Lecture No. 8: Buddhism in Taungoo Period. [contd.] - Buddhism, Philosophy, and Khmer Literature


Buddhism, Philosophy, and Khmer Literature

The teachings of the Buddha are aimed solely at liberating sentient beings from suffering. The Basic Teachings of Buddha which are core to Buddhism are: The Three Universal Truths; The Four Noble Truths; and The Noble Eightfold Path.

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Monday, June 17, 2019

Lecture No. 8: Buddhism in Taungoo Period. [contd.]

Lecture No. VIII Buddhism in Taungoo Period. [contd.]

1.   Bayint Naung hoisted hti [umbrella] on Shwedagon, Shwe-hmaw-daw, Kyaik Hti Yoe and many other lesser pagodas and adorned[1] these this with precious stones from his crowns.
2.   He built in the vicinity[2] of Shwe-hmaw-daw Pagoda at Bago as many monasteries as there were years in his life at the time, 52, and donated cost of ordinating a similar number of monks i.e., 52.
3.    In A.D. 1564 an earthquake damaged the Shwedagon Pagoda toppling[3] its Hti. That earthquake coincided[4] with his queen's death. He repaired the Pagoda and put on it a new Hti studded[5] with crown jewels.
4.    In A.D. 1567 he carried out "Tula dana". Tuladana is the giving to religion of gold of the giver's body weight. A replica[6] of the sacred tooth of the Buddha and a stone bowl with many religious objects were presented to him by a Buddhist King of Sri Lanka as a token of thanks to Bayint Naung for latter's military assistance in subduing the Chola rebels.
5.    A big stupa named Maha Zedi was built at his capital Hamsavadi (Bago) and in it were enshrined all religious gifts from Sri Lanka and gold images of himself, members of royal family and courtiers of inner circle weighing their body weights.
6.    Relations with Buddhist countries were maintained and strengthened by frequent contact by land and sea; Royal chronicles of Myanmar and Sri Lankahave records of religious and diplomatic missions exchanged between the two countries. In A.D. 1555 Bayint Naung sent a mission to Sri Lanka to donate rich presents to the temple of the Buddha's Sacred Tooth Relic at Kanday, including the broom made of his hair and that of his chief queen with a gold handle studded with gems to sweep the Shrine of Sacred Tooth Relic so that they would gain religious merit. In that way he proved to his people that he performed his functions as Head of State as well as Religion.
7.    Bayint Naung purchased lands in Sri Lanka to built viharas for Myanmar monks and rest houses for Myanmarpilgrims and paddy fields for the laborers he employed to light candles at the Tooth Relic Shrine. He also sent from time to time to Sri Lanka, Myanmar masons[7] craftsmen and artist to repaired, renovate and beautify Buddhist temples, pagodas and monasteries there.
8.    In Sri Lanka Buddhism was frequently subjected to the onslaught[8] of Cholarebellions and later Portugueseinvaders. Bayint Naung sent his soldiers and monks to put down the rebels, to repulse[9] the invaders and to revive Buddhism there.
9.    In A.D. 1576 The King of Sri Lanka sent a replica of Sacred Tooth Relic and a Princess to King Bayint Naung. Bayint Naung in state went to Pathein seaport to welcome and receive the sacred Tooth Relic and returned to his capital with full regatta. The sacred Tooth was conveyed in a gem studded gold casket[10] to his palace where it was placed in a tower like shrine with a gift spire[11]. Later it was enshrined in Maha Zedi Pagoda at Bago.
10. Through Buddhism continued to flourish in Taungoo Period rivalry of Christianity was beginning to be felt since Portuguese adventures, mercenaries[12], and missionaries arrived and set up their strongholds in Myanmar.

[1]           adorn {speaker}, AmE {speaker} (v)  ~ sth/sb (with sth) to make sth/sb look more attractive by decorating it or them with sth
            »          adornment noun
[2]           vicinity{speaker} (n): (the vicinity) the area around a particular place
[3]           topple{speaker}, AmE {speaker} (v) 1.  to become unsteady and fall down; to make sth do this// 2.  to make sb lose their position of power or authority SYN OVERTHROW
[4]           coincide{speaker}, AmE {speaker} (v) ~ (with sth/sb) 1. (of two or more events) to take place at the same time: • The strike was timed to coincide with the party conference. 2. (of ideas, opinions, etc.) to be the same or very similar: The interests of employers and employees do not always coincide. •Her story coincided exactly with her brother’s. 3. (formal) (of objects or places) to meet; to share the same space: At this point the two paths coincide briefly.
[5]           studded{speaker} (adj) 1. decorated with small raised pieces of metal: a studded leather belt// 2 ~ with sth (written) having a lot of sth on or in it: The sky was clear and studded with stars. • an essay studded with quotations
see also STAR-STUDDED  » stud (v) (-dd-): [VN] Stars studded the sky.
[6]           replica{speaker} (n) a very good or exact copy of sth:
[7]           mason {speaker} noun 1. a person who builds using stone, or works with stone// 2. (Mason) = FREEMASON
[8]           onslaught {speaker}, AmE {speaker} (n)// ~ (against / on sb/sth) | ~ (of sth) (written) a strong or violent attack:  • an onslaught of abuse
[9]           repulse {speaker} (v) [VN] (formal) 1. [usually passive] to make sb feel disgust or strong dislike SYN REPEL: I was repulsed by the horrible smell.           2. to fight sb who is attacking you and drive them away SYN REPEL: to repulse an attack / invasion / offensive      3. to refuse to accept sb’s help, attempts to be friendly, etc: Each time I tried to help I was repulsed.
[10]         coffin {speaker}, AmE {speaker} (especially BrE) (AmE usually casket) (n) a box in which a dead body is buried or CREMATED: A procession of mourners slowly followed the coffin.  IDIOMS  see NAIL n.
[11]         spire {speaker} (n) a tall pointed structure on the top of a building, especially a church:
[12]         mercenary {speaker}, AmE {speaker} (n), (adj)      » (n) (plural mercenaries) a soldier who will fight for any country or group that offers payment: mercenary soldiers» (adj) (disapproving) only interested in making or getting money: a mercenary society / attitude • She’s interested in him for purely mercenary reasons.

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