathā.
~     ce                        Though
~     bālo                     a fool
~     pavirupāsati         associates
~     Paṇḍitaṃ            with a wise man
~     Yāvajīvampi       all his life,
~     (evampi)              still; yet
~     so na vijānāti       he does not comprehends/ knows
~     dhammaṃ           the Truth/ Dhamma,
~     yathā                   just as
~     Dabbī                  the spoon,
~     sūparasaṃ           the flavour of the soup
50. About the thirty native monks of Pāvā
            While the Buddha was living at Jetavana-Vihāra in Sāvatthi, the thirty native monks of Pāvā firstly became stream-winners in Kappāsika wood, and then Arahants through listening to the Anamatagga-Sutta. The Buddha commended/ praised them for their quick enlightenment. In this regard, the Buddha uttered the following stanza­:
Stanza. 65:
Muhuttamapi ce viññū
Paṇḍitaṃ payirupāsati
Khippaṃ dhammaṃ vijānāti
Jivhā sūparasaṃ yathā.
~     ce                        Though
~     Viññū                  an intelligent/ a discerning person
~     payirupāsati         associates
~     Paṇḍitaṃ            with a wise man
~     muhuttaṃ            only for a moment,
~     (so) vijānāti        he comprehends/ understands
~     dhammaṃ           the Truth/ Dhamma,
~     yathā                   just as
~     jivhā                    the tongue,
~     sūparasaṃ           the flavour of the soup
51. About Suppabuddha the Leper
            While the Buddha was living at Veḷuvana-vihāra in Rājagaha, a leper named Suppabuddha became a stream-winner after having listened to the discourse of the Buddha. Though being tempted by Sakka, he refused to condemn the Lord. On being (asked, the Buddha revealed that Suppabuddha suffered from leprosy because of his past evil deeds whereby he spat at a Silent/ Lesser Buddha.
Stanza. 66:
Caranti bālā dummedhā
Amitteneva attanā   
Karontā pāpakaṃ kammaṃ
Yaṃ hoti kaṭukapphalaṃ.
~     Bālā                                      The fools
~     Dummedhā                           of little wit lacking in intelligence
~     Caranti                                                 move about
~     (karonta) attanā                                   making themselves
~     amitteneva                                           their own enemies,
~     karontā yaṃ pāpakaṃ kammaṃ         by doing evil deeds,
~     phālaṃ katukaṃ hoti                          which bear bitter fruits.

52. About a farming devotee:
            While the Buddha was living at Jetavana in Sāvatthi, some thieves dropped a bundle of treasure on a farm on their way. The Buddha saw this and told the venerable Ānanda that it was a poisonous snake. A farmer, while ploughing that field, was arrested by the owner of the treasure and sent to the authorities. The Buddha stood witness to the case and the farmer was released immediately. In order to admonish king Kosala and the farmer, the Buddha uttered the following stanza.
Stanza 67:
Na taṃ kammaṃ kataṃ sādhu
Yaṃ katvā anutappati
Yassa assumukho rodaṃ
Vipākaṃ paṭisevati.
~     Na sādhu kataṃ (hoti)   Ill-done is
~     taṃ kammaṃ                  that action,
~     yaṃ katvā                        doing which,
~     anutappati                        one repents later/ afterwards, and
~     yassa vipākaṃ                the fruit of which
~     paṭisevati                         one reaps/ receives
~     assumukho                      with tearful face
~     rodaṃ-rodanto                and weeping
53. About Sumana the garland-maker:
            While the Buddha was living at Jetavana in Sāvatthi, a garland-maker was bound to present his flowers to king Bimbisāra. On seeing the glory of the Lord on his way he offered all the flowers to the Lord at the risk of his life. The flowers stood in the sky and shaded the Buddha like a ceiling. The whole townsfolk watched the wonderful event with surprise. The garland-maker was not punished by the king, but rewarded instead. In this regard, the Buddha uttered this stanza on the way back to the monastery.
Stanza 68:
Tañca kammaṃ kataṃ sādhu
Yaṃ katvā nānutappati
Yassa patīto sumano
vipākam paṭisevati.
~     Sādhu kataṃ (hoti)   Well-done is
~     tañca kammaṃ          that action,
~     yaṃ katvā                   doing which,
~     nānutappati                one repents not later/ afterwards, and
~     yassa vipakaṃ           the fruit of which
~     paṭisevati                    one reaps/ receives
~     patīto                          with delight
~     sumano                       and pleasure

54. About Uppalavaṇṇa-Therī:
            While the Buddha was living at Jetavana in Sāvatthi, a youth named Nanda seduced the nun Uppalavaṇṇa-Therī. Thereupon, as a result, he was swallowed by the great earth. In this regard, the
Buddha uttered the following stanza.
Stanza 69:
Madhuvā maññati bālo
Yāva pāpaṃ na paccati
Yadā ca paccati pāpaṃ
Bālo dukkhaṃ nigacchati.
~     Yāva                              As/ So long as
~     pāpaṃ                           an evil deed
~     na paccati                     has not ripened/ does not bear fruit,
~     bālo                               the fool
~     maññati                         thinks that
~     madhuvā.                      It is as sweet as honey.
~     Yadā ca                         But when
~     (tassa) papaṃ               it/ his evil deed
~     paccati                           has ripened/ does bear fruit,
~     bālo                               the fool
~     nigacchati dukkhaṃ.  comes to grief/ suffers for it
            55. About Jambuka-Thera:
            While the Buddha was living at Veḷuvana in Rājagaha, a mendicant named Jaṃbuka won the devotion of the people misleading them by tricks and pretensions, such as abstinence of food and clothes for fifteen years. The Buddha called on him one night and warned him that he had to mortify himself because of his past verbal offence whereby he condemned the alms-food of an offerer as excrement. Later, he was ordained as an "Ehi-bhikkhu" and became an Arahant endowed with supernormal power and Jhanas. In this connection, the Buddha delivered this discourse to his adherents as the following.

Stanza 70:
Māse māse kusaggena
bālo bhuñjeyya bhojanaṃ
na so saṅkhātadhammānaṃ
kalaṃ agghati soḷasiṃ.
~     Māse māse                             Month after month
~     bālo                                         (living on austerity) a fool
~     bhuñjeyya                              takes/ may eat
~     bhojanaṃ                               (his) food (sparingly)
~     kusaggena                              with the tip of a grass blade,
~     (tathāpi)                                 but
~     so bālo                                    he/ that fool
~     na agghati                              is not worth
~     soḷasiṃ kalam                       the sixteenth part
~     saṅkhata-dhammānaṃ        of those who have comprehended/ realized the Truth (i.e., Ariyas).
56. About a Snake-Peta:
While the Buddha was staying at Veḷuvana-Vihāra in Rājagaha, the venerable Moggallāna told the Buddha that the came across a snake-Peta whose entire body was burnt by fire on the peak of Gijjhakūṭamountain.
Stanza 71.
Na hi pāpaṃ kataṃ kammaṃ
Sajjukhīraṃva muccati
Dahantaṃ bāla'manveti
Bhasmā channo'va pāvako.
~     Hi                                            Verily/ Indeed
~     pāpaṃ kammaṃ kataṃ        an evil deed committed
~     na muccati                   does not immediately bear fruit,
~     sjjukhīraṃ iva            just like the newly-drawn milk
~     (na muccati)                that does not curdle/ turn sour at once.
~     (Tathīpi)                      But when it ripens/ bears fruit,
~     pāpako anveti             the evil deed follows
~     bāḷam                           the fool
~     dahantaṃ/ dahanto    burning (him)
~     pāvako iva                   like a smouldering spark/ live coal
~     channo                         covered (by ashes).
 57. About a Saṭṭhi-kūṭa-Peta:
            While the Buddha was living at Veḷuvana-vihāra in Rājagaha, a man who was skilful in pebble-throwing threw a Silent Buddha with pebbles to death. As a result of his evil deed, he was reborn in the Avici-hell for a long time, and later became a Peta who was hit incessantly by sixty thousand burning hammers at the Gijjhakūṭa mountain-peak. The Buddha was informed of the event by the venerable Moggallana, and thereupon uttered the following stanza.
Stanza 72:
Yāvadeva anatthāya
Ñattaṃ bālassa jāyati
Hanti bālassa sukkaṃsaṃ
Mudda'massa vipātayaṃ.
~     Hi                                Verily
~     ñattaṃ                        the knowledge/ skill
~     bālassa                       of a fool
~     jāyati                          poses/ becomes
~     yavadeva anatthaya a ruin to him/ his ruin;
~     (taṃ ñattaṃ)             it
~     hanti                           destroys
~     bālassa                       his/ the fool's
~     sukkaṃsaṃ               merit/ worthier nature
~     vipātayaṃ                  cleaving/ severing
~     assa                             his
~     muddham                   head/ wisdom.
58. About Citta the Householder:
            While the Buddha was living at Jetavana in Sāvatthi, the venerable Sudhamma living in Macchikāsaṇḍa out of avarice abused his devotee Citta the householder who invited the two chief disciples to a meal at his home. He reported his action to the Buddha and was suggested to apologize the householder for his misdeed. In this connection, the Buddha uttered the two following stanzas.
Stanza 73:
Asantaṃ bhāvana'miccheyya
Purekkhārañca bhikkhūsu
Āvāsesu ca issariyaṃ
Pūjaṃ parakulesu ca.
~     Bālo                      The fool/ The foolish monk
~     iccheyya              desires
~     Asantaṃ              undue                   praise for qualities
~     Bhāvanaṃ           reputation,           he does not have,
~     Purekkhārañca    precedence
~     Bhikkhūsu           among bhikkhus,
~     issariyaṃ ca        authority
~     Āvāsesu               over/ in the monasteries/ dwellings, and
~     Pūjaṃ ca              honour/ veneration/ offering
~     parakulesu           from those unrelated to him.

Stanza 74:
Mameva kataṃ maññantu
Gihīpabbajitā ubho
Mamevā'tivasā assu
Kiccākiccesu kismiñci
iti bālassa saṅkappo
icchā māno ca vaḍḍhati.

~     Ubho                    "Let both
~     gihī-pabbajitā      laymen and monks
~     maññantu             think that
~     (taṃ/ sabbaṃ)     (every-)thing
~     kataṃ mameva    is done by me alone
~     kismiñci               In every work,
~     kiccākiccesu       great and small,
~     ativasā assu mameva let them follow/ obey me."
~     Iti vaḍḍhati          Thus increase/ grow
~     saṅkappo             the thought/ ambition/ aspiration,
~     icchā                     selfish desire/ greed and
~     mano ca                pride
~     balassa                 of the fool/ foolish monk
59. About the Novice Tissa:
While the Buddha was living at Jetavana in Sāvatthi, a novice named Tissa renounced all gains of thousand robes, dishes and woolen blankets and lived in a forest about 120 leagues distant from Sāvatthi, being satisfied with scanty food and clothing he could called, the monk praised him for his f wness of desire. In this connection, the Buddha uttered the following stanza.

Stanza 75:
Añña hi lābhūpanisā
añña nibbānagāminī
Evametaṃ abhiññāya
bhikkhu buddhassa sāvako
Sakkāraṃ nābhinandeyya
Viveka' manubrūhaye.
~     Hi                                      Verily/ Surely/ Indeed
~     Lābhūpanisā                   the path that leads to the worldly gain
~     añña (hoti)                       is one thing, and
~     nibbānagāminī                the path that leads to Nibbana
~     añña (hoti)                       is another
~     Evamevaṃ abhiññāya    Thus comprehending! understanding fully/ distinctly,
~     sāvako                              bhikkhu a disciple monk
~     buddhassa                       of the Buddha
~     nabhinandeyya                should not take delight
~     sakkāraṃ                         in worldly honour
~     anubrūhaye                     but develop/ devote himself to
~     vivekaṃ                           detachment/ solitude (for the realization of Nibbāna.)

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