Mahāmaṅgala-sutta: Rendering - Buddhism, Philosophy, and Khmer Literature


Buddhism, Philosophy, and Khmer Literature

The teachings of the Buddha are aimed solely at liberating sentient beings from suffering. The Basic Teachings of Buddha which are core to Buddhism are: The Three Universal Truths; The Four Noble Truths; and The Noble Eightfold Path.

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Thursday, June 13, 2019

Mahāmaṅgala-sutta: Rendering

Mahāmaṅgala-sutta:        (discourse on the highest Blessings)
(Khuddakapāṭha-Pāḷi, p.3, Suttanipāta-Pāḷi,318)

PAṆĀMA (Prelude)       PV-10, HD-26, BW-68, LH-20-28, TB-259-271

(a) Yaṃ maṅgalaṃ dvādasahi
     Cintayiṃsu sadevakā
     Soṭṭhānaṃ nādhigacchanti
     Aṭṭhatiṃsañca maṅgalaṃ
Devas and human beings for twelve years
pondered what are (the Highest) Blessing,
(but) could not understand the 38 Highest Blessings,
(which) are the factors of prosperity.

(b) Desitaṃ[1] devadevena,
     Sabbapāpa vināsanaṃ[2],
     Sabbaloka hitatthāya,
     Maṅgalaṃ taṃ bhanāmahe[3].
O virtuous ones, let us recite
those Highest Blessings which were preached by the Buddha,
Deity of the Deities (the Buddha),
for the benefit of beings and which destroy all evils.

NIDĀNA (Introduction) (LH-20,26)

(c-1) *EvaÑ me sutaÑ–ekaÑ samayaÑ BhagavÈ SÈvatthiyaÑ viharati Jetavane AnÈthapiÓÉikassa ÈrÈme.
          Thus have I heard.
     At one time the Blessed One was dwelling at the monastery of Anāthapiṇḍika in Jeta’s Grove near the city of Sāvatthi.

(c-2) Atha kho aÒÒatarÈ[4]devatÈ abhikkantÈya[5]rattiyÈ[6]abhikkantavaÓÓÈ[7]kevala­kappaÑ[8]JetavanaÑ obhÈsetvÈ[9]
     Then at midnight far advanced, a certain deity of very charming appearance, having illuminated the whole Jeta Grove.
(c-3)  yena BhagavÈ tenupasa~kami, upasa~kamitvÈ[10]BhagavantaÑ abhivÈdetvÈ[11]ekamantaÑ[12]aÔÔhÈsi[13], ekamantaÑ ÔhitÈ kho[14]sÈ devatÈ BhagavantaÑ gÈthÈya ajjhabhÈsi[15]
     approached the Buddha and (respectfully) paid homage to Him, and stood at a suitable place; standing there, the Deva addressed the Blessed One in verse:
(1) "Bah| devÈ manussÈ ca,
     ma~galÈni acintayuÑ.

                   “Many Devas and human beings
Longing for prosperity/welfare
pondered what blessings were.
Pray reveal, Lord, the Highest Blessing.”

(2) AsevanÈ[19]ca bÈlÈnaÑ,
     paÓÉitÈnaÒca sevanÈ.
     P|jÈ[20]ca p|janeyyÈnaÑ,
     etaÑ ma~galamuttamaÑ.                       
     “Not to associate with fools,
     to associate with the wise only
     to honor those who are worthy of honor.
     This triad (set of three) is the Highest Blessing.                              (1-3)

(3) Patir|padesavÈso ca,
     pubbe ca katapuÒÒatÈ.
     etaÑ ma~galamuttamaÑ.
     To reside in a suitable place,
     to have done meritorious deeds in the past,
     to keep one’s mind and body in a proper way.
     This triad is the Highest Blessing.                                                  (4-6)

(4) BÈhusaccaÒca sippaÒca[22],
     vinayo ca susikkhito[23].
     SubhÈsitÈ[24]ca yÈ vÈcÈ,
     etaÑ ma~galamuttamaÑ.
                   To have much knowledge,
to be skilled in art and handicrafts,
to be well-trained in moral conduct
and to have speech that is well-spoken.
This tetrad (set of four) is the Highest Blessing.               (7-10)

(5) MÈtÈpitu upaÔÔhÈnaÑ[25],
     puttadÈrassa sa~gaho.
     AnÈkulÈ[26]ca kammantÈ,
     etaÑ ma~galamuttamaÑ.
     Attending to one's parents closely,
     supporting one’s spouse and children
     having work that causes no confusion.
     This triad is the Highest Blessing.                                                  (11-13)

(6) DÈnaÒca dhammacariyÈ ca,
     etaÑ ma~galamuttamaÑ.
     Giving, practice of what is good,
     Supporting of one’s relatives
     performing blameless actions.
     This tetrad is the Highest Blessing.                                                 (14-17)

(7)     ŒratÊ[29]viratÊ[30]pÈpÈ,
     majjapÈnÈ[31]ca saÑyamo[32].
     AppamÈdo[33]ca dhammesu,
     etaÑ ma~galamuttamaÑ.
     Abstention from evil in mind,
     abstention from evil in body and speech,
     abstention from intoxicants
     and non-negligence in meritorious acts.
     This is the Highest Blessing.                                                          (18-21)

(8) GÈravo[34]ca nivÈto[35]ca,
     santuÔÔhi[36]ca kataÒÒutÈ[37].
     KÈlena dhammassavanaÑ,
     etaÑ ma~galamuttamaÑ.              
     contentment, gratitude
     and listening to the Dhamma on suitable occasions.
     This pentad (set of five) is the Highest Blessing.                            (22-26)

(9) KhantÊ ca sovacassatÈ[38],
     samaÓÈnaÒca dassanaÑ[39].
     KÈlena dhammasÈkacchÈ[40],
     etaÑ ma~galamuttamaÑ.
     Patience, obedience,
     meeting those who have calmed the mental defilements
     and discussing the Dhamma on suitable occasions.
     This tetrad is the Highest Blessing.                                                 (27-30)
(10)   Tapo ca brahmacariyaÒca,
          ariyasaccÈna dassanaÑ.
          etaÑ ma~galamuttamaÑ.
     Practice austerity,
     Undertaking the noble life (chastity),
     seeing the Noble Truths
     and realization of Nibbāna (the Supreme Bliss).
     This tetrad is the Highest Blessing.                                                 (31-34)
(11)   PhuÔÔhassa[42]lokadhammehi,
     cittaÑ yassa na kampati[43].
     etaÑ ma~galamuttamaÑ.
     The mind of a person (an Arahant)
     who is confronted with worldly conditions
     does not flutter, is sorrowless, stainless and secure.
     This tetrad is the Highest Blessing.                                                 (35-38)
(12)   EtÈdisÈni[47]katvÈna,
     Sabbattha sotthiÑ gacchanti,
     taÑ tesaÑ ma~galamuttaman"ti.
     Having fulfilled such things as these,
     beings are invincible everywhere
     and gain happiness everywhere.
     That is the highest blessing for them.”

End of Maṅgalasutta

Stanza   Beginning                        Ordinal No of Blessings   Dealing with
No2        Asevanāca bālānaṃ           1st, 2nd, 3rd              Social association
No3        Patirūpadesavāsoca           4th, 5th, 6th              Good living
No4        Bāhusaccañca                    7th, 8th, 9th, 10th     Learning, education
No5        Mātāpitu upaṭṭhānaṃ         11th, 12th, 13th         Attention
No6        Dānañca dhammacariyāca  14th, 15th,16th, 17th  Observance/practice
No7        Āratī viratī pāpa                18th, 19th, 20th, 21st   Abstinence
No8        Gāravoca nivatoca             22nd, 23rd, 24th, 25th, 26th     Nobility      
No9        Khantīca sovacassatā         27th, 28th, 29th, 30th  Mental maturity
No10      Tapoca brahmacariyañca   31st, 32nd, 33rd, 34th  Deliverance
No11      Phuṭṭhassa lokadhammehi 35th, 36th, 37th, 38th   Mental steadfastness
Of these
     (a) Causative Blessings        = 1st to 33rd       (all 33)
     (b) Resultant Blessings         = 34th to 38th     (all   5)

Stanza No2 (beginning with Asevanāca – social association)
     1. Bālāsevana                    Non-association with fools
     2. Paṇḍitā sevana              Association with the wise
     3. Pūjaneyya pūjā              Honoring those worthy of honor

Stanza No3 (beginning with Patirūpadesavāsoca – good living)
     4. Patirūpadesavāsa          Residence in an appropriate/ suitable locality
     5. Pubbekatapuññatā         Having done merits in the past
     6. Attasamāpaṇdhi             Keeping oneself in the right course

Stanza No4 (beginning with Bāhusaccañca - Learning)
    7.   Bāhusacca                    Vast knowledge/learning
    8.   Susikkhita-sippa            Skill in art and handicraft
    9.   Susikkhita vinaya          well-trained in moral conduct
  10.   Subhāsitā vācā             having speech that is well-spoken

Stanza No5 (beginning with Mātāpitu upaṭṭhānaṃ - Attention)
  11.   Mātāpitu upaṭṭhāna                Attending to one's parents closely,
  12.   Puttadārassa saṅgaha              supporting one’s spouse and children
  13.   Anākulā-kammantā                having work that causes no confusion.

Stanza No6 (beginning with Dānañca-Observance/Practice)
  14.   Dānañca                     Generosity/Liberality/Charity/Offering/Giving
  15.   Dhammacariyā                       practice of what is good (Dhamma),
  16.   Ñātaka saṅgaha                      Supporting of one’s relatives
  17.   Anavajja-kamma                    Performing blameless actions.

Stanza No7 (beginning with Āratī viratī pāpa-Abstinence/Avoidance)
     18. Pāpa-āratī                              Abstention from evil in mind,
     19. Pāpa-viratī                            abstention from evil in body and speech,
     20. Majjapāna saṃyama              abstention from intoxicants
     21. Dhamma appamāda               non-negligence in meritorious acts.

Stanza No8 (beginning with Gāravoca nivātoca-nobility)
     22. Gārava                                       Reverence/Respectfulness,
     23. Nivāta                                        humbleness,
     24. Santuṭṭhī                                    contentment
     25. Kataññutā                                  gratitude
     26. Kālena Dhammassavana             and listening to the Dhamma
                                                            on suitable occasions.

Stanza No9 (beginning with Khantīca-Mental maturity)
     27. Khantī                             Patience, tolerance, forbearance, forgiveness
     28. Sovacassatā                   obedience, readiness in receiving advice
     29. Samaṇa-dassana            meeting Noble Ones
     30. Kālena dhammasākacchā discussing the Dhamma on suitable occasions.

Stanza No10 (beginning with Tapoca-Deliverance) 
     31.Tapa                                   Practice austerity,
     32. Brahmacariya                      Undertaking the noble life (chastity),
     33. Ariyasacca-dassana             seeing the Noble Truths
     34. Nibbāna-sacchikiriyā           realization of Nibbāna (the Supreme Bliss).

Stanza No11 (beginning with Phuṭṭhassa-Mental steadfastness)
     35. Citta-akampana                   Having mind unshaking by weal and woe
     36. Asoka                                 Absence of worry (sorrowless)
     37. Viraja                                 Absence of defilements/impurities (stainless)
     38. Khema,                               Peace of mind (secure)
BW   = The Buddha's way by Ven. U Paññādipa
PV     = Protective verses by Sayadaw U Sīlānanda
HD    = Eleven Holy Discourses of Protetion (by Sao Htun Hmat Win)
LH     = Life's Highest Blessings by R. L. Soni

[1] Desita [pp of deseti] pointed out, preached, expounded
[2] Vināsana [nt] destroying
[3] Bhaṇati [√bhaṇ + a] speaks; tells; preaches.
[4] Aññatara [adj] certain; not well-known.
[5] Abhikkanta [pp of abhikkamati] 1. gone forward; past; 2. most pleasant. (nt.), going forward.
[6] Ratti [f] night
[7] vaṇṇa [m] colour; appearance; colour of the skin; sort; caste; a letter; quality.
[8] Kevala [adj] lonely; unmixed; whole; entire. – kevalakappa [adj] almost the whole.
[9] Obhāsati [ava + √bhās + a] shines. – obhāseti: causes to make radiant; causes to illumine.
[10] Upasaṅkamati [upa + √saṃ + kam +a] approaches
[11] abhivādeti [abhi + √vad/vand + e] bows down; salutes.
[12] ekamantaṃ [adv] on one side; aside.
[13] aṭṭhāsi [aor of tiṭṭhati] stood; stayed.
[14] Kho [ind] indeed; really; surely; (an enclictic particle of affirmative and emphasis).
[15] Ajjhabhāsati [adhi + ā + √bhās + a] addresses; speaks. {{bhās = shines/ speaks}}
[16] Ākaṅkhamāna [pp of ākaṅkhati] wishing; desiring. -- ākaṅkhati [ā + √kakh + ṃ-a] wishes for; desires.
[17] Sothi [f] well-being; safety; blessing.
[18] Brūti [√brū + e] says; speaks.
[19] Asevati [ā + √sev + a] associates; practises; frequents. – asevanā [f] non-association
[20] pūjeti [√pūj +e] honours; respects; offers something with devotion. – pūjā [f] veneration; homage; devotional offering. – pūjaneyya [adj] entitled to homage; venerable.
[21] paṇidhi [m] aspiration; determination.
[22] Sippa [nt] art; craft.
[23] Susikkhita [pp] well-trained; thoroughly learnt.
[24] Subhāsita [pp] well-spoken
[25] upaṭṭhahati [upa + ṭhā + a] waits or attends on; cares for; nurses; serves; understands.
[26] Anākula [adj] not confused or entangled.
[27] Ñātaka [m] a relation; kinsman.
[28] Avajja [adj] unblameable; faultless.
[29] Ārati [f] abstinence; leaving off.
[30] Virati [f] abstinence.
[31] Majjapāna [nt] drinking of liquors; (nt.), an intoxicating drink.
[32] saṃyama [m] restraint; self-control; abstinence.
[33] Appamāda [m] vigilance; earnestness.
[34] Gārava [m] respect; reverence; esteem.
[35] Nivātavuttī [adj] humble; obedient.
[36] santuṭṭhi [f] satisfaction; contentment; joy. – santussati [saṃ + √tus + ya] to be contented, pleased, or happy.
[37] Kataññutā [f] gratitude.
[38] Sovacassatā [f] suavity; obedience.
[39] Dassana [nt] sight; intuition; insight.
[40] Dhammasākacchā [f] discussion about the law. – sākacchā [f] conversation; discussion.
[41] Sacchikiriyā [f]  realisation; experiencing.
[42] phuṭṭha [pp of phusati]  touched; reached; attained.
[43] Kampati [√kamp + a] trembles; wavers.
[44] Asoka [adj] free from sorrow. (m.) the tree Jonesia Asoka.
[45] Viraja [adj] stainless; free from defilement.
[46] Khema [adj] safe; calm; full of peace.
[47] Etādisa [adj] such like; of this kind. – eta [demons. pron.] that; this. (mas. sing.); takes this form in some cases.
[48] Sabbattha [adv] everywhere.

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