SUTTANTA Introduction – 01 - Buddhism, Philosophy, and Khmer Literature


Buddhism, Philosophy, and Khmer Literature

The teachings of the Buddha are aimed solely at liberating sentient beings from suffering. The Basic Teachings of Buddha which are core to Buddhism are: The Three Universal Truths; The Four Noble Truths; and The Noble Eightfold Path.

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Thursday, June 13, 2019

SUTTANTA Introduction – 01

SUTTANTA: Introduction – 01

The Teachings of the Buddha (Buddha-Vacana) are:
I.             Only ONE in terms of Essence (Rasa),
         That is, the essence of Emancipation/Liberation/ deliverance (Vimutti-Rasa)
II.          TWO in terms of Dhamma-Vinaya. Of them.
(1)         Suttanta and Abhidhamma come under the name of Dhamma, whereas
(2)         Vinaya comes under its own name.
III.       THREE in terms of  the words of the Buddha.
(1)   Pathama-Buddha-Vacana: the First words of the Buddha which he uttered no sooner had he attained Enlightenment. These are given below with rendering.

153. Anekaj±tisa½s±ra½, sandh±vissa½ anibbisa½;
        gahak±ra½ gavesanto, dukkh± j±ti punappuna½.
154. Gahak±raka diµµhosi, puna geha½ na k±hasi;
       sabb± te ph±suk± bhagg±, gahak³µa½ visaªkhata½;
       visaªkh±ragata½ citta½, taºh±na½ khayamajjhag±.
                                                                                                                                Dhammapada 153, 154

-Anekajātisaṃsāraṃ:             = through innumerable births in saṃsāra
(Na+eka+jāti+saṃsāraṃ)        = Thro’ many a birth in existence
-Sandhāvati [saṃPdhāv+a]   = runs through; transmigrates, traverses
-sandhāvissaṃ                         = have wandered
-nibbisati: [niPvis+a]             = seeks after,
-Gahaṃ/gaho/gehaṃ,geho      = A house
-Kara (m)                    = 1. The hand; 2. a ray; 3. a tax;  4. The trunk of an elephant.
                                    = (Adj. in cpds.) doing, performing.
-gahakāraṃ                 = the builder of this house
-Gavesati [Pgaves+a] = to seeks, searches for; strives after
-gavesanta (pr. p)        = seeking
-Puna (ind.)                 = Again
-Punappunaṃ (ind.)    = Again and again, repeatedly.
            {{-Puna:          puno    (1) and before a vowel punar (2)
            and punad (3) Again, anew, afresh; back; after that, next, further, moreover}}
-Diṭṭha (pp. of passati [Pdis+a]) = seen; found; met with, understood. (nt.) vision
-Diṭṭhosi                      = to be seen
-kāhati see kāroti
-kāhāmi                       = (I) will do.
-sabbā/sabbāvā (a)      = all; every; whole; entire.
-phāsukā (f)                 = a rib; the flank. Of the side rafters or ribs of a hut
-bhagga                      =Broken, destroyed (pp. of bhañjati [bhañj+ a])
-kūṭakaṃ                    =A heap, a mound; a peak
-kūto/kūṭaṃ (m)          = and top, summit, peak; a heap, a mass, a multitude;
                                       A sledge-hammer; a trap; deceit, deception,
                                       Falsity, fraud; a part of a plough.
-visaṅkhara (m)           = Destruction, annihilation (here refer to the Unconditioned)
-gataddhī (a)                = one who has completed his journey.
-visaṅkharagataṃ        = Visaṅkhara + gataṃ
            ~ cittaṃ           = (My mind) has reached the Unconditioned
-Khaya (m)                  = waste; destruction; decay; consummation of (sự làm xong, sự hoàn thành, đích, tuyệt đích (của long ước mong), sự tuyệt mỹ, sự hoàn hảo, sự hoàn mỹ). An abode; diminution, loss, phthisis; end,
-majjhago                    = Going among, being in the midst of

*I, who have been seeking the builder of this house/body,
Failing to attain Enlightenment (Bodhi/Sabbaññutañana)
Which enables me to find him,
Have wandered through innumerable births in Saṃsāra.
To be born again and again is indeed suffering.
Oh, house-builder! You are now seen (found out).
You shall build no house again.
All your rafters are broken, your roof-tree (ridgepole) shattered.
My mind has reached the Unconditioned (Nibbāna):
The end of Craving (Arahattaphala) has been attained.*

“Thro’ many a birth in existence wandered
Seeking, but not finding, the builder of this house.
Sorrowful is repeated birth.
O house builder, thou are seen. Thou shall build no house again.
All thy rafters are broken. Thy ridge-pole id shattered.
Mind attains the Unconditioned.
Achieved is the End of Craving.”
(Translated by Nārada Maha Thera)

(2)   Pacchima-Buddha-Vacana: The last words of the Buddha.
“Handa d±ni, bhikkhave, ±mantay±mi vo, 
vayadhamm± saªkh±r± appam±dena samp±deth±”
                                                        (D.II. 128)
-handa                                     = Well then; now, come along! (an exhortative)
-dāni (adv)                               = Now
-āmanteti [āPmant+e]            = to address, to speak to; to call; invites
-vo (enclitic from tumha)        = to you; of you; by you.
-vaya (mn)                               = age, (mano-group) age; loss; decay; expenditure.
-dhamma (m)                          = Nature/condition/quality/property/characteristic/ function/practice/duty/object/thing/idea/phenomenon;
-Vayadhamma                         = is subject to decay
-saṅkhāra (m)                          = Conditioned things/ component things, essential condition; a thing conditioned, mental coefficients.
-appamāda (m)                        = Vigilance/ carefulness/ thoughtfulness/ earnestness/ zeal/ diligence/ haste/ dispatch (without heedlessness)
-sampādeti [saṃ+Öpad+e] = to prepare, tries to accomplish; supplies; prepares.

Now, monks, I summon you all. Conditioned/Component things are subject to decay. Work out (for your own deliverance/liberation with diligence (literally, without heedlessness).
These are the last remarkably striving words of the Buddha delivered immediately before his Mahā-Parinibbāna (passing away).

(3)   Majjhima-Buddha-Vacana: The middle words of the Buddha. These include all the discourses delivered by the Buddha between two occasions, the first and the last.
IV.Three in terms of Piṭaka/Divisions (lit., Basket)
(1)   Vinaya Piṭaka: The Division/ basket of Discipline.
This Division consists of 5 books as follows:
1. Pārājika Pāḷi:           The book of Defeat/loss of monkhood                   
2. Pacittiya Pāḷi:          The book of Expiation
                        (of minor offences/ Saying sorrow to make for an offence)
(a)   3. Mahāvagga Pāḷi:     The book of the Greater Group
(b)   4. Cūḷavagga Pāḷi:       The book of the Smaller Group
(c)   5. Parivāra Pāḷi:          The book of Appendices (Epitomes) to the Vinaya.
(2)   Suttanta Piṭaka: The Division/ Basket of Discourses
1. Sīlakkhandhavagga Pāḷi:          Book of the Morality Group (13 suttas)
2. Mahāvagga Pāḷi:                       Book of the Greater Group     (10 suttas)
3. Pāthikavagga Pāḷi:                    Book of the Pāthika Group     (11 suttas)
(3)   Abhidhamma Piṭaka: The Division of Ultimate Realities (Basket of Buddhist Philosophy)
1. Dhammasaṅganī Pāḷi:      Book of Classification of Dhammas
2. Vibhaṅga Pāḷi:                 Book of Divisions (Analysis)
3. Dhātukathā Pāḷi:              Book of the Elements
4. Puggalapaññatti Pāḷi:       Book of the Designation of Individuals
5. Kathāvatthu Pāḷi:             The Points of Controversy
6. Yamaka Pāḷi:                   The Book of Pairs
7. Paṭṭhāna Pāḷi:                   The Book of Conditions (Causal Relations).

V.    The Teachings of the Buddha are FIVE in terms of Nikāya (Collections)
(1)    Dīgha Nikāya: The Collection of Long Discourses. This Collection   comprises the three treatises as described in the list of Suttanta Piṭaka (34 Suttas in this collection.)

(2)     Majjhima Nikāya: The Collection of Medium Length Discourses
1. Mūlapaṇṇāsa Pāḷi:        Book of the First Fifty suttas (50)
2. Majjhimapaṇṇāsa Pāḷi: Book of The Middle Fifty Suttas        (50)
3. Uparipaṇṇāsa Pāḷi:        Book of the Last Fifty Suttas (52)
N.B.: In the third book there are 52 Suttas in fact, but it is simply titled as the Book of the last “Fifty” (Paṇṇāsa).

(3) Saṃyutta Nikāya: The Collection of Kindred Sayings (KS). This collection is made in terms of similarities in personality, in the nature of the Dhamma, or in that of Discourses. It consists of five treatises in three books, namely:
1. Sagathāvagga Saṃyutta Pāḷi:               KS of the group of stanza
2. Nidānavagga Saṃyutta Pāḷi:                 KS of the group of introduction.
3. Khandhavagga Saṃyutta Pāḷi:             KS of the group of Aggregates
4. Saḷāyatana Saṃyutta Pāḷi:                    KS of the group of six sense-bases
5. Mahāvagga Saṃyutta Pāḷi:                   KS of Greater group
There are 7762 Suttas altogether in this Collection.

(4)     Aṅguttara Nikāya: The Collection of Gradual/ Graded Sayings
In this collection, discourses of one thing up to eleven things are listed in gradually greater numbers.
                  1. Ekaka Duka Tika Catuka Aṅguttara Pāḷi:       
                                                Gradual Sayings ranging from one up to four things.
                  2. Pañcaka Chakka Sattaka Aṅguttara Pāḷi:        
                                                Gradual Sayings ranging from five to seven things.
                  3. Aṭṭhaka Navaka Dasaka Ekadasaka Aṅguttara Pāḷi:
                                                Gradual Sayings ranging from eight to eleven things.
This Collection consists of eleven treatises or three books. It includes 9557 Suttas.

(5)   Khuddaka Nikāya: The collection of Minor Sayings. This collection is composed of 18 treatises or 11 books.
1.    Khuddakapātha Pāḷi:              Text of Small Passages/
                                                      or The Minor readings/ Shorter text
2.    Dhammapada Pāḷi:                 The Path of the Dhamma
3.    Udāna Pāḷi:                            Solemn Utterances of the Buddha/
                                                      or verse of uplift
4.    Itivuttaka Pāḷi:                       Thus said - Verses/ as it was said
5.    Suttanipāta Pāḷi:                     Collection of suttas/
                                                      or Woven codeness of early Buddhists
6.    Vimānavatthu Pāḷi:                Stories of Celestial Mansions.
7.    Petavatthu Pāḷi:                      Stories of the Departed one/ Petas
8.    Theragāthā Pāḷi:                     Verses of the Elders
9.    Therigātha Pāḷi:                     Verses of the Elders Nun
10. Apādāna Pāḷi (1st):                 Lives of the Elders/ Saints
11. Buddhavaòsa Pāḷi:                History of the Buddhas
12. Cariyapiṭāka Pāḷi:                  Modes of Conduct
13. Mahānidesa Pāḷi:                    Major Expositions
14. Cūḷaniddesa Pāḷi:                   Minor Expositions
15. Jātaka Pāḷi:                             The Guide
16. Paṭisambhidāmagga Pāḷi:      Analytical Knowledge
17. Netti Pāḷi:                               The Guide
18. Petakopadesa Pāḷi:                 Piṭaka Disclosure
19. Milindapañhā Pāḷi:                 The Questions of King Milinda
This Collection consists of 18 treatises or 11 books. The number of suttas is not mentioned in this Collection, because most of the sections in the Vinaya and Abhidhamma Piṭaka are not termed as suttas. This collection covers the largest number of Suttas and is a complete one. All the Buddha’s teachings except those included in the four Nikayas belong to this Khuddaka Nikāya. The relationship between Piṭaka and Nikāya is as follows:
Three Piṭaka
Five Nikāya
No. of Treatises     or    books
-Suttanta P.
(40 treatises,
23 books)

-Vinaya Piṭaka
-Abhidhamma P.
(1) Dīgha N.
(2) Majjhima N.
(3) Saṃyutta N.
(4) Aṅguttara N.
(5) Khuddaka N.
-Vinaya Piṭaka
-Abhidhamma P.
The complete Texts are known as the Five Nikāyas, whereas the chosen Texts for the traditional course of studies as Ti-Piṭaka.
(a) As a minor enumeration the Suttanta Piṭaka embraces only the three treatises of the Dīgha Nikāya, and
(b) As a middle one, 40 treatises apart from Vinaya and Abhidhamma, and
(c) as an utmost or major one, the entire five Nikāya because all treatises have the feature of Sutta. However, as the Vinaya and Abhidhamma have their own characteristics they could freely stand as separate Divisions.

VI. The Teachings of the Buddha are NINE in terms of components/ parts.
(1) Sutta                         = Discourse
(2) Geyya                       = Poem or song
(3) Veyyākaraṇa            = Explanation
(4) Gāthā                        = Stanza
(5) Udāna                       = Emotional Utterance
(6) Itivuttaka                   = Thus-said Discourse.
(7) Jātaka                        = Birth-story
(8) Abbhūtadhamma      = Wonder/Marvel
(9) Vedalla                     = Catechism.

VII. The Teachings of the Buddha are 84000 in number in terms of the portions of the Dhamma (dhammakkhandha).
There are 21000 portions in the Vinaya Piṭaka and the same in the Suttanta Piṭaka and 42000 in the Abhidhamma Piṭaka. Therefore there are altogether 84000 portions of Dhamma in the whole Tipiṭaka.

REFERENCE: D I, 16-26 (Sīlakkhandha-vagga Pāḷi, the commentary of some other different interpretations of Tipiṭaka (three Baskets/Divisions)
[Abrev. Vi. = vinaya; Su. = suttanta; Ab. =abhidhamma]
(1) Vi.       =Mandatory/ Imperative/ Authoritative/
                  Compulsory/ Obligatory Discourse                      (Ānā-desanā)
      Su.       = Conventional Discourse                                    (Vohāra-desanā)
      Ab.      = Discourse on ultimate realities                          (Paramatha-desanā)
(2) Vi.       = Exhortation in accordance with offences          (Yathāparādha-Sāsanaò)
      Su.       = Exhortation with temperaments                        (Yathānuloma-Sāsanaṃ)
     Ab.       = Exhortation with the Dhamma                          (Yathā-dhamma-Ssanaṃ)
(3) Vi.       = Discourse on the minor and major restraints     (Saṃvarā-saṃvara)
      Su.       = D/ on solving wrong views                                (Diṭṭhi-viniveṭhana-kathā)
      Ab.      = D/ on defining mind and matter                        (Nāmarūpa-pariccheda-kathā)
(4) Vi.       = Training in higher morality                               (Adhisīla-Sikkhā)
      Su.       = Training in higher mentality                              (Adhi Diṭṭhi-viniveṭhana-kathā)
      Ab.      = Training in higher wisdom                                (Adhipaññā-Sikkhā)
(5) Vi.       = A/D[1]of Transgression                                        (Vītikkama-ppahānaṃ.)
      Su.       = A/D of outburst/pre-possession                         (Pariyuṭṭhānappahānaṃ)
      Ab.      = A/D of dormant disposition                               (Anusayappahānaṃ)
(6) Vi.       = Momentary abandonment/dispelling                 (Tadaṅgappahānaṃ)
      Su.       = A/D by suppression                                           (Vikkhaṃbhanappahānaṃ.)
      Ab.      = A/D by extirpation/ Destruction/
                  extinction/ annihilation                                         (Samucchedappahānaṃ.)
(7) Vi.       = Dispelling the defilement of bad conducts        (Duccarita-saṃkilesappahānaṃ.)
      Su.       = D. the defilement of craving                              (Taṇhā - saṃkilesappahānaṃ)
      Ab.      = D. the defilement of wrong views                     (Diṭṭhi - saṃkilesappahānaṃ).

A/D[1]= Abandonment / Dispelling

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