Sīla - Morality - Buddhism, Philosophy, and Khmer Literature


Buddhism, Philosophy, and Khmer Literature

The teachings of the Buddha are aimed solely at liberating sentient beings from suffering. The Basic Teachings of Buddha which are core to Buddhism are: The Three Universal Truths; The Four Noble Truths; and The Noble Eightfold Path.

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Tuesday, June 18, 2019

Sīla - Morality

Sīla- Morality

Two kinds of Sīla (dyads)
1. Cārittasīla (Keeping)          ~   Fulfilling a training precept announced by the       Blessed One thus “This should be done (They keep fulfill the virtue).
2. Vārittasila (Avoiding)       ~   Not doing what is prohibited by Him thus "This should not be done"

Note: Cārittasīla                         is accomplished by faith and energy.
          Vārittasīla                --          is accomplished by faith and mindfulness.

1.        Kālapariyanta sīla           (temporary) virtue that is undertaken after deciding on a time limit.
2.        Āpāṇakotika sīla             (lifelong) virtue that is practiced in the same way but undertaking it for as long as life lasts.

Four kinds of sīla (tetrad)
1.        Bhikkhusīla                    training precepts to be observed by bhikkhus.
2.        Bhikkhunīsīla                 training precepts to be observed by bhikkhunīs.
3.        Anupasampannasīla        (not fully admitted) The ten precepts of virtue for male and female novices. -
4.        Gahaṭṭha-sīla                  (of the laity) The five-training precepts – ten when possible-as permanent undertaking; and eight as the factors of Uposatha Day, for male and female lay followers.
Five kinds of virtue (Pentad)   (also in Paṭisambhidāmagga)
1. Pahānasīla                              abandoning of killing living things etc.
2. Veramaṇisīla                          abstention of killing living things etc.
3. Cetanāsīla                              volition of killing living things etc.
4. Saṃvarasīla                            restraint of killing living things etc.
5. Avītikkamasīla                       non-transgression of killing living things etc.

What is defiling of it? What is the cleansing of it?
1.  Torn virtue                 One’s virtue is said to be torn - When one has broken the training course at the beginning or at the end.
2.  Rent virtue                 One’s virtue is said to be rent - When one has broken it in the middle.
3.  Blotched virtue          One's virtue is said to be blotched - When one has broken it twice or thrice in (all over) at rivals.
Kathas  Ref: Dīgha, Mahāvagga, Mahāpadānasutta
1. Dānakathā                       : Talks on Alms giving
2. Sīlakathā                         : Talks on Morality
3. Saggakathā                      : Talks on celestial realms
4. Kāmādinavakathā            : Talks on Faults of sensual pleasures
5. Nakkhanānisamsakathā    : Talks on Deliverance from sensual pleasures

2. Sīla. What is virtue?
It is the state beginning with volition present in one who abstains from killing living things etc., in one who fulfils the practice of duties. For this is said in Paṭisambhidāmagga
What is virtue?
There is virtue as volition, virtue as mental concomitants, virtue as restraint, virtue as non-transgression
1.     cetana sīla                  : as volition
2.     cetasika sīla                : as mental concomitants
3.     saṃvarasīla                : restraint (observing sīla)
4.     antikkamasīla             : as non-transgression

Lay men and lay women can undertake one or two or three or four or five or eight or ten precepts as they wish.
For sikkhāmāna (female novice undergoing a probationary course), Novice or female novice, observance of Ten precepts is sikkhāpadapariyanta.

Kālapariyantasīla  (Ref: Pāṭisambhidhāmagga Aṭṭhakathā)
Lay men and lay women, when offering alms, observing Sīla during their charity. When they go to the monastery, they observe the precepts during the time they are staying at the monastery. They observe one or two or three days or more; at night or in the day time.

When observing 5 precepts or 8 precepts
1.     If one observed collectively, if one precept is broken, the observance is broken
2.     If one observed by reciting one by one, if one precept is broken, only one precept is broken.
(Ref: Dīghānikāya, Mahāvagga Atthakathā)

Three kinds of Sabbath
1. Gopāla Sabbath               Cowherd's
2. Nigaṇḍa Sabbath             Heretic's
3. Ariya Sabbath                  Noble person's
"Go forth, O bhikkhus, for the Good of the many, for the happiness of the many, out of the compassion for the world, for the good (atthāya), benefit (hitāya) and happiness (sukhāya) of gods and men."

Four Wheels Of Prosperity
(Ref: Cakka sutta; Aṅguttaranikāya)
Oh, bhikkhus, the mankind and devas move towards the development and prosperity, if they are equiped with the four wheels (cakka)
     1. Patirūpadesavāsa    = Living in a suitable place.
     2. Sappurisūpanissaya = Associating with good/ virtuous people
     3. Attasamāpaṇidhi    = Self-discipline.
     4. Pubbecakatapuñña = Having good deeds done in the past.

·        Dhañaṃ                = Gram; corn, etc.
·        Dhanaṃ                = Wealth (money, treasures)
·        Yasa                     = (m,nt), fame; glory; success; retinue. companion,
·        Kitti                      = (f) fame; renown. glory fame
à Sukhaṃ: well-beings, happiness

Proper use of wealth          Ref: Pattakamma sutta; Aṅguttaranikāya
1.     a man contrives to make himself happy along with his parents, children and wife, servants, workmen, friends, and comrades
2.     He secures his wealth against all misfortunes
3.     He performs his duties to relatives, guests, departed ones, petas, to the government and devas.
4.     He offers necessities to recluses and brahmin who are trying to purify and calm his mind.
Division of income              Ref: Dīghanikāya; pāthikavagga sigālasutta
One who lives in worldly life should save his wealth and divide it into four portions
1.     The first portion he uses for his needs
2.     Two portions for his business and
3.     The fourth portion he saves for time of emergency.

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