The Four Noble Truths - Buddhism, Philosophy, and Khmer Literature


Buddhism, Philosophy, and Khmer Literature

The teachings of the Buddha are aimed solely at liberating sentient beings from suffering. The Basic Teachings of Buddha which are core to Buddhism are: The Three Universal Truths; The Four Noble Truths; and The Noble Eightfold Path.

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Friday, October 11, 2019

The Four Noble Truths

All the Buddha’s teachings are based on the Four Noble Truths. Because we fail to understand them, we have continued to go round in the cycle of birth and death. The Four Noble Truth consists of:
The Noble Truth of Suffering (Dukkha-sacca).
The Noble Truth of the Cause of Suffering (Samudaya-sacca).
The Noble Truth of the Cessation of Suffering (Nirodha-sacca).
The Noble Truth of the Path leading to the Cessation of Suffering (Magga sacca).
They are truth because they are real and form an evident fact of life. Whether the Buddha arises or not, they exist in the world. It is the Buddha revealed them to mankind. They are called Noble because they were discovered by the great Noble Being or Enlightened One.
Dukkha includes physical and mental sufferings: birth, old age, illness, death, association with the dislike ones, separating from the beloved ones and not to get desirable things are suffering, dukkha contains the whole of existence, in our happiness and sorrow, in every aspect of our lives. There are three kinds of suffering:

Dukkha-dukkha: physical and mental pain.
Sakhara-dukkha: The pain due to the physical and mental changes.
Vipārinama-dukkha: The pain due to dissolution and arising of nāma and rūpa.
The second of Noble Truth is taha or craving. We are attached not only to sensual pleasures, wealth, power but also to ideas, views, opinions, concepts and belief. Craving is linked to ignorance: “not knowing things as they really are”. There are three kinds of craving: craving for sensual pleasures, craving for existence, and craving for non-existence.
Nibbāna, the third Noble Truth, the state of cessation of suffering or the state of extinction of all cravings that leads to repeated births in the cycle of existence. The Fourth Noble Truth is the Noble Eightfold Path which is the way of life consisting of eight factors: right view (sammā diṭṭ), right thought (sammā sakappa), right speech (sammā vācā), right action (sammā kammanta), right livelihood (sammā ājīva), right effort (sammā vāyāma), right mindfulness (sammā sati) and right concentration (sammā samādhi). 
The Buddha shows the world suffering caused by craving, and the absence of suffering thanks to the power of the eightfold Path. Among them, the first Noble Truth should be known; the second Noble Truth should be eradicated; the third Noble Truth should be gained; and the fourth Noble Truth should be developed. By treading along this way, we will attain Nibbāna sooner or later.

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