Procedure for Ordination - Buddhism, Philosophy, and Khmer Literature


Buddhism, Philosophy, and Khmer Literature

The teachings of the Buddha are aimed solely at liberating sentient beings from suffering. The Basic Teachings of Buddha which are core to Buddhism are: The Three Universal Truths; The Four Noble Truths; and The Noble Eightfold Path.

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Thursday, June 13, 2019

Procedure for Ordination

Procedure for Ordination (Pabbajja-vidhi)

1. The Story of the Outbreak of plague (Vi. III - p.109/ BD. IV 98)
At the time of the Buddha a family was struck by a plague (not malaria) only son and father survived. Later both were ordaine, while going for alms-food, the son asked his father to share him some food. People condemned and accused the son of being born of a nun. There upon the Buddha declared the rule "A boy under fifteen years of age should not be ordained as a Sāmaṇera."
          "Na bhikkhave ūnapannarasavasso dārako pabbājetabbo"

The Ability to Scare a Crow, (Vi. III 110/ BD. IV 99)
Once an adherent of Ven. Ānanda died - Two young sons survived. They were very familiar with monks. They ran and greeted the monks who scolded and threatened them away. Ānanda approached the Buddha and told Him about that. The Buddha allowed monks, "I allow you, monks, to let a youth of less than fifteen years of age and who is a scare of crows go forth."
"Anujānāmi bhikkhave ūnapannarasa-vassaṃ dārakaṃ kākuddepakaṃ pabbājetuṃ."
N.B: Novice Ekadīpiya was ordained at the age of four, whereas novice Caṇḍana-māliya at five, and some including novice Sopāka at seven. Such ordination depends generally upon the maturity of intelligence and the ability to pronounce the three Refuges clearly.
2. Qualifications for Ordination: If a boy if free from being eleven unqualified persons, it is enough for him to become a novice (Sāmaṇera). Those eleven are:
(1) Paṇḍaka                         = A eunuch (one who has a defective organ),
(2) Theyyasaṃvāsaka          = One who is in communion by theft,
(3) Titthiya-pakkantaka       = One who has gone over to another sect,
(4) Tiracchāna                     = An animal, ­
(5) Mātughātaka                   = Matricide (one who kills one's mother),
(6) Pitughātaka                    = parricide (one who kills one's father),
(7) Arahantaghātaka             = One who kills an Arahant,
(8) Lohituppādaka               = One who sheds the Buddha's blood,        
(9) Saṃghabhedaka             = A schismatic (one who disunites the Order),
(10) Bhikkhunīdisaka          = one who seduces a nun,
(11) Ubhato-byañjanaka      = A hermaphrodite (one who has both sexes) and still one should get permission from one's parents or guardians for ordination.
3. Essential factors to become a novice (Sāmaṇera)
          (1) Kesacchedan        = To shave one's head.
          (2) Kāsāyacchādana   = To wear robes and
          (3) Saraṇadāma         = To give refuge in Triple gem.
          "And thus, monks, should one let go forth, should one ordain : First, having made him have his hair and beard cut off, having made him put on yellow robes, having made him arrange an upper robe over one shoulder, having made him honor the monks' feet, having made him sit down on his haunches, having made him salute with joined palms, he should be told : "Speak thus," I go to the awakened one for refuge, I go to the Dhamma for refuge, I go to the Order for refuge. And a second I time I go to... An a third time I go to ... the Order for refuge." "I allow, monks, the going forth and the ordination by these three goings for refuge." (BC. IV 30/ VI. III 29 The initiation of Novice hood (Sao Tun Hmat Win).

Some Buddhist rites for Sāmaṇera- Ordination
1.     To ask ermission of the Saṃgha; Order for shaving the head of one who is going to become a novice/ Sāmaṇera,
2.      To teach him, while shaving, the five constituents of the body ending with taca (skin). The five are (kesā) hair of the head, (lomā) hair of the body, (nakhā) nails, (dantā) teeth and (taco) skin. This tradition is still observed as there were some instances of becoming Ahantas in the Buddha's life time by reflecting on the loathsomeness of these five,
3.     To bath him and anoint/ apply turmeric powder or fragrant powder to his body in order to put down the lay body-odour, after shaving,
4.     To chant Paritta Pāḷi (Discourse of Protection) by the Saṃgha in order to protect him from danger and give him blessings,
5.     To give the robe to the preceptor and asking them back from him,
6.     To ask for novice-hood,
7.     To ask for the ten precepts together with three Refuges and
8.     To ask the preceptor as a guardian.

Offering the yellow Robe to the preceptor
Venerable Sir, in order to be liberated/ free from all sufferings throught the round of rebirths, and realize the Nibbāna, please take this yellow robe and ordain me as a Sāmaṇera out of compassion.
Pāḷi: Sakala-vaṭṭa-dukkha-nissaraṇa-nibbānassa sacchikaraṇatthāya imaṃ kāsāvaṃ gahetvā pabbājetha maṃ bhante anukampaṃ upādāya.
Asking back the Yellow Robe (from the Preceptor)
          Venerable sir, in order to be free from all sufferings throughout the round of rebirths, and realize the Nibbāna, please give me back that yellow robe and ordain me as a novice out of compassion.
Pāḷi: Sakala-vaṭṭa-dukkha-nissaraṇa-nibbānassa sacchikaraṇatthāya etaṃ kāsāvaṃ datvā pabbājetha maṃ bhante anukampaṃ upādāya.

Asking for Novice hood
Venerable Sir, in order to be fre e from all sufferings thoughout the round of rebirths, I ask for ordination as a Sāmaṇera, For the second time… For the third time…
Pāḷi: Bhante saṃsāra-vaṭṭa-dukhato mocanatthāya pabajjaṃ yācāmi.
Dutiyampi … yācāmi,
Tatiyampi … yācāmi.
Asking for ten precepts
(Permit me!) I ask, Venerable Sir, for the ten precepts of novice together with the three Refuges. Venerable Sir, please grant me the precepts out of compassion. For the second time... For third time...
Pāḷi: (Okāsa!) Aham bhante tisarana saha dasa sāmaṇera-pabbajjasīlaṃ dhammam yācāmi. Anuggaham katvā sīlaṃdetha me bhante.
Dutiyampi.... Tatiyampi ...                                me bhante.
Paying Homage to the Buddha
Homage to Him, the Blessed, Exalted, and Fully Enlightened One. (Three
Pāḷi: Namo tassaBhagavato Arahato Sammāsambuddhassa.
Taking the three Refuges
1. Buddham saranam gacchāmi = I take refuge in the Buddha. 2. Dhammam saranam gacchāmi = l take refuge in the Dhamma. 3. Sangham saranam gacchāmi = I take refuge in the Sangha. - Dutiyampi        = for the second time....
- Tatiyampi                              = for the third time....
The Ten Precepts
1. pāṇātipātā veramani-sikkhapadam samādiyāmi.
I abstain from taking life {i.e. from killing living beings}.
2. Adinnādānā veramani-sikkhapadam samādiyāmi.
          I abstain from taking what is not given.
3. Abrahmacariyā veramani sikkhāpadam samādiyāmi.
          I abstain from being unchaste.
4. Musāvādā veramani sikkhapadam samadiyami.
          I abstain from telling lies (or falsehood).
5. Surameraya- majjha-pamadatthana veramani sikkhapadam samamidiyami.
          I abstain from taking intoxicants causing heedlessness.
6. Vikalabhojana veramani sikkhapadam samadiyami.

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