Lecture No. 10: Buddhism in Nyaung Yan period [contd.] - Buddhism, Philosophy, and Khmer Literature


Buddhism, Philosophy, and Khmer Literature

The teachings of the Buddha are aimed solely at liberating sentient beings from suffering. The Basic Teachings of Buddha which are core to Buddhism are: The Three Universal Truths; The Four Noble Truths; and The Noble Eightfold Path.

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Monday, June 17, 2019

Lecture No. 10: Buddhism in Nyaung Yan period [contd.]

Lecture No. X Buddhism in Nyaung Yan period [contd.]

1.    Portuguese strongholds in India, Goa, in Malaysia, Penangand Malecca were political and military bases where Portugueseviceroy headquartered with arms and men and galleons. Alfonso Albuquerque was the prominent strong Portuguese viceroy who master brained all Portuguese activities in SouthEast Asia and the far East.
2.    There were many Orders of Christian missionaries who operated in the Portuguese sphere in the Eastin cooperation with the Portuguese authorities of their strongholds. These were the Jesuit Order, the Beneditine Order, St. Mary’s Order, the Banabite Order and the de Lasa Order.
3.    Since the latter part of the 15th century the Portuguese and their missionaries were actively operating in the rim lands and seaports of Myanmar. In Rakkhine State they were active and their base was Sanipa Island and capital Mrauk U and other seaports were fully engaged by them. A Portuguese-Spanish half cast named Sebastio Gonzales was the leader of the ring and file. Father Sebastio Menique was the head of Christian mission which tried to convert the entire Rakhine Kingdom by first converting the ruling class through inter-marriage between Portuguese nobility and Rakhine Royalty then by imposing Portuguese culture upon them.
4.    Mercenary service of the Portuguese was useful to the native kings that they won access to the court and attain royal favor. Good Portuguese fighters gained title, status position, rank and land and many other privileges by which they gradually exerted upper hand over the native people.
5.    One among there favored Portuguese was a man named Pilipede Brito who arrived at Mrauk U as a cabin boy on Portuguese galleon. Due to his martial qualities and amiable nature, Rakhinekings raised him to high rank. When the Rakhineking marched on to Hamsavadi to attack it, de Brito accompanied him and proved his bravery and fighting ability in the wars that ensued.
6.    After defeating Taungoo and Hamsavadi, the Rakhine king returned home, carrying with him many was booties-gold, jewels, gold images from the palace Kambozuthadi as well as the bronze images which King Bayint Naung brought from Ayuthia.
7.    As a reward for his services in war, de Brito with his Portuguese followers was appointed customs offices at a thieving seaport of Hamsavadi called Than -Lyin (Syriam). He was given full power to take charge of it.
8.    de Brito modernized the seaport by strengthening its harbors, jetty and built new fortresses. With his fighting men he diverted merchant ships from other seaports in South East Asia to Thanh Lyin and levied heavy customs duties. But he provided security and good services to them. He became wealthy due to customs duties and powerful. He ruled with iron hand the entire area of Thanh Lyin.
9.    He became an uncrowned king. Keeping strong army, navy and many storages of paddy and ration as well as arms and amunition he received from the Portuguese vicery of Goa. He also gained favors and received blessings of the Pope in Rome, in converting the local people, even by force.

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