Abhidhamma Lectures 04 - Buddhism, Philosophy, and Khmer Literature


Buddhism, Philosophy, and Khmer Literature

The teachings of the Buddha are aimed solely at liberating sentient beings from suffering. The Basic Teachings of Buddha which are core to Buddhism are: The Three Universal Truths; The Four Noble Truths; and The Noble Eightfold Path.

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Sunday, June 16, 2019

Abhidhamma Lectures 04

Tape #18


Chapter 4 (A)

Cognitive  Process:  Thought  Process (1)

          We have studied three chapters–consciousness, mental factors and miscellaneous topics–feelings, roots, functions, doors, objects and bases. I hope you are familiar with the three chapters. If you are not, you can refer to the three chapters at a glance. It is good for easy reference. Whenever you want to know something about a certain Citta you just look at that chart.

          Now we come to the fourth chapter. The fourth chapter deals with thought processes. In this chapter the manual will describe different thought processes. And also in the next chapter it will deal with what are called process free consciousness–death, rebirth, and Bhavanga.

          When consciousness arises, it arises one at a time. Consciousness arises with mental factors. But when we study consciousness we have to study consciousness as a series–not just one consciousness isolated with mental factors. But in reality there is only one consciousness at a time. We will use diagrams to study the thought processes. Note that you will never see different types of consciousness arising simultaneously, for example all 17 moments of consciousness arising together. There is only one moment at a time, but we have to study it as a series, as a whole. In actuality there are no 17 thought moments arising at the same time, only one moment at a time.

When we study the arising of consciousness or thought processes we have to apply our knowledge of the previous chapters. We will have to describe or we will say which types of consciousness are represented by each moment, and then what feelings accompany them, how many roots they have, what functions they do, through what doors they arise, what objects they take, and what bases they depend upon. We have to explain all these. That is why it is important that you are familiar with the three previous chapters.


A thought process is called Vithi in Pali. This fourth chapter is called Vithisangahavibhaga. Vithi means a road, a street, a line, a series. Here it means a series of, a line of Cittas, a line of consciousness.

When we study thought processes, we have to give names to these thought processes. We can give names in two ways. One way is by the door they arise through, so eye door thought process, ear door thought process and so on. Also we can name them by the consciousness that is important in that thought process. For example we say eye consciousness thought process, ear consciousness thought process, ear consciousness thought process and so on.By way of doors or by way of consciousness we can give names to these thought processes.

Since there are six doors there are six kinds of thought processes–eye door thought process, ear door thought process and so on. There are six kinds of Vinnana consciousness. In that case there are eye consciousness thought process, ear consciousness thought process and so on and mind consciousness hought process. Mind consciousnesss or Mano Vinnana means all Cittas other than the ten, other than eye, ear, nose, tongue and body consciousness.

When we study the thought processes we come to understand the lawful order of consciousness or the fixed order of consciousness. That means one consciousness arises and it is followed by another type of consciousness arises and it is followed by another type of consciousness and then another type of consciousness and so on. They arise and disappear according to that order. There is no agent or no one giving order to the Cittas; they just arise and it is followed by another type of consciousness and then another type of consciousness and so on. They arise and disappear according that order. There is no agent or no one giving order to t he cittas; they just arise doing their respective functions.

In the manual there are given conditions for each type of thought process. There are conditions for arising of eye consciousness, ear consciousness and so on. They are given on pages 151 and 152.

For an eye door process to arise or for eye consciousness to arise there are four conditions. I think you are familiar with these four conditions. Number A–Eye sensitivity, that is for eye door process, so eye sensitivity, visible object, and then light and then attention. We need these four conditions ; for t he eye consciousness to arise. We must have the eyes or actually the sensitive parts in the eyes or eye sensitivity. There must be somthing to be seen, visible object, if there is nothing to be seen there will be no seeing consciousness. Then we need light. If this room is dark, then we will not see anything. Finally there is attention. It is called Manasikara here. Actually attention here is Avajjana–Pancadvaravajjana.

Similarly for ear door or ear consciousness there are four conditions. Instead of eye sensitivity here there is ear sensitivity. Then there is sound, space and attention. So when there is no sound we do not hear. When there is no space, when our ear is closed we do n ot hear. And when there is no attention we do not hear.

For nose door process there is nose sensitivity, smell, air element and attention. If we stay above the air, above the wind we don’t get the smell. Only when we are down wind do we get the smell because there is air element.

For tongue door process or tongue consciousness to arise we need tongue sensitivity, taste, and then water element and attention.

For body consciousness we need body sensitivity, tangible object (tangible object means combination of three essential elements–fire element, earth element, and air element) and then earth element and attention.

For the mind door thought process only three are given here. Actually there are four. He may have not found it in the Atthasalini. So there are four conditions for mind door thought process also–heart base, mental object, Bhavanga and attention. Attention is missing here. Those types of consciousness arising throught the mind door must have the heart as a base. There must be Dhamma ojbects. There are six kinds of Dhamma objects. Then there must be Bhavanga or the mind because the mind door thught process arises from Bhavanga. There must be attention, here it is Manodvaravajjana. So we need these conditions for seeing, hearing and so on–for these thought processes to arise.

Six Kinds of Objects

The objects are divided into how many kinds? Six kinds. I do not mean visible objects, audible objects and so on. Here the presentation of objects is sixfold or of six kinds. And they are what? Very great objects (You can see them on page 153), the great objects, slight objects, very slight objects for five sense door thought process. For mind door thought process there are clear objects and obscure or not clear objects. Altogether there are six kinds of objects or six kinds of presentation of objects.

Here ‘great’ does not mean that it is great in size or that it is gross. It means the force of impact on consciousness is great or we can call it a strong object. It may be small but it has force so that it can strike the mind and last for 17 thought moments. Such an object is called a very great object.

The object whose force is not so much as the very great object is called the great object. Very great objects need only one past Bhavanga. After one past Bhavanga it can vibrate the Bhavanga. The great object needs two or three past Bhavangas. Slight and very slight ;objects need even more past Bhavangas (6-15) before vibration occurs. Intensity variies. Therefore the thought processes also are different for these kinds of objects. “It is not the size of the object, but the number of process Cittas that arise at t he moment an object enters avenue of the sense door until the moment of the presentation of the object to consciousness ceases.” That meanswhen we study the first thought process we will see that there are 17 thought moments. Visible object strikes at the mind and then there is only one past Bhavanga. Then the visible object ceases with the 17th thought moment. Such an object is called a very great object.

Now we have to understand two things here–Vithi Citta and Vithimutta Citta, process Citta and process free Citta. Bhavangas are called process free Cittas. The other types of consciousness in a process are called process Cittas, Vithi Cittas. In this chapter we are going to study Vithi Cittas. But when we study process Cittas we cannot study process Cittas alone. We have to have the Bhavangas preceding and following each thought process. Bhavangas are like a buffer zone between different thought processes. No thought process is immediately follow by another thought process. At least there must be some moments of Bhavanga intervening between the thought processes.

Life span of R|pa and NÈma

First, before we study the thought process proper, we must understand the life span of Rupa and Nama, life span of matter and life span of mind or life span of Citta. Life span of Rupa is said to be 17 times longer than the life span of a Citta.’ Life span of a Citta is here called a moment, consciousness moment or thought moment. That thought moment is said to be very, very brief. In a moment you snap your fingers or in a moment you blink. In those sort of moments bilions of thought moments may arise it is said. So you understand how brief, how short one thought moment is.

As though it were not enough, each thought moment consists of three submoments. These three submoments are called–the first is called arising, the second is called presence and the third is called death or decease. There are these three submoments arising, presence and disappearing–dissolution or death. What we call existence is just these three submoments, arising, presece and dissolution.

Matter lasts 17 times longer than Citta. So for matter there are how many submoments? 51 submoments. Life of matter is 51 submoments. Matter also has arising, presence and dissolution. Arising of matter is the same as arising of consciousness. The dissolution of matter is also the same as the dissolution of consciousness. But the presence of matter is much longer than the presence of Citta. How many submoments for t he presence of matter are there? 49 submoments. So for matter arising is the same as arising moment of Citta and dissolution of matter is the same as dissolution of Citta. But the presence of matter is equal to 49 submoments because matter lasts for 17 thought moments. The f irst point is arising and the last point is dissolution. In between there are 49 submoments. These 49 submoments are said to be the presence phase of matter. So there are three submoments for every moment of consicousness.

There were teachers who thought there were only two submoments, not three. They thought there was just arising and disappearing. Many teachers did not agree with those teachers. The common opinion is that there are three submoments for each moment of consciousness.

Ete-door Thought Process

Now let us study the thought process. The diagram is for the eye door thought process. That means when you see something this thought process will arise in your mind. There is the present visible object, the visible object whichis present. It will last for 17 thought moments.

There are what are called Bhavanga consciousness. You know Bhavanga consciousness is, right? Bhavanga consciousness is the Vipaka, resultant consciousness. It is the same as relinking consciousness, Patisandhi consciousness. The same type of consciousness which arise after relinking is called Bhavanga. Bhavanga consciousness arises all through our lives when there is no prominent object or no special object. There is this Bhavanga flowing with rapid force.

 When a visible object comes into the avenue of the eye, so when a visible object presents itself to our eyes, this visible object is said to impinge upon our eye as well as upon the Bhavanga. What door is Bhavanga? Mind door. When a visible object strikes at the eye, at the same time it strikes at the Bhavanga also. So it strikes at the Bhavanga. When the Bhavanga is struck, then the striking is one moment. That one moment is called the past moment. That means one moment passes before the Bhavanga vibrates. That is actually the first impact of the object on the sense organ here on the eye and also on the Bhavanga. So one Bhavanga passes.

 After that one moment there are two moments of Bhavanga. These two moments of Bhavanga are called vibrating Bhavanga. They are shaking. Among these two, the first one is called vibrating Bhavanga or Calana Bhavanga. The second one is called Upaccheda. Bhavanga or arrested Bhavanga or cut off Bhavanga. Actually these two are vibrating bhavangas but since with the second one’ the flow of Bhavanga stops, the second one is called arrested Bhavanga, Upaccheda Bhavanga. Why the object strikes at the Bhavanga and at the eye, Bhavanga cannot stop abruptly. It has to go one or two moments, one or two times before it stops. With this object–let us say it is a very great object–we need one past Bhavanga and two vibrating Bhavangas. So the third Bhavanga in the series is called Upaccheda Bhavanga or arrested Bhavanga. The flow of Bhavanga will stop with the dissolution of Upaccheda Bhavanga.

  Immediately after the dissolution of Upaccheda Bhavanga, five sense door adverting will arise, Pancadvarajjana. You are familiar with Pancadvarajjana. It is called Pancadvarajjana because it arises in all five doors. Here it is in eye door, but it will also arise in ear door and so on. Panca means five. Dvara means door. So Pancadvarajjana means five sense door adverting. Avajjana is called adverting. There are two meanings for this word Avajjana.The first meaning is to pay attention to the object presented to the mind. It also turns the mind to the object and from this moment on a new set of consciousness arises, that is active consciousness. Thefirst three moments are Bhavanga, so they are inactive types of consciousness. With Pancadvarajjana the quality of consciousness changes. It is a turning point form inactive to a ctive. Also it is the point where mind turns to the object which is presented. It is the point where mind takes note of the object or mind pays attention to the object. That is why it is called Avajjana. There it is through the eye door. For others it may be ear door, nose door and so on. Therefore this consciousness is called Pancadvarajjana.

  We will have another one, a second one called Manodvaravajjana when we come to mind door thought process. But in the five sense door thought process mind turns toward the object with the arising of Pancadvarajjana.

  After Pancadvaravajjana, after this type of consciousness which pays attention to the object, the next moment in this example is seeing consciousness , in Pali Cakkhu Vinnana. Cakkhu Vinnana arises. Cakkhu Vinnana sees the visible object.

After seeing the object there is Sampaticchana, receiving moment, receiving consciousness.

After Sampaticchana, receiving consciousness, there is Santirana, investigating consciousness.

After investigating there is Votthabana, determining the object.There is some problem with Santirana and Votthabana for me at least. How does it investigate and how does it determine? I am not sure. In Pali books I do not find it clearly expalined. Some Burmese books say that it determines what the object is, for example that it is a visible object. In other books it says that it determines whether it is desirable or undersirable or whether it is to be liked or to be disliked.

After determining how many moments follow? Seven moments of Javana. It is said that under normal conditions Javanas always arise seven times, for seven thought moements. There are some special cases where they may arise six times, five times, four times, three times, twich or just once. Normally Javanas run for seven moments. This word Javana is very difficuilt to translate. I don’t think the translation, the word impulsion, will help us much. When I say the word impulsion, people don’t understand. I don’t understand either. Javana means swift or swift running. It has force, so I interpret it as full experience of the object. Only during these seven thought moments is the object fully experienced. Since it is fully experienced it is either Kusala or Akusala or Kiriya.

There is one word in the manual on page 154–“Following this, any one of the 29 sense sphere Javanas which has gained the right conditions runs its course,”. Now “which has gained the right conditions” is not explained in this manual, in Bhikkhu Bodhi’s book. It is important. “Which has gained the right conditions” –that means according to these conditions the Javanas will be Kusala or Akusala or Kiriya. The key to Javana being Kusala or Akusala is Yonisomanasikara or its opposite Ayonisomanasikara. Yonisomanasikara is translated as wise attention, so right attitude towards things or right attention. Ayonisomanasikara means unwise attention, wrong attitude towards things. If you have right attitutde towards things, if you have right attention then your Javana will be Kusala. If you have unwise attention the Javana will be Akusala. The quality of the Javanas whether they should be Kusala or Akusala is determined by your attention, that is wise attention or unwise attention. When there is wise attention the Javana will be Kusala. When there is unwise attention the Javanas will be Akusala. That wise attention can be here Pancadvarajjana or may be Votthabana also, determining. So if we take Votthabana to be determining just ‘this is an object’, then the quality of the Javanas is influenced by Pancadvarajjana. But if we take Votthabana to be determing ‘this is to beliked, this is to be disliked’, then we can say that Votthabana also determines the quality of Javanas.

Seven thought moments run and then after these seven there are two moments of registering. Tadarammana is a Pali word. ‘Tad’ means that. Arammana means object. So Tadarammana means having that object. That menas having that object taken by the Javanas. So the two Tadarammana Cittas take the same object that was taken by seven Javana moments. They are compared to water following the boat. When you row the boat, a little water follows the boat. In the same way these two moments are the followers of the Javanas. They are also compared to after-taste.

After two Tadarammana moments the mind laspes into Bhavanga again. So in this diagram the first Citta is Bhavanga and the last Citta is Bhavanga. That means before the first Bhavanga moment in the diagram there can be many Bhavanga moments. After the last Citta is Bhavanga. That means before the first Bhavanga moment in the diagram there can be many Bhavanga moments. After the last Bhavanga moment in the diagram there can also be many Bhavanga moments–not just one as is shown in the diagram. So there can be many Bhavanga moments before and after this thought process.

Now there are numbers on the diagram. You see the number 17. The visible object arises at the same time as the past Bhavanga. Then it lasts for 17 moments. So the visible object dissolves or disappears with the last submoment of second registering number 17 thought moment on the diagram. The visible object disappears and then this thought process finishes. There follow other types of thought processes.

Now if you remember the third chapter section on objects, Bhavangas take Kamma, sign of Kamma or sign of destiny as object. The first three moments–past Bhavanga, vibrating Bhavanga and arrested Bhavanga–these three do not take the present visible object. These three take Kamma or Kamma Nimitta or Gati Nimitta. Although there is a visible object, they do not take the visible object as object because Bhavanga moments always take Kamma or sign of Kamma or sign of destiny as object. So these three do not take the present visible object.

Beginning with Pancadvarajjana (#4) through Tadarammana (#17), all these types of Cittas take the present visible object as object. The Bhavanga which follows again takes Kamma, or the sign of Kamma or the sign of destiny as object.

Do you remember the simile of the mango? A man sleeps under a mango tree. The mango falls grazing his nose. He turns toward the mango. He looks at it. He picks it up. He investigates it. He smells it and decides that it is good. Then he eats it. Finally he swallows some remnants of the mango. Then he goes to sleep. Again. That is a very good example for the thought process. I will not repeat that since I told you in the first chapter.

Now we will have to apply our knowledge of the first and the third chapters to thought process.

This is eye door thought process or eye consicousness thought process or seeing thought process.

Object taken

This seeing thought process takes present visible object as object. It runs for 17 thought moments. The present visible object is a very great kind of object.

Cittas represented

Number 1, number 2 and number 3 ( in diagram ) what types of consciousness do they represent? Do you remember how many Cittas have the function of Patisandhi, Bhavanga and Cuti? 19. But can we have all 19 here? Can inmaterial Brahmas see? They do not have eyes. Therefore we have to leave the four Arupavacara Vipakas out. So number 1, number 2 and number 3 represent the other types of consciousness. What are those? Two Santirana, associated with Upekkha, eight Kamavacara Vipakas and five Rupavacara Vipakas. So we must apply our knowledge of previous chapters to this thought process.

Number 4 is Pancadvarajjana, Number 5, Cakkhu Vinnana if it is a desirable object then it is the resul of Kusala. If it is an undersirable object then it is the result of Akusala. If the object is something that you don’t want to see then it is Akusala Viapaka. If it is an object you want to see then it is Kusala Vipaka.

Sampaticchana is number 6. If it is desirable it will be Kusala Vipaka. If it is undersirable it will be Akusala Viapaka.

Santirana is the same. Here though there is differentiation between very desirable and average desirable. If the object is very desirable it must be Kusala Vipaka accompanied by Somanassa. If it is just ordinary desirable it must be Kusala Vipaka accompanied by indifferen feeling. If it is undersiable then the result of Akusala will arise.

Number eight is Votthabana. What is Votthabana? Which consciousness is called Votthabana, determining? Manodvarajjana. Manodvarajjana has two functions, Votthabana and Avajjana. When it arises five sense door thought processes, it has the Votthabana function, determining function. When it arises in the mind door thought processes it has the Avajjana function, adverting function.

Javanas–I don’t have to tell you how many Javanas are presented because the manual says how many? 29 sense sphere Javanas. Please tell me those 29 sense sphere Javanas? Twelve Akusala, eight Kamavacara Kusala, eight Kamavacara Kiriya and one Hasituppada. One of those 29 types of consciousness will be represented by the seven moments of Javana. The quality of the Javanas will be determined by whether you have wise attention or unwise attention, or if you are an Arahant, the Javanas will be Kiriya. There are three conditions: wise attention–Kusala Javana, unwise attention–Akusala Javana and if you are an Arahant–Kiriya Javanna.

Then there are two Tadarammanas. How many Cittas have the function of Tadarammana? Eleven. Please tell me which eleven. Three Santirana Cittas and eight Kamavacara Vipaka. One of these eleven Cittas will be represented by Tadarammana moment.

Functions of Cittas

Now let us look at the functions. Functions are not difficult. The first three moments in the five sense door thought process have what function? You have to remember how many functions. There are 14 functions. These three Cittas have what function? Bhavanga function. Then Pancadvaravajjana has what function? Avajjana. Cakkhu Vinnana? Seeing. Sampaticchana? Acceptiing or receiving. Santirana? Investigating. Votthabana? Determining. The next seven? Javana function. The last two? Tadarammana function.


Door-through what door does this thought process arise? Eye door. That is why it is called eye door thought process. All these types of consciousness beginning with Pancadvaravajjana arise through the eye door.


Bases–what is the base for the Bhavangas? Heart base. Pancadvaravajjana has what base? Heart base, Cakkhu Vinnana? Eye base. Sampaticchana? Heart base. Santirana? Heart base.Votthabana? Heart base. Javanas? Heart base. Tadarammana? Heart base. We can go into more detail, but I will not do so now as it will be confusing. Which eye sensitivity and which heart base do they depend on–there is difference of opinion about these things. I will not say anything about it here.After the sixth chapter we may come back here. The bases we already know. There is heart base and then eye base and the remainin ones are heart base. So we have to apply our knowledge of the first chapter and the third chapter to these thought processes. They are not all. We have to find out in what type of individuals they arise and in what realms they arise. We will study that later.

Now you know the eye door process that takes the present visible object as object. Here the present visible object is a very great object. And so there are –the object lasts for 17 thought moments coinsiding with 17 thoughts beginning with past Bhavanga and so on.

VÊthi Citta and VÊthimutta Citta

We have to differentiate between Vithi Cittas and Vithimutta Cittas. How many Vithi Cittas and Vithimutta Cittas are here? Vithimutta means free from Vithi, free from thught process, not included in the thought process proper. The first three moments in the thought process are Vithimutta, process free because they don’t arise throught process) are called Vithi Cittas, process Cittas. And then the Bhavanga following the 17th thought moment in the thought process andhowever many more Bhavangas are process free or Vithi free Cittas. How many Vithi Cittas are here in this thought process? 14 Vithi Cittas–that means 14 arisings of Vithi Cittas. How many types of Vithi Cittas are there? Pancadvaravajjana is one type; seeing consciousness is one; type; Sampaticchana is one type; Santirana is one type; Votthabana is one type: Javana is one type and Tadarammana is one type. There are seven kinds of Vithi Cittas. But if we count individual arisings of Vithi Cittas we get 14. There are 14 Vithi Cittas and seven kinds of Cittas.

Other Precessess

If the object is present audible object we just have to substitute Sota Vinnana for Cakkhu Vinnana. The others are all the same. In that case we will have past Bhavanga, vibrating Bhavanga, arrested Bhavanga, five sense door adverting, and then Sota Vinnana (ear consciousness), and the rest is the same.

When you smell something the same Cittas will arise except with nose consciousness. When you taste something the same thought process will arise with tongue consciousness. When you touch something the same thought process will arise with body consciousness. We get five kinds of thought processes here.

If we take all types of consciousness that arise in these processes, five sense door thought processes, how many types of consciousness will we get? 54 Kamavacara Consciousness. It is stated in the manual I believe on page 162. “There are seven modes and 14 different states of consciousness iin the cognitive process. In detail there are accordingly 54 in the five doors.” That 54 are the 54 Kamavacara consciousness.

This thought process shows us there is no person or no individual behind these arisings of thought moments. Each thought moment does its own function. When one thought moment arises and does its function and disappesars, then the next thought moment arises. Then it does its function and disappears and another thought moement arises or follows it. There is an order in this thought process. For example Sampaticchana or receiving always follows eye consciousness and so on. Similarly Santirana always follows Sampaticchana and so on. This is the fixed order of consciousness. In this process of consciousness we do not find any doer or anybody or anyone who gives orders: ‘You be Sampaticchana; ;you be Cakkhu Vinnana; you be Santirana’ and so on.

So the Cittas arise and disappear on their own accord. One thought moment arises and disappears and then another thought moment follows. When one thought moment disappears, it becomes the condition for t he next thought moment to arise. If it does not disappear the next thought moment cannot arise. There is much more to understand with regard to this thought process, that is if we know Patthana. We can apply Patthana conditions here, after the eight chapter we may want to try our knowledge of Patthana with the thought processes, but not now.

So what seems to be a v ery simple experience like seeing something is actually a very complex experience 17 thought moments, an object, their bases, their functions. We left out the Cetasikas. You can put in the Cetasikas if you want to. How many Cetasikas with Bhavanga or how many Cetasikas with Pancadvaravajjana, how many with seeing consciousness and so on. So when we understand Abhidhamma we understand in very great detail about our experience. A seemingly very simple experience becomes a very complex one. Actually only the mind of the Buddha can discover all these intraccies between different thought moments and also how they are related to the object and their relation to the bases, and their relation to each other–to the preceding ones and the succeding ones and so on. If you understand the Abhidhamma, you know a lot about your experiences.

Today we studied five kinds of thought processes. Those five kinds of thought processes take very great object as object.

We don’t have diagrams for other thought processes. So I made some diagrams today, but when I printed them out I couldn’t get it right. I don’t why. So I want you to try with your computer.

This thought process has 17 thought moments and the present visible object. This present visible object is very great. Object. That means it strikes the eye and mind, and there is only one moment past. After one past Bhavanga the Bhavanga vibrates.

Mahanta Object

But there are objects that are not so strong as the very great object. They are called great objects. These objects need not just one past Bhavanga, but two or three past Bhavangas. When they strike at the eye and the mind it takes two or three past Bhavangas before the Bhavanga vibrates. So for the great object there can be two types or thought processes. Do you know how to do the thought process with great object? With great ojbect you need two past Bhavangas or three past Bhavangas. So there are two kinds of thought processes that take great object. In the first case there will be past Bhavanga and so on. Can there be Tadarammana in that thought process? It is said that Tadarammana arises twice or none at all. If they arise they must arise twice. If there is only one moment left, then Tadarammana cannot arise. So if we put one more Atita or past Bhavanga there (at the beginning of the thought process), we get one more moment for Tadarammana, but Tadarammana cannot arise. Instead of Tadarammana there is one more Bhavanga. Hat Bhavanga is inside the thought process because that Bhavanga is the 17th thought moment. In that case the process for the great object begins with past Bhavanga, another past Bhavanga, then vibrating Bhavanga, arrested Bhavanga and so on until Javana. After other Bhavangas follow. The first Bhavanga is included ini the thought process, and the others are outside the thought process.

What about the second type of thought process. There we will have three past Bhavangas–past Bhavanga, past Bhavanga. Past Bhavanga, then vibrating Bhavanga, arrested Bhavanga and so on. This time the seventh Javana coincides with 17 moments. The end of that process is the seventh Javana. After seven Javanas the usual Bhavangas follow. So we get two kinds of thought processes that take great object.

Altogether we now have three types of thought processes. The first one is on the diagram and two are in your mind. Can you say the other two? Past Bhavanga, past Bhavanga, vibrating Bhavanga, arrested Bhavanga, five sense door adverting, seeing, receiving, investigating, determining, seven Javanas andone Bhavanga. The next one–past Bhavanga, past Bhavanga, past Bhavanga, vibrating Bhavanga, arrested Bhavanga, adverting, seeing, receiving, investigating, determining, seven Javanas–finish.

In the manual the submoments are represented by astericks. But on the diagram (handout) they are represented by zeros. In Burma we use zeros to represent the thought submoments of consciousness. Do you know why? Zero–void. So we want you to be reminded that they are void of permanency, void of satisfactoriness, void of Atta. To show the voidness of Cittas we use the zero for each submoment instead of asterick or some other thing. When ;you see these zeros you know that they a re nothing. That means they are not permanent, they are not satisfactory–they are not permanent entities–they are not Atman.

These are the first three thought processes. Next week we will go throught the other kinds of thought processes which take slight objects and very slight objects. Once you understand the first ones, then the others are n ot hard to understand.

Any questions?

Student: This represents a thought process that lasts a billionth of a second. Does it ever move to another thought process that is not necessarily Bhavanga?
Sayadaw: After this thought process there will always be Bhavanga moments. How many we do not know. This thought proces will be followed by mind door thought processes, differentkinds of mind door thought processes. We have not seen a thing yet. With this thought process all we see is just the visible object. Let’s say for example we see a rose. With this thought process we have not seen the rose; we have just seen the visible object, a general object. We do not come to decision that it is a rose or that is a visible object. In order to know, in order to be able to say this is red, this is yellow or this is a rose, we need some more kinds of thought processes. They are called forwarding thought processes. They are explained in the manual. We need some more thought processes before we can say’ this is a rose’,’thisis a book’. This is just the initial contact with t he object. It is not enought for us to be able to s ay ‘I see a rose’. You have to wait because we are doing the five sense door thought processes. Later on we will go to mind door thought process.

Mind door thought processes are treated very briefly in t he manuyal. In Burma different teachers have different opinions, so there can be many kinds of thought processes. In Ledi Sayadaw’s book there are many thought processes. We wil study some of them.

In the diagram on page 155 the “14 acts of process consicousness” means Vithi Cittas, 14 arisings of Vithi Cittas, # 4–# 17.

The kinds of process Cittas are only seven.

Student: Would you take a look on page 161. In the process that takes a g reat object and ends in Bhavanga, what object does that Bhavanga Citta take?
Sayadaw: The object of Bhavanga is always Kamma, Kamma Nimitta or sign of Kamma, or sign of destiny, Gati Nimitta.

Student: Inaudible.
Sayadaw: Whatever objects we experience in this life whether desirable or undersirable is influenced by the past Kamma. The r esult of past Kamma is the consciousness–Kusala Vipaka or Akusala Vipaka consciouness. That consciousness is the real result. Or Vipaka of past Kamma. But the material things we come across are not the direct result of Kamma. Kamma may have some influence over them. We will come to this later. And also in the fifth chapter we talk about Kamma and the result of Kamma.

Tape #19
Chapter 4 (B)

Cognitive Process: Thought Process (II)

Last week we studied the 5 sense door thought processes. We studied the first three of the eye door processes. The first is Atimahanta. It’s a very great object. Great means it is so strong that it can cause the Bhavanga to vibrate after only one past Bhavanga. There are some objects that are not so strong as that. So for them it will take two or three past Bhavangas before they can cause the Bhavanga to vibrate. These two are called Mahanta-great. There are two thought processes of Mahanta. In the first one there is Bhavanga after 7 Javanas. The second of the Mahanta has no Bhavanga after Javana in the thought process.

The object of the thought process is the present visible object. The life span of the present visible object is 17 thought moments. A thought process consists of 17 thought moments. If you look at the f irst Mahanta thought process there is one moment left after Javana. Tadarammana, registering, cannot arise there because it is said in the books that Tadarammanas arise always twice or not at all. So if we only have one thought moement left then Tadarammana will not arise. Since Tadarammana cannot arise there is Bhavanga. So this Bhavanga is included in the thought process.

For the second there is no thought moment left after the Javanas, so there is no problem. So with the one there is a question that I f Tadarammanas must arise twice why not let Tadarammana arise twice in the first Mahanta thought process? In that case one Tadarammana will be inside the thought process and the other outside the thought process. But that Is not possible because in one thought process. But that is not possible because in one thought process with the exception of the Magga thought process, the object must be the same. So if we allow the Tadarammana to a rise there the first Tadarammana would take the present object and the second Tadarammana would take the past object as object. So there is a difference in object. That is why Tadarammana or registering cannot arise there althought there is one thought moment left.

Today we go to the other, slight and very slight. The object of these six thought processes is weaker than the one for the Mahanta. It is so weak that it needs 4 past Bhavangas before it causes the vibrating Bhavanga. When there a re 4 past Bhavangas then we go there until we get to 17. There are now many Bhavangas? 4 Bhavangas–and before 4 Bhavangas there are 3 Votthabbanas. In the manual it says Votthabbana many airse twice or three times. So here we take Votthabbana to a rise 3 times. After Votthabbana there are 4 moments left to make 17 thought moemnts. They are filled with Bhavangas moments. There are 4 Bhavanga moments before the object of that thought process disappears. Still there is some room so we can have the slight 2,3,4,5 & 6. Paritta # 2 has how many past Bhavangas? 5 past Bhavangas. Since there are 5 past Bhavangas, there are only 3 Bhavangas left at the end. And then in Paritta #3 there are 6 past Bhavangas which leaves 2 Bhavangas, there are only 3 Bhavangas left at the end. And then in Paritta # 3 there are 6 past Bhavangas which leaves 2 Bhavangas at t he end. Then Patritta # 4 has 7 past Bhavangas and only one Bhavanga at the end. Paritta # 5 has 8 past Bhavangas and so there is no Bhavanga at the end–just 3 moments of Votthabbana. Paritta # 6 has 9 past Bhavangas and only 2 Votthabbanas. With the second Votthabbana the object disappears. So we have 6 kinds of Paritta thought processes. The object of htese Paritta thought processes is actually weak, not so strong. Only Votthabbana can arise here, no Javanas.

There is a weaker object than the object in the Paritta thought processes. These thought processes are called Atiparitta–“Ati” means very slight. Sometimes we think that we hear something or we see something, then we lose it. It’s something like that, very very weak. Actually there is no Vithi thought moments in these thought processes. So the # 1 of Atiparitta thought process has 10 past Bhavangas and t here are only t wo vibrations and then Bhavanga again. Since there is no stopping of Bhavanga we do not call the s econd one Upaccheda (arrested) Bhavanga because Bhavanga does not s top there, it goes on. So we just have two Bhavanga Calanas and then 5 oridinary Bhavanga moments. In this thought process there is just a little bit of vibration of Bhavanga and then back to Bhavanga again. Sometimes we may be sleeping or may be dozing and we go back to sleep. Bhavanga is like that. So the objects of these thought processes are very weak.

The second Atiparitta thought process has 11 past Bhavangas and at the e nd 4 Bhavanga moments. There is no Votthabbana here, just t he vibration of Bhavanga. Atiparitta thought process # 3 has 12 past Bhavangas and 3 Bhavangas at t he end. Atiparitta thought process #4 has 13 past Bhavangas and only 2 Bhavangas at the end. Atiparitta thought process # 5 has 14 past Bhavangas, 2 vibrating Bhavangas and only 1 Bhavanga at the end. And then Atiparitta thought process # 6 has 15 Bhavangas and two vibrating Bhavangas at t he end. Actually there are no Vithi Cittas in these thought processes. Vithi Cittta means Pancadvarajjana, Cakkhu-Vinnan and so on. There is just t he vibration of Bhavanga.

Now these 15 thought processes are called eye conscousness or seeing. For hearing etc. We can have 15 each. So there are all together in the five sense door thought processes 75. These thought processes are called Pancadvaravithi.

The first one is called Tadarammana course, that is the thought process ending with Tadarammana. The two Mahanta thought processes are called Javana course because they end with Javana. The next 6, the Paritta …. What do they end with? …. They are called Votthabbana course. Then the Atiparitta 6, how are they called? Zero course–it is called Moghavara; it is translated as futile course or we may just call it zerom course because there are no Vithi Cittas at all in these 6 thought processes.

All the types of consciousness arising in these thought processes are among the 54 Kamavacara Cittas. So there are no Rupavacara Cittas, Arupavacara Cittas or Lokuttara Cittas in these thought processes. That is why they are called Kamavacara thought processes. Kamavacara thought processes have two divisions–one is five sense door and the other is mind door.

Now I think we can think of some simile for Atita Bhavangas. Suppose a person is asleep and you hit at the door. When you hit strongly he will wake up or his sleep will be disturbed after just one hit. Then your hit is not so strong and you will have to hit two times. Then even less strong you will have to hit three times. Four times and so on up to 15 times. So when the object is strong (whether it is small or big doesn’t matter) when the impact of the object is strong, it only needs one past Bhavanga. If it is less strong it needs 2,3,4 and so on.

The object of Atiparitta is very very weak. There is almost no object at all. They are just able to make the Bhavanga vibrate and then go back to Bhavanga again. They are called Moghavara, zero course.

In these Citta thought processes especially the first one, there are how many Vithi Cittas? 7 Vithi Cittas–Pancadvaravajjana Cakkhuvinnana, Sampati­cchana, Votthabbana, Javana and Tadarammana. How many arisings of Citta are there? (That means individual Cittas) 14. So all together for 5 sense door thought processes we get 54 Kamavacara Cittas. I hope you remember how to apply your knowledge of Vatthu-base, Dvara, Arammana to this.

Now we go to mind door thought process. Mind door thought process in the manual is very simple, but teachers have more to say. One teacher may say one thing and another teacher some other thing. We have difference of opinion and different kinds of thought processes. In the handout I gave you just the opinion of one teacher or teachers in general. First let us go through the manual.

When the mind door thought process arises it does not need the five sense doors. An object may strike at the mind after Bhavanga. Mostly the objects of the mind door processes are past objects, future objects or timeless objects like concepts and Nibbana. Present objects are also object of mind door thought process.

Since the objects arise only through mind door and not through any of the five sense doors, they are called Suddha Mano Dvara, pure mind door thought processes. You may remember that with regard to 5 sense door thought processes actually the object strikes at two doors … eye door and mind door or ear door and mind door and so on. But in the mind door thought processes it is only through mind door or Bhavanga that these processes arise.

There are different ways of objects entering or striking at the mind door. They are given in the manual on page 164. How objects present themselves to the mind door –paragraph # 2 “The independent mental processes occur when any of the six objects enter the range of congnition entirely on its own, not as a consequence of an immediately preceding sense door thought process.”

Now we will look at the mental thought processes in the manual. We will also study the mind door thought processes that are called in Pali Tadanuvattika. That means following thought processes, those that follow the five sense door thought processes. Here we are studying just the independent mind door thought processes.

The question may be raised how an object can enter the range of mind door independently of a proximate sensory impimgement. There is no sensory impingement but throught mind, objects can arise or objects can present themselves to the mind without the help of the five senses. Ledi ‘Sayadaw cites various Suttas. Actually these are from the Atthasalini and Mulatika, Tika of the Atthasalini. So it is said that “through what has directly perceived earlier”–that means you have experienced something before. Later on you call that experience to your mind, that object appears to your mind. Say, you saw something yesterday. Now you can recall it and see it in your mind. That past object presents itself to your mind. That is because of your mental power. There are two different presentations. The object of five senses strikes at the mind door and at the sense doors. In the five sense doors it is the power of the object that makes the Bhavanga vibrate and the other thought moments arise. But here it is the power of your mind that brings forth objects to your mind. It is not through the power or strength of objects but throught thepower of your mind that these objects mostly past or future appear inside your mind.

“Throught what was directly perceived earlier”–that means through what you have experienced through five senses before or “by inference from what was directly perceived”–that means you have seen or what you have heard and so on. That way also the object can appear to your mind or enter the range of cognition. “From what was learnt from older reports”–that means throught hearsay. You do not experience it yourself, but you hear someone say something about it. Then you think of it andhave that object inyour mind. “Or by inference from what was learnt form older reports”–that is by inference.

“On account of belief”–sometimes you believe in something and you thinkof it and then the object enters your mind. Sometimes on account of your opinion, you have some kind of opinion, so that appears to your mind. Sometimes here is reasoning. You don’t just think aobut it. You weigh it in your mind and have reason forthis andthat andyou come to a conclusion. In that way the object can enter your mind.

“Or reflective acceptance of a view”–that means you accept some view after reflecting onit.When you have accepted it, that view appears to your mind. “By the power of Kamma”–sometimes for example the Kamma object will appear to your mind when you are dying….. that is by the power of Kamma that that object is presented to your mind. “And by psychic power”–so if you have psychic power or Abhinna and others then you can take these objects in your mind. “Disturbance of the bodily humors”–sometimes because your body is not in good health this object will appear. Bodily humor means something in the body like phelegm, wind and bile. They are called the three Dosas of the body. Dosa doesn’t mean anger here; Dosa here means three faulty things in the body. They should be balanced. If they are not balance, you have some kind of disease. If you have too much phlegm, may be you have one kind of disease. If you have too much wind, maybe you will have some other kind of disease. And if you have too much or too little bile you will another kind of dieseas. These are called bodily humors. Sometimes they are unbalanced. So when they are unbalanced, some objects may enter your mind.

Sometimes you have bad dreams because it is too cold for you or too hot for you or you are constipated or something like that. Then “the influence of the deities”–sometimes deities can cause you to have dreams or you have visions or something like that. They all come through the mind door.

Then there is comprehension, realization etc. Comprehension means directly seeing it. For example we have studied and know there are four Noble Truths and there is Nibbana. Until we realize Nibbana by Magga Citta we do not know Nibbana directly. Now we think of Nibbana. Nibbana is the object. That Nibbana is presented to us through mind door or at the moment of Gotrabhu, Gotrabhu can take Nibbana as object but that is also direction not realization. Realization comes at the moment of Magga or Path. All these objects are understood through the mind door or these objects enter the range of cognition through the mind door.

Through the mind door many kinds of objects can b e presented–past, present, future and also time free consciousness and Nibbana. In mind door thought processes the objects are divided into only two–Vibhuta and Avibhuta. Vibhuta means clear and Avibhuta means unclear. There are only two kinds of objects for mind door thought processes–clear and unclear or obscure. Since it is presented through mind door we do not need Pancadvaravajjana, 7 Javanas and then two registration moments and Bhavanga again. We need not worry about past Bhavanga or 17 thought moments because mostly the objects of these mind thought processes are past, future or time free. That is why there is no Atita Bhavanga or past Bhavanga here. According to this manual the mind door thought process runs vibrating Bhavanga, arrested Bhavanga, Manodvarajjana, 7 Javanas and then two Tadarammanas. For obscure object still we do not need Atita Bhavanga. We have vibrating Bhavanga, arrested Bhavanga, Manodvarajjana, 7 Javanas and that is all. Then there is Bhavanga again. Later we will see that registration can arise only with clear objects. With regard to obscure objects no Tadarammana arises. In the though process for obscure objects there is no Tadarammana, just 7 Javanas and then Bhavanga again. It is a very simple mind door thought process -one for clear objects and one for obscure objects.

Now as I said before teachers have different opinions about that. They argue about what if the object is present. If it is present, we can have 17 thought moemnts for it. Since it is a present object and it lastas for 17 thought moments, there should be Atita Bhavanga. According to those teachers we have this chart–Vibhuta 1,2,3,4,5 and Avibhuta 1,2. If it is too complicated, just forget about it. So long as you are familiar with the two described in the manual itself, the diagram on page 166, that is enough. So accroding to these teachers there are different kinds of objects, especially objects that have a duration of thought moments and objects that do nothave that duration. For those that have duration of 17 thought moments we need Atita Bhavanga. So here first Bhavanga, then 2 Vibrating Bhavangas, arrested Bhavanga, Manodvaravajjana, 7 Javanas and then 2 Tadarammanas and 4 Bhavangas. For the second one we add one more, for the fifth one more until we get the second Tadarammana as # 17.

Then Avibhuta, obscure object–here if the obscure object is the Rupa object of 17 life moments we have 6 Atita Bhavangas and then vibrating Bhavanga, arrested Bhavanga, Manodvaravajjana, 7 Javanas and Bhavanga. The second one has one more Atita Bhavanga; the others are the same and end with the seventh Javana.

So these objects whose life span are 17 thought moments are material properties other than the two intimations and four characteristics. Now it is said that the two intimations arise and perish with Citta. So they do not last for 17 thought moments. If you do not know what the four characteristics are, you do notunderstand this. In order to understnad thisyou have to be familiar with the 28 material properties. Among the 28 material properties there are two that are called intimations, bodily intimation and verbal intimation. Now this is bodily intimation, right, I’m doing something like this (motions with nad). I’m calling you to come here. You understand what I want. So that is bodily intimation, not themovement itself but some mode of movement in my hand. That is bodily intimation.

Verbal intimation means my speaking. You understand what I am saying. That is through verbal intimation. It is said that these two intimations last for only one moment and not 17 thought moemnts, so they are excluded from the objects here for these thought processes.

The four characteristics are like Anicca, Dukkha and Anatta. The arising, continuation and disappearing–so they do not last for 17 moments. They last for one moment or some last for 49 submoments. So they are n ot included here.

Then if the object is mixed present, past, future, and timeless objects, there are two thought processes–Vibhuta and Avibhuta. For Vibhuta the object can be past, present and future. They are 54 Kamavacara Cittas, 52 Cetasikas, two intimations and four characteristics. If they are past and future they a re the other Rupas. And for Avibhuta, obscure, they can be past, present and future and they are all Cittas, all Cetasikas, two Intimations, and four Characteristics. And if they are past and future other Rupas 22 Rupas time free Pannatti. These are the thought processes added by teachers in Burma. There are many other thought processes also. So if you can think of one thought process you can think we should add this or we should add that. In the manual and in Ledi Sayadaw’s book ther are many more thought processes.

Now we will go to the subsequent thought processes, thought processes that follow five sense door thought process. They are not mentioned in the manual. In Burma our teachers have this opinion that five sense door thought process alone is not enough for us to say, “I see a rose.” “I see a book”, “I see a man.” In order for us to be able to say “I see a rose; I see a man”, we need more kinds, more types of though processes.

When we say, “I see a rose,” first the rose comes into the avenue of t he eye, that is the f irst thought process, Atimahanta, the first one for the eye door process. His thought process a rises and disappears. But at the end of the thought process we have not seen the rose. We have just seen the visible object. We do not know that it is a rose at that moment; we just know that it is a visible object. After t hat one kind of mind door thought process arises taking past object as object. The life span of the object of this thought process is 17 thought moments. After 17 though moments the object disappears. Actually the rose disappears although you may continue seeing the rose. Actually the rose you have seen with thefirst thought process has disappeared. When it has there is another thought process which is through the mind door. That process, a mind door process, takes that past object as object. It is like bringing it back to your mind. So that kind of thought process arises. Many such thought processes of that kind may arise. That process is called taking the past, the process of taking the past as object.

Then another thought process arises, the process taking the whole, taking all. When you see a man–let’s say first you see the head; actually you don’t see the head at once. You see the visible object or the material particles. So there is seeing thought process and then a process taking the past as object. These two processes arises many times until you have seen all the material particles in the whole man.

With the third thought process you take all, all the visible objects as object. So the first thought process takes one or a small amount of visible object as object. The second taeks the past as object. Now the third kind of thought process takes all the visible objects in a man. Although it is whole, it is called Samuha in Pali or group. It is still ultimate reality. It has not passed into the realm of concept yet. The thought process taking the past as object and the thought process taking the whole as object are both ultimate realities, Paramatthas.

Now follows another thought process which takes man as object, the substance, the person–man as object. When that object arises you have gone into the realm of Pannatti. Now it becomes a concept. With that type of thought process one thinks, “I see a man”. But still the word man does not yet come to the mind. One sees a group of material properties in the shape of a man.

Another thought process follows. With that thought process the name man appears to his mind. That is called taking name. So there are four thought processes following the seeing thought process. We need altogether five kinds of thought processes in order to say “I see a rose; I see a man.” These thought processes may arise again and again, millions of times. What are the four following the sense door thought process? Number one is taking the past, number two is taking the whole, number three is taking the thing, the substance, taking the person if it is a man and number four taking the name. Only after these four thought processes can we say “ I see a rose, I see a man.” So we are seeing things every moment and we think it is a v ery simple experience, that we see or tht we hear something, but if we apply our knowledge of Abhidhamma to just seeing, we know it is very complex. We can explain many things here… how they arise, through what sense door they arise, what type of consciousness performs what function and what object is taken and so on. It is very complex. With regard to seeing, smelling, tasting and touching we need these four subsequent thought processes, all together five, in this order ….. the past, the whole, seeing and name. In the seeing thought process the name will only arise when you know thename of it. If you don’t know the name of it that process won’t arise. Sometimes we see a thing and don’t know the name of it. Nowadays we go into a store and see thousands of things there. You don’t know the names of all these things. So if you don’t know the name of a thing althogh you see it, the taking name thought process cannot arise.

What about when you hear? You hear my voice. You hear words and sounds. We need these four throught processes but the order is a little different. You hear my voice–let’s say one syllable. You hear the word ‘man’, one syllable. So first you take the present sound as object. Instead of Cakkhuvinnana there will be Sotavinnana. Then the sound disappears very quickly, so you recollect that sound by the past object thought process. Can there be a third process taking all? There is only one sound, so there will be no process taking all. Next isthe thought process taking t hename. The name concept comes first; only after that do you come to the thing. That is the difference between the other thought processes and the hearing thought process. In hearing thought process you have past object, all name and thing, but if there is only one syllable there will be no thought process taking all. If there are two syllables then we will have to have the thought process taking all. If there are three syllables then one more thought thouhgt process. If there are four syllables, for e xample in the word ‘dedication’, there is one more. When you hear something–that means the words heard by some person–first you hear the sound with Sotavinnana thought process takes that past sound as object. Manodvara throught process takes that past sound as object. Let’s say there are two syllables. Next you take all, the two syllables together. Then in the fourth process the name concept comes to you. When I say the word ‘man’ the name or noun ‘man’ comes to your mind. Only after that do you know the man, a person. Here the thought process taking thing concept comes last.

Here also if you do not know the meaning of that sound the last process will not arise. There many English words that you do not know, right? If we hear those words we are blank. We don’t know the meaning. If that is the case there is no thought process taking Atthapannatti as object. That process we do not understand. In order to understand what another person says we need two conditions. First we must hear it or the object must come into contact with our ear. Then we must have known the meaning of the sound before. Only then do we understand what other people say.

Sometimes we do not understand. Sometimes we talk too fast. Our knowledge is not so perfect, so we don’t hear these things and we don’t understand. In order to understand we must hear the word clearly and we must have known themeaning of the word before. Only then do we understand.

If we are familiar with the language, like our own language, although we do not hear the sounds distinctly , we can fill in these souns because we are so familiar with our language. When we talk among ourselves–Vietnamese people–we don’t pronounce the words clearly. Sometimes they blur, but you understand. If you talk this way with a person who does not speak the language from birth, they do not understand. They say, “please speak slowly and distinctly.” We ask American people to say it again or we say “I didn’t hear what you said.” In order to understand we need two conditions. First we must hear it, hear it clearly. And then we must have known the meaning of it before. Only then do we understand. With the language which we are familiar with we may be able to fill in these indistinct sounds because we know the language very well.

There are at least these four thought processes, four mind door thought processes following one of the five sense door thought processes. Only after these five thought processes do we really experience the object, do we really see or do we really hear and understand. After the five sense door thought process all the; subsequent thought processes go through mind door. Those subsequent mind door thought door processes are not mentioned in the manual. I mean the original manual. Here in Bhikkhu Bodhi’s book they are mentioned. What I have explained to you is the general opinion of teachers, but what he gave in this book is mostly the opinion of Ledi Sayadaw.

Ledi Sayadaw was very learned and very intelligent, so he put some more mind door thought processes like determining and some others–recognition of color, Vannazaliakkhana grasping the entity, Vatthugahika. They are interesting, but if it is too much for you, you can just leave them alone.

We come to the end of the Kamavacara Manodvara thought process. In these Kamavacara Manodvara thought processes there are only three Vithi Cittas and ten arisings of Cittas. On page 166, section 13 summary: “Three modes and ten different states”–that means three Vithi Cittas and ten arisings of Cittas. What are the three Vithi Cittas? Manodvaravajjana, Javana and Tadarammana. And what are the ten individual Cittas? Manodvaravajjana, seven Javanas and two Tadarammanas. So when it is asked how many Vithi Cittas there are, we answer three. How many individual Cittas? We say ten.

AppanÈ Thought Processess

JhÈna Thought Processess

Now we come to the Appana thought process. There are different kinds of Appana. Now first the meaning of the word Appana. Primarily the word Appana is a synonym for the word Vitakka. What is the function of Vitakka? The function of Vitakka is to put the object onto the Citta. Appana has the same meaning–apply the Citta onto the object. Appana is a synonym for Vitakka. In these Appana thought processes it is not ordinary Vitakka but it is highly developed Vitakka, so that it has the power to keep the mind firmly on the object.

First Jhana is also called Appana because it is with Vitakka which is Appana. Sometimes if something is with some other thing you call it by that one thing only. Primarily Appana means Vitakka. By extension Appana means first Jhana because first Jhana is accopanied by Vitakka which is Appana. By further extension all Jhanas, Maggas and Phalas can be called Appana because they resemble first Jhana in being able to inhibit the mental hindrances. So her Appana means Jhana, Magga and Phala. When we say Appana thought process it may be Jhana thought process or it may be Magga thought process or it may even be Phala Samapatti thought process or Nirodha Samapatti thought process.

In the Appana thought process there is no distinction between Vibhuta and Avibhuta. That means there is no division of objects between clear and obscure because Appana means Jhana and Magga. If you do not have the kind of Kasina clearly in your mind you cannot get Jhana. That means the object is always clear. There is no division between ;clear and unclear. It must always be clear, Vibhuta object.

Also in the Appana thought processes there is no arising of Tadarammana. Later on we will see that Tadarammana can only arise with regard to Kamvacara objects, only to Kamavacara beings in Kamavacara realm. If the object is not a Kamavacara object Tadarammana cannot arise, however clear the object is. So there will be no Tadarammana in the Appana thought process.

Since Appana thought process is a mind door thought process we do not need to bother about 17 thought moments. We will not have Pancadvaravajjana. Instead of Pancadvaravajjana we will have Manodvaravajjana. So a thought process runs one vibration, one arrested Bhavanga and then Manodvaravajjana (mind door adverting). After that there are four moments of Kamavacara Javana. Kamavacara Javana means Kusala and Kiriya. There are four moments of Kamavacara Javana accompanied by knowledge. If it is not accompanied by knowledge, you cannot get Jhana and Magga. They must be Nanasampayutta, accompanied by knowledge. Four come from Kamavacara Kusala and four come from Kamavacara Kiriya. There are eight. Let us say it is for a non-Arahant. If it is for a non-Arahant one of the four Kamavacara Kusala accompanied by knowledge will arise. One of these four will arise four times in these thought processes.

The first Javana in the Appana thought process is called Parikamma, preliminary. The second one is called Upacara, neighborhood or access. The third one is called Anuloma conformity. The fourth one is called Gotrabhu. These four are actually Kamavacara Javanas, one of the eight Kamavacara Kusala or Kiriya Cittas accompanied by Panna…. For those who are non-Arahants one of t he four Kamavacara Kusala and for Arahants one of the four Kamavacara Kiriya. So Kamavacara Javanas run for four times. After that there is Jhana. Then Bhavanga follows. That Jhana can be how many Cittas if non-Arahant? Nine. If Arahant? Nine. This is how the thought process arises at thefirst attainment of Jhana. At the first attainment of Jhana only one moment of Jhana will arise and then it subsides into Shavanga.

It goes like this. A person practices Samatha meditation. Let’s say he practices Kasina meditation. He gets the image of the Kasina in his head. First it is called the grasped sign. He contemplates on that sign again and again. The ; sign becomes refined, bright and clear. At that time it is ; called counterpart sign, counterpart sign of the Kasina. He contemplates on that counterpart sign as earth, earth for example. When he is doing that, dwelling on the counterpart sign, there are mind door thought processes running in his mind, mind door thought processes that take that Kasina as object. Then a time will come when he gets Jhana. When he gets Jhana there is one thought process, the thought process on the sheet. That thought process arises when he gets Jhana for the first time.

Suppose a person has not yet attained any of the Jhanas, a complete beginner. He pracices meditation and gets the first Jhana. At t he ;first attainment of Jhana the thought process runs like this: vibrating Bhavanga, arrested Bhavanga, Manodvaravajjana, Parikamma, Upacara, Anuloma, Gotrabhu. You have to memorize those names. You can take the English translation from the book. After Gotrabhu Jhana Citta arises only once. Then it subsides into Bhavanga. That is ; the first attainment of Jhana. Among the four Javanas the first one is called what? Parikamma, preliminary or preparation.

These four thought moments go under different names at times. In the commentaries the first three are called by any of three names. For example the f irst one may be called Parikamma, Upacara or Anuloma. There is confusion. Here in the manual they are given just one name each, so I think that is better for us. Later on you will understand.

The first one of these four is Parikamma, preparation. It prepares the ;mental continuum for the attainment which is to follow. The next one is called Upacara. Upacara means neighbourhood. It is here translated as access. The third one is called Anuloma. Anulaom means conformity. It conforms to both the preceding and succeeding Cittas. It is compatible with both preceeding and succeeding Cittas. Preceding here means notonly in this thought process but in the thought processes that have arisen before. When you are practicing for Jhana you have many thought processes taking thesign of Kasina as object. Preceeding Cittas mean not only those in this thought process but those in the former thought processes as well. It is called conformity.

The fourth one is called Gotrabhu. Gotra means lineage. Bhu has two meanings. One meaning is to overcome. The other meaning is to reach into. It is made to mean two things. There are two meanings. When a person attains Jhana, the Jhana consciousness belongs to Mahaggata, mahaggata lineage we can say. Parikamma, Upacara, Anuloma and Gotrabhu belong to Kamavacara. So when it reaches to Gotrabhu it is overpowering the Kamavacara lineage. It reaches into Mahaggata lineage. So this one Citta is said to have two meanings–overcomeing Kamavacara lineage and reaching into Mahaggata lineage. Therefore it is called Gotrabhu.

In the Magga thought process we will also find these four. There Gotrabhu should be explained as overcoming Puthujjana lineage and reaching into noble (Ariya) lineage. If it is a Magga thought process until Gotrabhu he is a Put hujjana. Then beginning with Magga moment he is an Ariya, a noble person. So it is like a transition here. In this case it is called Gotrabhu because it overpowers Puthujjana lineage and it reaches into Ariya, noble lineage. And in Jhana thought process Gotrabhu overpowers Kamavacara lineage and reaches into Mahaggata lineage.

There are two kinds of persons here, a person of average faculty, and a person of keen faculty–that means a person who is not so bright and one who is very bright. He is called of average faculty even though he gets Jhana, so he is actually bright, but comparing with the other one he is not so bright. For the first kind of person there needs to be four kinds of Kamavacara Javanas–Parikamma, Upacara, Anuloma and Gotrabhu. But for the person who has keen faculties, who is very bright, he needs only three Kamavacara Javanas. The first one is dropped. There is Upacara, Anuloma and Gotrabhu. There are only three moments. With regard to Jhana there is no adjustment, just drop Parikamma. With Magga we will see what we will do. So there are two persons, one of average faculty and one of keen faculty. For those of average faculty there are four moments of Kamavacara Javanas. For those of keen faculties there are three; moments of Kamavacara Javanas. The first one, Parikamma is dropped so there are only Upacara, Anuloma and Gotrabhu. If it is Jhana thought process there is one moment of Jhana and then it lapses into Bhavanga.

In the manual in the middle of page 167 in the translation of the passage “any one of the Javanas among the 26 types of sublime or supramundane Javanas enters upon the process of absorption” ….. If you take Javana as just Appana Javana then there are 26.

“In accordance with the way the mind is conveyed”–what does that mean? If you direct your mind toward attaining Jhana ther will be Jhana thouht moments. If you direct your mind toward attaining Nibbana and practicing Vipassana meditatiion, then the Appana Javanas will be Magga and Phala. So “in accordance with the way the mind is conveyed” means in accordance with how you direct your mind. Sometimes you want to attain Jhana so you direct your mind to attaining Jhana and practice Samatha meditation. Sometimes you want to attain Nibbana so in order to achieve that you practice Vipassana meditation and direct your mind towards the attainment of Nibbana. In that case and if you are successful the Appana Javanas will be Magga and Phalas. The 26 sublime or 26 Mahaggata and Lokuttara Javanas arise according to how you direct your mind.
“After that, at the end of absorption, there is subsidence into the life-continuum.” Now “at the end of absorption”…. The explanation given ;in the ;manual on page 169 is not so complete. “At the end of absorption”–this phrase is important here. If it were said “After that, there is subsidence into the Bhavanga”, if it is said so, there could be misunderstanding because whatever the thought process is, Bhavanga always follows after the first moment of Appana. If it is taken that way, no Phala moments can follow Magga, and no Jhana and Phala moments can follow one after another in the sustained attainment thought processes. That is why this phrase is put ther. “At the end of absorption” means at t he end of absorption Javanas. For example in the Magga throught process there is one Magga moment and two or three Phala moments. Only after all the Appana Javanas will Bhavanga arise. In order to let us know that the author put this phrase “at the end of absorption.” Only after the absorption javanas will there be Bhavanga, not just after one ;Appana javana. If there are two Appana Javanas then after two Appana Javanas Bhavanga will arise. If there are 1000 Appana Javanas only after 1000 Appana Javanas will there be Bhavanga moments.

No occurance of registration Cittas–that is, we do not need to say here because it is already stated before–there is no arising of registration consciousness above. So here there is subsidence into life continuum at t he end of absorption means there is Bhavanga at the end of all Appana Javanas. The non-occurrence of reistration has already been stated above.

In the thought process that is called Samapajjana, later sustained attainmentprocess, there can be thousands and thousands of moments of Jhana. A person first gets Jhana. Later on he wants to get into the Jhana again. He practices meditation again in order to reach that Jhana. Then according to his wish–he may have a wish: “May I be in Jhana” or “May Jhana Cittas arise again for one hour, two hours or for a day or two”–so with that wish in mind, he practices meditation and that process arises. In this thought process there are millions and millions of Jhana moments. This is called later sustained attainment, that is to enjoy Jhana actually. First you get the Jhana. Then you want to enjoy it. You want to enjoy Jhana because when your mind is in Jhana, your mind is very still and calm. Vitakka, Vicara, Pita, Sukha and Ekaggata are very strong, so you are very happy at that time, very peaceful. You want to enjoy the peacefulness of Jhana. So you want to enter into Jhana again. In that case since you want there to be many moments of Jhana, Jhana moments will be thousands and thousands. Here in the attainment thouht process there is vibrating Bhavanga, arrested Bhavanga, and then Manodvaravajjana, Parikamma, Upacara, Anuloma, Gotrabhu, and then many many moments of Jhana. Three dots (on chart) represent millions and millions of moments of Jhana.

At the appointed time the meditator emerges from Jhana. That means Chavanga moments arise. He can be in this type of Jhana thought process as long as he wants. If he makes a wish or a resolution, “May I be in the Jhana thought process for one hour”, then he will be in the Jhana for one hour. At the endof an hour the Bhavanga will automatically arise. That is what we call the emergence from Jhana. If he makes a resolution “May I be in Jhana for three days”, then he will be in the Jhana for three days. At the end of three days automatically the Bhavanga will arises.

Here for people of average faculty and for keen faculty there is only one thought moment difference. The others are the same. Parikamma will not arise for those of keen faculty.

With regard to Jhana thought process there are two kinds–first attainment andlater sustained attainment. The first is called Adhikammika. ‘Adhi’ means first. ‘Kamma’ means work. So it means one who is engaged in first working, a beginner. Sustained attainmentis called Samapajjana thought process. You are familiar with the word Samapatta. Samapatti and Samapajjana come from the same root. Actually they mean the same thing. We call this Jhana Samapatti Vithi.

It Jhana moments can represent five Rupavacara Kusala and four Arupavacara Kusala if it is a non-Arahant. If it is for an Arahant Jhana moments will be represented by five Rupavacara Kiriya and four Arupavacara Kiriya.

What is the object of this thought process? You go back to Arammana, objects in the third chapter. Let’s go back now. Page 142–so the object of let us say the first thought process of Appana, first Jhana thought process–generally we say the object is Panatti. How many kinds of concepts are there? Look at the chart first Jhana three–25 concepts. The object of this first Jhana thought process is one of these 25 concepts. They are tenKasina concepts, ten foulness of the body concepts and then one body concept ( that means hair of the head, hair of thebody, nails, teeth, skin and so on), and then in and out breath concept, and then beings as object of loving-kindness (Metta), beings as object of Karuna, and beings as object of Mudita. Altogether there are 25. One of these 25 concepts is the object of this Jhana thought process. The object of the sustained thought process is the same, one of these 25 Pannatti’ objects. If you want to understand the objects in detail you go back to this diagram or table 3:6.

Tape #20

Chapter 4 (C)

Thought Process (III) TadÈrammaÓa-niyama inclusive

Last week we studied the mind door thought processes. Now this chapter deals with different kinds of thought processes. There are five sense door thought processes. Five sense door thought process is divided into very great, great, slight and very slight. Mind door thought process is first divided into Kamavacara and Appana. Appana means Mahaggata and Lokuttara. Kamavacara is divided into Vibhuta and Avibhuta, clear object and obscure object. Appana thought process is also divided up into Jhana and Magga. Then there is also Nirodha. Jhana is divided into two–first attainment and later sustained attainment… Magga thought process–there is first attainment and then later Phala attainment.

Path Thought Process

Now today we will study the path thought process. Actually the path thought process will be described in the ninth chapter. In this chapter the path thought process is just implied but not described separately. I think we should study path though process here also. Then when we get to the ninth chapter we will study it again.

Path thought process arises when a person gains enlightment. Suppose a person practiced Vipassana meditation. He progresses from one state of Vipassana knowledge to another. When he practices Vipassana meditation there are millions and millions of thought processes. These thought processes take miscellaneous formations as object. ‘Miscellaneous formations’ means actually conditioned phenomena or just mind and matter. When you practice Vipassana meditation you take mind or matter as object. You try to see impermanence, suffering and no soul nature of mind and matter, their arising and disappearing and so on. These objects of Vipassana meditation are called miscellaneous formations, different kinds of formations, different kinds of Sankharas. So when a person is practicing Vipassna meditation his mind door thought processes take these miscellaneous formations–mind or matter as object.

Suppose his Vipassana becomes mature. He is going to attain enlightenment. At the moment of attainment of enlightenment the path thought process arises. That path thought process goes: first Bhavanga, and then vibrating Bhavanga, and then arrested Bhavanga or Calana Bhavanga, Uppacheda Bhavanga. After that Bhavanga is arrested, Vithi Cittas, process consciousness arises. There are four moments of Kamavacara Javanas, the same as in the Jhana thought process. In the Jhana thought process there are what? Parikamma, Upacara, Anuloma and Gotrabhu. Before them there is mind door adverting. Instead of five sense door adverting here we have mind door adverting, Manodvaravajjana. After Manodvaravajjana has turned the mind toward the object there is first Parikamma, then Upacara, Anuloma and Gotrabhu. These four moments represen Kamavacara Kusala associated with knowledge, Nanasampa­yutta. The first oneis called preparation; the second one is Upacara, neighborhood or access; the third one is called Anuloma, that is it conforms to both succeeding and preceding moments; and the fourth one is called Gotrabhu.

I explained about Gotrabhu last week. What is the meaning of Gotrabhu? Change of lineage. Gotra means lineage. Bhu means to overcome or to enter into. Gotrabhu here means to overcome Puthujjana lineage because from the moment of Magga he is going to be a noble person, an Ariya. At the moment of Gotrabhu the Puthujjana lineage is overcome and it pushes into Ariya lineage. So it overcomes Puthujjana lineage and it enters into Ariya lineage. Therefore it is called Gotrabhu.

Although there are four Kamavacara Javanas–Parikamma, Upacara, Anuloma and Gotrabhu–they have different objects. Now you see that Parikamma, Upacara and Anuloma take miscellaneous formations as object. Gotrabhu has Nibbana as object. In the third chapter, the section on objects those that take Nibbana as object are Kamavacara Kusala Nanasampayutta can take Nibbana as an object, actually only when it functions as Gotrabhu can it take Nibbana as an object, that is direct seeing of Nibbana. That Nibbana is not real Nibbana. It is just the designation Nibbana or some kind of concept. Gotrabhu really takes Nibbana as object. It is an exception. In one thought process the objects differ. The object of Manodvaravajjana, Parikamma, Upacara and Anuloma is what? Miscellaneous formations or conditioned phenomena, mind and matter. The object of Gotrabhu is Nibbana.

After Gotrabhu comes Magga, path consciousness, followed by two moments of Phala consciousness. Then the thought process lapses into Bhavanga. When we talk about enlightenment, we must understand with reference to this thought process. So Parikamma, Upacara, Anuloma andGotrabhu are wholesome sense-sphere Cittas–Kamavacara Kusala Cittas. Magga is what Citta? Magga is Lokuttara Citta, supramundane Citta. Phala moments are also supramundane Cittas. At the moment of Magga what happens? Destruction of defilements, destruction of Kilesas. When we say the defilements are destroyed or eradicated, we meanthis moment of path consciousness. What is the object of paht consciousnes? Nibbana. What is the function of path consciousness? It has thefunction of destruction of defilements. What we mean by enlightenment is just this, this moment of Magga. Magga arises taking Nibbana as object and doing the function of destroying the defilements. Magga is so strong, so powerful that by just arising once it can eradicate mental defilements altogether so that they do not arise again.

You all know at the moment of Sotapatti Magga how many Kilesas are destroyed. Do you remember? Wrong view and doubt. If you don’t remember don’t worry. When you reach the ninth chapter you will understand. At the moment of Sotapatti Magga two defilements are eradicated. When they are eradicated, they are eradicated once and for all. They will never arise again in that person. Magga has that power. That is why the abandonment by Magga is called complete abandoment. There are three kinds of abandonment–momentary, temporary and altogether.

When you are learning Abhidhamma or paying homage to the Buddha, you do not have defilements. That is momentary abandonment. Ifyou get Jhana or if you practice Vipassana andyou can put aside the defilements for some time, that is temporary abandonment. When you reach the state of Magga, you can destroy them altogether. In Pali it is called Samuccheda–that means cutting off. If you cut something, then it cannot be joined again. At Magga the respective defilements are destroyed once and for all. So they never arise in that person again.

That moment of Magga in the thought process is followed by two Phala moments. Phala moments are the results of Magga moment. There is nothing intervening between Magga and Phala. Magga is the cause and Phala ist he result. The result follows the cause immediately.

Now the attributes of the Dhamma–what is one attribute of the Dhamma? Akalika. Akalika is translated as timeless, but that is not easy to understand. Akalika means it does not wait for another time to give result. That means it gives immediate results. Immediately after Magga disappearing, the fruit, Phala arises. When we say Dhamma is Akalika, Dhamma is without time, we mean by Dhamma–Magga, not Phala, not Nibbana.

So Magga momentis followed by two moments of Phala. What is the function of these Phala moments? Further tranqualization of defilements. Magga puts out the fire. Phala puts some more water on the fire, already put out oby Magga, so that they cannot burn again. That is what Phala moments do. In Pali they a re called Patippassaddhi–tranquilizing again, pacifying again. That means they keep the defilements well eradicated so they cannot come up again.

There are two Phala moments and then the thought process lapses into Bhavanga. This is the path thought process. There are always Phala moments in path process but we call it path process because Phala moments are always connected with Magga moment. After that Bhavanga moments arise andthen reflection thought process follows. They are mind door thought processes.

After reaching the f irst magga let us say that person wants to enter into it again.As you know Magga consciousness does not arise more than once. What he enters into is Phala moments.Inorder to get intoPhala moments and enjoy the bliss of emancipation he practices Vipassana meditation again. Then the sustained attainment of Phala thought process arises.

Let’s look at the diagram of them. He first one is for Sotapatti Magga. There can be two kinds of Sotapatti Magga thought processes–that for thoseof average faculty and that for those of keen faculty. For those who are of average faculty there are four Kamavacara moments–Parikamma, Upacara, Anuloma and Gotrabhu–Magga and then two moments of Phala. But for those of keen faculty there are only three moments of Kamavacara Javanas–Upacara, Anuloma and Gotrabhu–then Magga and three Phala moments. Do you know why there are three Phala moments here? You don’t. We need seven moments here, so Upacara, Anuloma, Gotrabhu, Magga, Phala, Phala and Phala. Therefore we have three Phala moments for those of keen facutly.

 Now for the upper Maggas–Sakadagami, Magga, Anagami Magga and Arahatta Magga–the thought processes are the same except there is a different name for Gotrabhu. Here it is called Vodana. Vodana means cleansing. After one attains Sotapatti Magga one is already an Ariya, so Gotrabhu cannot arise there because there is no lineage to overcome and enterinto. Therefore that moment is called Vodana instead of Gotrabhu. It is also a Kamavacara Javana. There are Manodvaravajjana, Parikamma, Upacara, Anuloma, Vodana and then Magga and two Phala moments. That is for those of average faculty. For those of keen faculty drop Parikamma and put in one more Phala. The others are the same, so we can d rop Parikamma, add in one more Phala and there is Vodana in place of Gotrabhu.

 Sustained Phala attainment–in sustained Phala attainment what do you find? Four Anuloma momens. So four moments are called Anuloma here. It is confusing. The same four moments Parikamma, Upacara, Anuloma and Gotrabhu here are called Anuloma. So there are four Anuloma Moments. Here there is no Magga. Instead of Magga there is Phala. There is Phala with a series of dots following it. That means there are many moments of Phala, millions and millions of moments of Phala. That is for person of average faculty. For aperson of keen faculty. For a person of keen faculty we drop Parikamma. The others are the same. That is for Phala Samapatti thought process.

 With regard to path thought process we have to understand the path thought process and then that is immediately followed by reflection, Kamavacara thought processes. We will study them in the ninth chapter. There can also be sustained attainment thought processes. This thought process is first attainment thought process. In sustained attainment thought process no Magga arises, but instead Phala moments arise millions and millions of times. And again the Kamavacara Javanas preceding Magga do the function of what? Parikamma, Upacara, Anuloma and Gotrabhu. The first three take miscellaneous formations as object and Gotrabhu takes Nibbana as object. Then Magga follows and two Phala moments.

 Now there is a question. I do not know whether to discuss it here or to wait until we come to the ninth chapter. Can we call Gotrabhu Vipassana or not? Gotrabhu does not take miscellaneous formations as object. It takes Nibbana as object. If it is Vipassana, it must take miscellaneous formations as object. So actually Gotrabhu is out of Vipassana, but you may call it Vipassana if you like. Strictly it is not Vipassana. It is the culmination or top most part of Vipassana.

Correlations in Absorption

 Now we study correlations in absorption, chapter four, section 15. You have to look at the Citta chart. If you have read the book you already know it. I will read the English translation.

 “Therein, immediately after a Javana accompanied by joy,” –that means Somanassa Javana. Here Somanassa Javana means Somanass Kamavacara Javana. So “….. immediately after a Javana accompanied by joy absorption…”–that means Jhana, Magga and Phala. “…..Absorption accompanied by joy may be expected…”–that means Somanassa Kamavacara Javana is followed by Somanassa Appana. “…..Immediately after a Javana accompanied by equanimity,” –that means Upekkha. “…..Absorption (occurs) accompanied by equanimity.” Upekkha Javana is followed by Upekkha Appana. Either in the Jhana thought process or the Magga thought process Parikamma, Upacara, Anuloma and Gotrabhu can be Somanassa or Upekkha. If they are Somanassa then the following Magga, Phala and Jhana must be Somanassa. If they are Upekkha then the following Magga, Phala and Jhana will be Upekkha. So Somanassa Javanas are followed by Somanassa Appana and Upekkha Javanas are followed by Upekkha Appana.

 “Therein, too, immediately after a wholesome Javana,” (Kusala Javana), “absorption occurs throught a wholwsome Javana and thethree lower fruits.” That means after Kusala Javana the Appana Javanas are Kusala and three lower Phalas. After Kusala Javana follow Kusala Javanas and three lower Phalas. “Immediately after a functional Javana.”–that means after Kiriya Javanas. After Kiriya Javanas, “absorption occurs through a functional Javana and the fruit of Arahantship.” That means Kiriya Javanas and Arahatta Phala Javanas follow. Is it clear? Not yet.

 Please look at the chart again. Take theKamavacara Kusala- how many? Eight. Among them how many are accompanied by Somanassa? Four, Among them how many are accompanied by knowledge? The first two.So after the first two how many Appana Javana–Appana Javana means Rupavacara, Arupavacara and Lokuttara Javanas. They are called Appana Javanas. Altogether there are 26. That is taking Lokuttara to be eitht. After the first two Kamavacara Javanas that are accompanied by knowledge there can follow Kusala which are accompanied by Somanassa. That means four Rupavacara Kusala, Magga Citta accompanied by Somanassa and then three Phalas accompanied by Somanassa. So how many? 32. Again after the Kamavacara Kusala accompanied by knowledte 32 Appana Javanas may arise. They are four from Rupavacara Kusala, 16 from Magga and twelve from Phala. Altogether you get 32.

 Then what about Upekkha, Kamavacara Kusala accompanied by Upekkha and knowledge? Two. How many Appana Javanas may follow? They must be Upekkha. One from Rupavacara, four from Arupavacara and four Magga and three lower Phalas. Altogether there are twelve. Twelve Appana Javanas can follow two Kamavacara Javanas accompanied by Upekkha and knowlede. When we are talking about Kamavacara Javanas please have in mind the Jhana thought process and Magga thought process. So in the Jhana thought process there are Parikamma Upacara, Anuloma and Gotrabhu, right? They are accompanied by Somanassa and also by Upekkha. In Magga also they can be accompanied by Somanassa and Upekkha. Ifthey are accompanied by Somanassa, then Rupavacara–first Jhana, second Jhana, third Jhana, fourth Jhana and then Magga–also first, second, third and fourth Jhana–they can follow. If they are accompanied by Upekkha then fifth Rupavacara Jhana Kusala, and then four Arupavacara Jhana Kusala, four Maggas accompanied by Upekkha and three lower Phalas accompanied by Upekkha may follow–so twelve. After Somanassa Kamavacara Kusala Nana-sampayutta there follow 32 Appana Javanas. After Upekkha Kamavacara Kusala Nanasampayutta there follow twelve Appana Javanas.

This you can find out following the statement here. After Somanassa Javana follow Somanssa Appana. After Upekkha Javana follow Upekkha Appana. After Kusala follows what? Kusala Javana and three lower Phalas. After Kiriya Javanas? Kiriya Javanas and Arahatta Phala.

Next we will go to Kiriya Javanas. How many Kamavacara Kiriya Javanas are there? Eight. How many are accompanied by Somanassa? Four. How many of these are accompanied by knowledge? Two. After these twohow many can follow? Four Rupavacara Kiriya, and then four Arahatta Phala. After Kiriya Magga the other Phalas cannot follow. So after Kamavacara Kiriya acfompanied by Somanassa and knowledge there follow only eight Appana Javanas–four from Rupavacara and four from Arahatta Phala.

Now let’s go to Upekkha. How many can follow the two Upekkha Kamavacara Kiriya Cittas accompanied by knowledge? One from Rupavacara, four from Arupavacara and the last one from Arahatta Phals–so six.

Let’s check with the manual on page 170. “Following wholesome consciousness accompanied by joy, 32 (classes of absorption Javanas) arise.” We got it right. “After (wholesome conscoiusnes) accompanied by equanimity, twelve (classes of absorption Javanas arise).” Right. “After functionaals accompanied by joy, eight classes arise, and after (functionals) accompanied by equanimity, six classes arise.”

I want you to fill your cards like this with colors that apply. You have to make two cards–one for Kusala and one for Kiriya. When you have these cards it is very easy to see. So there are two red dots followed by 32 red dots and there are two blue dots followed by twelve. Here is one for Kiriya. So here two red dots followed by eight. And two blue dots are followed by six.

When we study Abhidhammatthasangaha we are very young. When we come to this place, if a student canfindout by himself the 32, 12, 8 and 6 then he is awarded something–may be a set of robes or some books. If he could do it without the help of a teacher, he will get some kind of reward.

In the last paragraph for this section on page 171: “In the case of worldlings and trainees who have attained the three lower paths and fruits, after any of the four wholesome sense-sphere Javanas accompanied by knowledge there arises one of the 44 absorption Javanas described above.” That means 32 and twelve. “After the four functional sense-sphere Javanas accompanied by knowledge, there arises to the Arahant one of the above 14 absorption Javanas.” You have to add eight and six. This is the Appana thought processes.

Please remember that Appana means the name of what? Originallyit is thename of Vitakka. Then it is applied to first Jhana. Then it isapplied to all Jhanas, Magga and Phala. When we say Appana Javana we mean Mahaggata and lokuttara Javanas. If we take Lokuttara to be eight, there are 26 Appana Javanas.

Now we have finished Appana thought process. We will study other mind door thought processes later. Later menas at t he end of t he fifth chpater–that is not necessarily mind door; it could be five sense door and mind door, the death thought process. Then we will study others in the ninth chapter.


Next comes the procedure of registration, Tadarammananiyama. Tadarammana­niyama means determining the Tadarammana….. so which Tadarammana follows which Javana and which Tadarammana arises with regard to which type of object.

Now there are three kinds of objects mentioned here. They are Anittha–do you have today’s handouts? Please look at those handouts. The quality of the object is determined by way of average beings. We will come to that later. The objects are divided into three. The first one is Anittha–undersirable objects. The second one is Ittha or Itthamajjhatta. That means average desirable.

The last one is Ati-ittha, very desirable, exceptionally desirable, extremely desirable. So there kinds of objects are mentioned here. Although there are two varieties for desirable, there is only one for undersirable. Any object which is undersirable is just undersiable. But any object which is desirable is divided into two–just desirable and very desirable. For the Buddhists the Buddha is very desirable object. For a young man a woman may be very desirable object. There are these three kinds of objects.

These three kinds of ojbectsare determined by an average being. That means it would be very difficult to decide what is desirable and undesirable if we take into account everyindividual. One thing you like may not be liked by another person. One thing desirable for you amy be undesirable for another person. So how do decide, how do we determine which is desirable and which is undesirable? In the commentaries it is said they are determined with regard to average persons. If you are a king or a very rich man, then some ordinary things will not be desirable for you. If you are a poor man, then even a small thing will be desirable for you . So we do not go by very rich peoplen or very poor people, but those of average wealth, average people. If it is desirable for average people, it is supposed to be desirable. If it is undersirable for average people, it is wealth, average people, then it is considered undersirable. So there are three kinds of objects.

Even if we decide by way of average being, there are other things to take into consideration. One teacher said that we should determine the quality of the object by Vipaka. That is just saying the other way around. If the consciousness is Akusala Vipaka, it must be undersiable. If the consciousness is Kusala Vipaka, then it is desirable. He states it in that way.

It is said also that by way of doors we can determine the quality of the object. The example given is excrement. Excrement is undersirable to the eye. You don’t want to see excrement. It is undersirable to the nose also. But to the touchit is good. It is soft. According to the touch it is desirable, but according to the sight or smell it is undersirable. Sometimes you have to decide through Dvara. Now a flower–sometimes there are flowers that have a bad smell. So it is desirable throught Cakkhu Dvara, eye door, but in this case undesirable through nose door.

Also in summer cold is desirable. When we feel hot we turn on fans or air conditionaing. We want cold or coolness. But in winter we want heat. So cold is desirable in summer and undesirable in winter. It depends like that. According to seasons and to time the quality of the objects can change. All this must be determined through the experience of an average being, not so very rich, not so very poor. There are three kinds of objects–undesirable, average desirable and very desirable.

Now if the object is undesirable, Sampaticchana, Santirana and Tadarammana are the result of Akusala. Please have t he thought process in mind.*When the object is undesirable object is undesirable object, then Sampaticchana, Santirana and Tadarammana must be from Akusala Vipaka. Tadaramauna is just the Santiranas. If the object is average desirable then Sampaticchana, Santirana and Tadarammana are result of Kusala. In a given thought process we can say if the object is undesirable then the Sampaticchana andso on are Akusala Vipaka. If the object is average desirable then they are Kusala Vipaka and are accompanied by Upekkha. But if the object is Ati-ittha very desirable then Sampaticchana is the same Kusala Vipaka* accompanied by Upekkha, but Santirana and Tadarammana are accompanied by Somanassa. Here Tadarammana also means Kamavacara Vipakas. Please note this. If the object is undersirable Sampaticchana and others are the result of Akusala.*If the object is average desirable they are the result of Kusala and are accompanied by Upekkha. If the object is very desirable then Sampaticchana is Kusala Vipaka accompanied by Upekkha. But Santirana and Tadarammana are accompanied by Somanassa. This is determining the object and the Cittas taking them as object.

Now Pancadvarajjana, Sampaticchana, Santirana and Tadarammana are all called Vipaka Cittas, right? Pancadvarajjana isn’t, but Sampaticchana, Santirana and Tadarammana are all Vipaka.

Now it is said that Vipaka is always fixed. That means Vipaka cannot vary. If the object is undesirable, it must be Akusala Vipaka. If the object is desirable, it must be Kusala Vipaka. There is no variation of this. So the Vipaka is fixed. It is like when you look at yourself in the mirror. The reflection is the same as your face. Vipaka since they are the result of Kamma, there is no change. When the object is undesirable it must always be the result of Akusala. If the object is desirable it must always be the result of Kusala. Vipakas are fixed. In a certain thought process you cannot change the Vedana of these. If they are undesirable you have to pick up from Akusala Vipaka and if they are desirable you take from Kusala Vipaka.

But Javanas can vary. There is no fixed rule for Javanas. Even thought the object is undesirable, Javana can be Kusala or Akusala. Javana can be Somanassa or Upekkha.

Now suppose a very desirable object. Although it is a very desirable object–let’s say the Buddha is a very desirable object. For those who have no faith in the Buddha, for those who are not Buddhists they may not have Somanassa Javanas. They may have Upekkha Javanas because those who are not Arahants may have what is called perversion of views. In Pali it is called Vipallasa;; it is perversion of perception, Sanna Vipallasa. Because those who are non-Arahants have this perversion of perception that means the wrong perception of things even; when the object is very desirable, the Javana can be accompanied by Upekkha, not by Somanassa. And for those who are enemies of the Buddha, taking the Buddha as object, they can have Domanassa Javanas, Domanassa Cittas. So the quality of Javanas isnot fixed by the quality of the objects. It depends upon one’s own understanding, one’s own Yonisomanasikara and so on.

Now suppose undersiable object–now those who have deep nature can look at the undersirable object, look at the disgusting object and have Upekkha Javanas. They may not have Domanassa Javanas, Akusala Javanas. Now when you practice meditation, suppose you practice Asubha meditation. When you practice Asubha meditation, you look at a corpse, a very undesirable object. You can have Kusala Javanas even Upekkha Javanas.

 Excrement is an undesirable object, but for dogs that is a desirable object. So they may have Somanassa Javanas when they see such things.

For those who have not eradicated the perversion ; of perception that means who can have wrong perception of things–Javana can be anything. Javana is not determined by the quality of the object. But the Vipakas are fixed as to the object. If the object is undersirable, then the Vipaka must be Akusala. If the object is desirable, then the Vipaka must be Kusala. But Javanas may vary. Javanas may be Kusala or akusala or they may be Somanassa or Upekkha. So there is a saying: Vipakas are fixed, but Javanas vary.”

Now in the manual on page 171 bottom paragraph. “In this connection, too, at the end of functional Javanas accompanied by joy, there arise registration mind-moments also accompanied by joy.” That means Somanassa Kiriya Kavanas are followed by Somanassa Tadarammanas.

“At the end of functional Javanas accompanied by equanimity, the registration mind-moments are also accompanied by equanimity.” So Upekkha Kiriya Javanas are followed by Upekkha Tadarammanas. That means Somanassa is followed by Somanassa and Upekkha is followed by Upekkha.

Here the manual does not say what Tadarammanas follow Kamavacara Kusala and others. This passage only shows for Kiriya Javanas. Do you have the sheet? Please look at the chart. Kamavacara Kiriya Javanas accompanied by Upekkha–how many are there? Four. They can be followed by Kamavacara Vipaka Upekkha four plus Santirana Upekkha two. So altogether they can be followed by six. That is the same as the last line quoted from the manual. Kamavacara Kiriya Somanassa four and Hasituppada are followed by Kamavacara Vipaka Somanassa four plus Santirana Somanassa one. These five are followed by five Tadarammanas. Lobhamula eight and Mohamula two are followed by all eleven Tadarammanas–three Santiranas and eight Kamavacara Vipakas. Kamavacara Kusala eight, all eight are followed by eleven Tadarammanas.

Now what about Domanassa, Dosamula Cittas two? They are followed by Tadarammanas and Bhavanga accompanied by Upekkha. They cannot be followed by Somanassa because Somanassa and Domanasssa are so different in nature. Domanassa cannot be followed by Somanassa. O it is followed by Upekkha Tadarammana and Upekkha Bhavanga, Domanassa Javanas can be followed by Upekkha Tadarammanas and Bhavangas must also be Upekkha. Please note this because when we come to thought process with guest Bhavanga we must understand. Domanassa Javanas can only be followed by Upekkha–Upekkha Tadarammana and Upekkha Bhavanga. You have Domanassa Javana and if there is Tadarammana, it will be Upekkha. If there is no Tadarammana then the Bhavanga as well will be Upekkha.

Guest Bhava~ga

There is one problem here, a dilemma. Suppose you are born with Somanassa Patisandhi. If you are born with Somanassa Patisandhi your Bhavangas must be Somanassa. During the whole ofyour life your Bhavangas must be Somanassa. They cannot be Upekkha because Patisandhi, Bhavanga and Cuti must be identical. Suppose you are born with Somanassa Patisandhi, so your Bhavangas are always Somanassa. You are the enemy of the Buddha. You see the Buddha and you are angry with him. Therefore Domanassa Javanas arise. If there were no Tadarammana, Bhavangas must follow, what kind of Bhavanga must follow? After Domanassa Somanassa Bhavanga cannot follow. But you have Somanassa Bhavanga. There is a dilemma here. I’ll say it again.After the Domanassa Javanas if the Tadarammana were to follow, what kind of Tadarammana would that be? After Domanassa Javana, Upekkha Tadarammana. But the object is very desirable. When the objectd is very desirable, the Tadarammana must be Somanassa. If the object is Ati-ittha there is Somanassa for Santirana and Tadarammana. When the object is very desirable Tadarammana must be accompanied by Somanassa. But here the object is very desirable What kind of Bhavanga must be there? Somanassa or Upekkha? After Domanassa Javanas no Somanassa Bhavanga can follow. But you have Somanassa Bhavanga all your life. So in this difficulty there is a guest Bhavanga. He comes and helps us here. That guest Bhavanga is actually Upekkha Santirana. So Santirana Upekkha take the place of the Somanassa Bhavanga. It is called Agantuka Bhavanga, guest Bhavanga. In Bhikkhu Bodhi's book it is called adventitious Bhavanga. That Bhavanga is called guest Bhavanga. It is Upekkha. Since it is Upekkha it is compatible with Domanassa. After that the regular Bhavangas can follow. For that person the thought process runs like this: Atita (past) Bhavanga, vibrating Bhavanga, arrested Bhavanga, five sense door adverting, seeing, accepting, investigating, determining and then Domanassa Javanas. The Domanassa Javanas are followed by one Bhavana Santirana accompanied by Upekkha and then the Somanassa Bhavangas follow. Here in this thought process the Bhavangas at the beginning must be accompanied by Somanassa because you had Patisandhi accompanied by Somanassa. These Bhavangas must be accompanied by Somanassa. Pancadvara–Vajjana cannot be accompanied by Somanassa. It is always Upekkha. Seeing consciousness is always Upekkha. Sampaticchana is always upekkha. Santirana here it is very desirable, so Santirana must be accompanied by Somanassa. Then Votthabana is Manodvaravajjana, so it is accompanied by Upekkha. Then Javana moments here are Domanassa. Then guest Bhavanga is accompanied by Upekkha. And the Somanassa Bhavangas arise again. The difficulty is solved by the Upekkha Santirana performing as a guest Bhavanga.

Now it is examined in the subcommentary what function does it do, this guest Bhavanga. Guest Bhavanga is Santirana accompanied by Upekkha. It can do how many functions normally speaking? Five–Patisandhi, Bhavanga, Cuti, Santirana and Tadarammana. Can it be Patisandhi? No. Can it be Cuti? No, you are not dying yet. Can it be Santirana? If it performs Santirana function it must investigate. It is not investigating. Is it Tadarammana? No. Tadarammana follows Javana. Tadarammana must take the object of Javana. If it is Tadarammana there must be two. Only one remains and that is Bhavanga. It functions as Bhavanga. That is why it is called Agantuka Bhavanga. That is for Atimahanta object.

For Mahanta, great object, since it is Mahanta the object can be a ny kind –very desirable, average desirable. or undersirable. In this thought process we have two past Bhavangas and the others are the same. Javanas are again followed by a g uest Bhavanga. The only difference is that Santirana can be either Somanassa or Upekkha depending on the object being desirable or undesirable.

Now a person may have attained Jhanas. Then somehow he has lost three Jhanas. So he is sorry or depressed about that. When he feels sorry about that he takes those Jhanas as object. Those Jhanas are Mahaggata objects. In that case it is Manodvara thought process. It cannot be five sense door thought process. For that person who had Somanassa Patisandhi the thought process runs: vibrating Bhavanga, arrested Bhavanga, Manodvaravejjan, and then Domanassa Javanas, Agantuka Bhavanga (guest Bhavanga) and Somanassa Bhavanga again.

If a person takes one of the concepts as object and then gets Domanassa Javana, the same kind of process will arises. Here there is no question of Tadarammana because Tadarammana only arises when it is Kamavacara object, the individual is a Kamavacara being and after Kamavacara Javana. That is mentioned at the end of this section. This is the thought process with guest Bhavanga. Otherwise I do not know what would happen if it did not come in.

On page 175 paragraphs 19 to 20–"Likewise, they hold that registration occurs (only) at the end of sense-sphere Javanas, "so at t he e nd of Kamavacara Javanas." ..... Only to sense-sphere beings " Kamavacara beings " only when sense-sphere phenomena become objects." That means Kamavacara objects. When the object is Mahaggata or Panatti there is no question of Tadarammana there. With regard to t he Mahanta object there is no question of Tadarammana there. With regard to the Mahanta object there is no question of Tadarammana because Mahanta objects do not last until the second Tadarammana. So with regard to the Atimahanta object there can be the possibility of Tadarammana. But here in this particular thought process Tadarammana cannot arise. If Tadarammana cannot arise, then Bhavanga must arise–there is a difficulty with that Bhavanga because if it is to conform with the object it must be Somanassa but Somanassa cannot immediately follow Domanassa. So there is guest Bhavanga.

Now the fixing of Tadarammana 0 so Somanassa Tadarammana follows Somanassa Javanas, and Upekkha? Tadarammana follows Upekkha and Domanassa Javanas. But there is no fixing as to being accompanied by knowledge or not. Nanasampayutta Javanas and Nanavipayutta Javanas. Sometimes a person has familiarity with Akusala Javanas. For that person mostly Akusala Javanas arise. For him even after Kusala Javanas Ahetuka Tadarammana can arise because when he has Akusala Javana then Tadarammana is Ahetuka. Similarly for one who is familiar with arising of Kusala Javanas–for him who is familiar with arising of Kusala, Kusala Javanas will arise abundantly. Then even after Akusala Javanas, there can be Tadarammana accompanied by Nana. In this case there is no fixing. With regard to Somanassa, Domanassa and Upekkha there is fixing. Somanassa Javana must be followed by Somanassa Tadarammana. Upekkha and Domanassa javanas must be followed by Upekkha. But with regard to knowledge it is not fixed.

Sadhu! Sadhu! Sadhu!

Is it confusing? Today first you have to understand the fixing of Tadarammana–which Tadarammana follows which Javanas–that is the general rule. After you understand the general rule there is this exception with guest Bhavanga. First you understand that Domanassa cannot be followed by Somanassa. Then there is the problem here if your Patisandhi was accompanied by Somanassa, then after Domanassa Javana no regular Bhavanga can follow. There is adventitious or guest Bhavanga. Any questions?

Student: Inaudible.
Sayadaw: That is to be determined by the object. Since the object is very desirable, it must be Somanassa. Guest Bhavanga is accompanied by Upekkha. Since it is very desirable it is Kusala Vipaka.

Student: Inaudible.
Sayadaw: When we say Sakadagami Magga it does not destroy any Kilesas; that means it does not destroy all of the respective Kilesas, all aspects of t he Kilesas. But there are layers or degrees of gravity in Kilesas. There are Kilesas that can cause you to be reborn in the four woeful states and Kilesas that cannot lead you to four woeful states. When we say that Sotapatti Magga destroyes wrong view and doubt we mean it eradicates wrong view and doubt altogether. It eradicates Lobha, Dosa and Moha also, Lobha, Dosa and Moha that can lead to the four woeful sstates. During the second stage he eradicates some more degrees of Lobha Dosa and Moha. Altogough no more of the Kilesas are destroyed altogether, they are weakened. Certain levels or degrees of these Kilesas are destroyed by second Magga. Now first Magga destroys two Kilesas altogether and others that can lead you to four woeful states. Second Magga eradicates some layers of the remaining mental defilements or according to the books sensual desire and illwill. So that layer of the Kilesas it destroys once and for all but the subtle layer still remains. That is eradicated by the third and fourth Maggas. So I think there is the eradication of mental defilements–Tape ends.

Tape #21
Chapter 4 (D)

Javana Niyama

Today we come to the section called the procedure of Javana or Jawana Niyama. Before we study this section I'll go back to the third chapter and review that chapter. Now the third chapter deals with Citta. Citta are classified according to feelings, according to roots, according to Kicca or functions, according to doors, according to objects and according to bases. So which Cittas are accompanied by which feelings and which Cittas have how many roots? In order to understand the third chapter you need to be familiar with the first and second chapter also. So please have in mind the 89 or 121 types of consciousness and then some of the mental factors. Among them we apply functions, doors, objects and bases to the thought processes on to the types of consciousness contained in a thought process. In each thought process we must use our knowledge from the first, second and third chapter to determine which Citta is represented there, which feeling accompanies that Citta, which function it is doing, though which door it arises, what object it takes and on what base it depends.

In a given thought process, let's say the first Atimahanta, a very great object, there are 17 thought moments. With each thought moment we pught to be able to say this thought moment represents which of the 89 or 121 Cittas and it is accompanied by Somanassa or Domanassa or Upekkha; this Citta has one root or two roots if you want to apply that also, but that is not necessary here. But we have to understand waht functions these different types of Cittas perform. There are how many functions? 14 functions. Among them there are seeing function, hearing function and so on. Then there are 19 kinds of Cittas that perform relinking, life continuum and death–Patisandhi, Bhavanga and Cuti functions. Then there are those that have the function of Javana. What are Javanas in brief? Kusala, Akusala, Phala and Kiriya–Kiriya except two Avajjanas, two Cittas that are five sense door adverting and mind door adverting. And there is the function of Tadarammana. Tadarammana function is performed by how many Cittas? 11 Cittas–three investigation consciousness and eight Kamavacara Vipaka or Mahavipaka consciousness. If it is a seeing thought process then the whole thought process arises through eye door. If it is a hearing thought process then it arises through ear door. If it is a mind door thought process then it arises through mind door. You also have to understand what base individual Cittas depend on. For example, Bhavanga Cittas what base do they depend on? Heart base. And Pancadvaravajjana? Heart base. Seeing consciousness? Eye base. What next? Receiving and so on? Heart base. If you are not quite Familiar with the third chapter please go back and study it again.

Today we come to the procedure of Javana. It is Fixing the Javanas or Javana Niyama. Please look at the manual on page 176. ''Among the Javanas, in a limited javana process, the sense-sphere Javanas run only for seven or six times.'' That means in Kamavacara thought process Kamavacara Javanas run for seven times or six times. We are familiar with Javanas running for seven times, but not for six times. but not for six times. It is said that if the object is very weak even under normal conditions there may be only six Javanas running and not seven. On page 154 about the bottom of the page–''Following this, any one of the 29 sense-sphere Javanas which has gained the right conditions runs its course, generally for seven mind-moments.'' There it says ''generally''. ''Generally'' means just this, sometimes seven, sometimes six. It is not explained there.... why ''generally'' was said there. There ''generally'' means sometimes seven Javanas and sometimes in rare cases six Javanas may run. In the Kamavacara thought process, Kamavacara Javanas may run seven times normally or six times. Please note because at the end of this section we will try to find out how many Javanas only run for one time, how many Javanas run for two times and so on. So Kamavacara Javanas run for seven times or six times.

But in the case of afeeble person, such as at the time of dying etc. They run only five times. In the death thought process there are only five Javanas because Citta has to depend on different bases. At the time of death thewhole physical body is very weak. Since the base is weak, the Citta also becomes weak. It has no power to run six or seven times. At that time the Javana only runs five times. That time is the time of dying etc. Time of dying means just before dying. Etcetera is said to refer to when you become faint or sometimes when a person becomes drunk or sleepy. These are included in the term etcetera. Not only at the time of dying, but also at other times when the mind is weak, Javanas may run for only five times. So Javana runs five times at time of dying, fainting etc. How many kinds of Javanas do we have so far? Three kinds of Javanas–those that run seven times, those that run six times and those that run five times.

Now we will come to Javanas that run four or five times. ''To the Exalted one or to the Buddha at the time of the twin miracle and the like, when the procedure is rapid only four or five occasions of reviewing consciousness occur, this also they say''. ''They say'' means the commentators or teachers before-teachers before the author of this manual. Now the twin miracle the Buddha showed the twin micacle a few times during his life. The first time was almost immediately after his enlightenment, seven days after his enlightenment. Buddha was sitting under the tree for seven days without moving. Some gods thought he might have not become the Buddha. because he was sitting still. They thought he might have some more to do. They had doubt. So the Buddha knew that doubt and showed the twin miracle to them. The Buddha also showed the twin miracle when he went back to his native city at the assembly of his relations. He also showed twin miracle just before he went to Tavatimsa heaven to preach Abhidhamma.

What is the twin miracle? It is Yamakapatihariya. ''Patihariya'' means miracle and ''Yamaka'' means twin. Twin miracle means making fire and water come out of his body; showing fire and water coming out of his body is called twin miracle. That twin miracle was done by entering into Jhanas because the twin miracle can be performed only through Abhinna. ''Abhinna'' is translated as direct knowledge. Abhinna is actually the fifth Jhana, specially developed, not ordinary fifth Jhana. After getting fifth Jhana it is specially developed so it becomes Abhinna. When fifth Jhana becomes Abhinna miracles can be performed.. the psychic powers such as remembering past lives, seeing beings dying in one existence and being born in another existence or seeing the future or performing miracles like going through the air and so on.

Now there is a sequence of thought processes that occur when these miracles are performed or when the Abhinnas are obtained. A person who wants to perform the miracles must have all nine Jhanas. He must have attained all inne Jhanas. First he must enter into fifth Jhana. Then he emerges from the fifth Jhana and he reviews or reflects on the contents of that fifth Jhana. How many Jhana factors are there in the fifth Jhana? Two. what are they? Upekkha and Ekaggata. He contemplates or reviews these Jhana factors. After that there is another thought process by which he makes a resolution in his mind. For example for the Buddha here–the Buddha entered into the fifth Jhana as a base Jhana and emerged from that Jhana and reflected upon the contents of that Jhana. Next Buddha made a resolution with one thought process–''May fire come out of my upper body'' or '' May fire come out of my lower body'' and so on. He made that resolution by one thought process. Then again he entered into fifth Jhana as a base for Abhinna. Then he emerged again from the fifth Jhana and reflected upon the contents of that Jhana. Only after that comes the Abhinna thought process. Immediately after that thought proess fire comes out of his upper body and water out of his lower body.

People thought that fire and water came out of his body simultaneously. In order to perform this miracle Buddha had to go through these thought processes very rapidly. Otherwise fire at one time and water at another would not be much of a miracle. Buddha showed this miracle to impress people. Buddha could show fire from upper part of body, water from lower part of body; fire from the right side, water from the left side; fire from the right eye, water from the left eye; fire from one pore of the skin, water from another pore of the skin and so on. In such cases these thought processes must go very very quickly especially the reflecting or reviewing thought processes.

Normally in the reviewing thought processes there are how many Javanas? Seven. Here in this case they cannot run seven thought moments. It's too long. In this manual it is said the reviewing thought process takes four or five moments. The commentators on this manual say four or five can be understood as four for those of keen intellect and five for those of not so keen intellect. So there are four Javanas for the Buddha and five Javanas for the disciples. So in this case when the Buddha was performing the twin miracles then the reviewing Javanas cannot run for seven moments. They only run for four moments.

In order to reach Abhinna thought process how many thought processes must the Buddha or anybody who wants to perform miracles go through? First there is the basic Jhana. Then there is the reviewing thought process. Then there is the resolution thought process. And then there is the fifth Jhana again. Then there is another reviewing thought process. The meditator must go through five thought processes before he reaches the Abhinna thought process. Only after this set of six thought processes will fire come out of the Buddha's upper body for example. Then he makes resolution that water come out of his lower body. Again he must go through this set of six thought processes. In these cases Kamavacara Javanas cannot run for seven moments as usual. They run for only four moments for the Buddha and for five moments for the disciples.

Now among those thought processes basic Jhana process is Jhana thought process. Reviewing thought process is Kamavacara thought process. Resolution thought process is also Kamavacara thought process. Abhinna is actually fifth Jhana thought thought process. So in this series Kamavacara and Rupavacara alternate. For Buddhas there are only four kiriya thought moments and it is said for disciples there are five. Now the disciples like Sariputta had occasion where they had to enter into Jhana quickly and make the reflection quickly. For them also the reviewing process cannot be leisurely, for seven moments that is; it is five moments for them. So now we have those that run for four times and those that run for five times.

The sublime Javanas for the beginner during the first cognitive process of absorption and the direct knowledge Javanas always runb only once. Now we come to Javanas that only run for one time. At the first attainment Jhana there is only one Jhana moment. At the first attainment of Jhana for either Rupavacara or Arupavacara Jhana consciousness only arises once and then Bhavanga follows. Why is there only one moment of Jhana? The reason is given on page 177. ''A sublime Javana occurs for only a single occasion owing to its weakness due to lack of repetition.'' Actually that means this Jhana arises once for the first time. It is like a child just born. When a child is just born he is very helpless; he is not strong, he is weak. That first Jhana only arises once and it is weak. It is so weak that it cannot be the condition for another Jhana Citta to arise. If it could be the condition for another Jhana Citta to arise there would be the repetotion condition. It is one of the 24 causal relations taught in the Patthana. When a consciousness repeats itself for example seven times as in Javanas for ordinary mind door thought process we say there is repetition condition. That means one thought moment intensifies another thought moment. But here the Jhana consciousness arises for the first time and it is weak so it cannot be the condition for another Jhana consciousness to arise. Therefore there is only one moment of Jhana Javana in the thought process of first attainment.

The word 'beginner' is used here. That means the first attainment. Now a person gets first Jhana. The first time he gets that Jhana he is a beginner in first Jhana. Then later on if he is familiar with first Jhana he can enter into first Jhana as much as he likes. He ceases to be a beginner. He is adept at that time. Then he practices meditation again and he reaches second Jhana. The first time he reaches second Jhana he is again a beginner of second Jhana. Later he practices Jhana more so he is able to get into or out of the second Jhana as much as he likes. So he becomes adept at the second Jhana. He practices again and reaches third Jhana for the first time. Then he is a beginner for the third Jhana and so on. Beginner here does not mean beginner of Jhanas in general, but a beginner of each Jhana. That means at the first attainment of each Jhana. Jhana thought process runs the same, but there is only one Rupavacara Javana or Arupavacara Javana. Later during sustained Jhana thought process Jhana can arise millions and millions of times. We will come to that later at the end of this section.

And then the direct knowledge Javana always–Abhinna Javanas arise only once. Abhinna Javanas must have very great power because with the Abhinna a person is performing miracles. And Abhinna Javanas only arise once. Just by arising once it is sufficient to accomplish its task. So it need not arise two times or three times or millions of times. Just by arising one time it can help a person to perform miracles. Since it is sufficient to accomplish the task by just arising once, it arises only once. So there are two kinds of Javanas that only arise once–Rapavacara and Arupavacara Jhana at the first attainment and Abhinna Javana always at any time whether first attainment or later attainment.

Now the arising of the four Paths only endures for one mind moment. Magga also only arises once. Can the same Magga arise for a second or third time? No. So Sotapatti Magga arises once. Next time when Magga arises it is Sakadagami Magga and so on. Magga Cittas or Magga Javanas only arise one time. Because Magga only arises once there is no Kiriya in Lokuttara Cittas. If Magga were to arise again and again there would be Kiriya in Lokuttara Cittas. Since Magga arises only once there can be no Kiriya Cittas in Lokuttara.

Thereafter two or three moments of fruition consciousness arise according to the case. Immediately after Magga there are fruition, Phala moments. How many Phala moments? Two or three. Magga moment is followed by two Phala moments or three Phala moments. ''According to the case''–that menas if the person is of keen intellect three Phala moments will arise.If the person is of not so keen intellect two Phala moments will arise. Why? Because of Parikamma. In one thought process there can be a maximum of seven Javana moments. If there are four Kamavacara Javanas–Parikamma, Upacara, Anuloma Gotrabhu (preliminary, neighborhood, conformity and change of lineage)–so when four moments are taken by Kamavacara Javanas and one moment is taken by Magga, there are already five. So there can only be two more Javanas. That is why there are two Phala moments. But when there are only three Kamavacara moments, excluding the first one, Parikamma, so Upacara, Anuloma and Gotrabhu (three moments of Kamavacara Javanas) and then one moment of Magga, there are four moments. In order to become seven we need three more moments. That is why the person being of keen intellect or not so keen intellect. Then comes subsidence into the life continuum. After that there is Bhavanga. So now in this paragraph we get Javanas that arise only once, that arise two times and that arise three times.

Now the next is Nirodha Samapatti, cessation attainment. Cessation means the cessation of Citta, Cetasikas and Rupa born of Citta. ''At the time of the attainment of cessation the fourth inmaterial Javana, the fourth Arupavacara Javana runs and then contacts cessation.'' Bhikkhu Bodhi is too literal here. The Pali word is 'phusati'. He translates it literally as contact. But in Burma we translate it as reach. So he reaches cessation, he experiences cessation.

The description of Nirodha Samapatti is very brief here. If you can wait, I want to ask you to wait until the ninth chapter. At the end of the ninth chapter there is a more detailed explantation of Nrobha Samapatti. Can you wait or can you not? If you cannot wait, please turn to page 363, attainment of cessation.

''In this case, one enters successively upon t he sublime attainments beginning with the first Jhana, and then after emerging from them, one contemplates with insight'' (that means one practices Vipassana) ''the conditioned states within each of those attainments.'' Now in order to get the attainment of cessation one must have all nine Jhanas. One must also be an Ahagami or an Arahant, not ordinary worldling, not a Sotapanna, not a Sakadagami and not Anagamis and Arahants who do not have Jhanas. So they must be either an Arahant or Anagamis who have Jhanas, not just one or two Jhanas but all nine Jhanas.

Then if they want to enter into this attainment of cessation they must enter successively ... that means beginning with first Jhana. So they enter into first Jhana and then get out of that first Jhana. Then they practice Vipassana on the contents of that Jhana. Here it is said ''conditioned state''. ''Conditioned state'' means the Jhanas are composed of Jhana factors, so these Jhana factors are all conditioned phenomena, Sankhara, so he must practice Vipassana on the Jhana factors.

Then he must enter into second Jhana and get out of that second Jhana. Once again he must practice Vipassana on the contents of that Jhana. Then he enters into the third Jhana, emerges from the third Jhana, practices Vipassana on that third Jhana and so on until he reaches the third Arupavacara Jhana.

''Having proceeded thus up to the base of nothingness'',–that means having gone through these Jhanas until he reaches the third Arupavacara Jhana, '' ... one then attends to the Preliminary duties such as the resolution etc'' ... taht means after getting out of third Arupavacara Jhana he does not practice Vipassana. Instead he does what are called preliminary duties. There are four preliminary duties. You will understand when you read the ninth chapter. So he must do these preliminary duties. After doing these preliminary duties ''he enters into' the base of neither- perception-nor-non-perception.'' That means he enters into the fourth Arupavacara Jhana.

''After two occasions of Javana in absorption.''–that means after two moments of fourth Arupavacara Jhana. ''the continuum of conscious-ness is suspended.'' So consciousness disappears. When consciousness disappears there are no mental factors and there are no material properties caused by mind. That is what is called the attainment of cessation. When one is in the attainment of cessation one is devoid of all mental activities. At that moment the meditator has no Citta, no Cetasikas and no Rupa born of Citta. A person in Nirodha Samapatti is like a statue. The difference between he stops breathing, although he has no mental activities, but his body is still living; his body still has Jivitindriya nad there is also heat in the body.

This is how a person gets into the attainment of cessation. In order to reach the attainment of cessation the meditator must go through all of the Jhanas up to fourth Arupavacara Jhana. After two moments of fourth Arupavacara Jhana there is the suspension of mental activities.

It is said that if he does not practice Vipassana on the contents of Jhana, if he does only Samatha meditation, then he will be able to pass over to the fourth Arupavacara Jhana. He will always go back to the third Arupavacara Jhana. There will be no cessation of Citta. If he practices Vipassana meditation only, not Jhana, not Samatha, he will end up with Phala Samapatti, Phala attainment thought process insteed of Nirodha Samapatti. That is why he has to practice both Samatha and Vipassana.

So first he enters into first Jhana. That is Samatha. Then emerging from that Jhana he practices Vipassana on the contents of that Jhana, seeing the mental factors as impermanent, as suffering and as no soul. So Vipassana and Samatha go as pairs.

In this attainment of cessation the last thoughts in the process are the two moments of fourth Arupavacara Jhana. The fourth Arupavacara Jhanas arise two times at the occasion of the attainments of cessation. ''At the attainment of cessation the fourth inmaterial Jhana runs twice and then contacts cessation. When emerging (from cessation), either the fruition consciousness of non-returning or the fruition consciousness of Arahantship arises accordingly for a single occasion.'' So when he emerges from this attainment of cessation the first thought that arises is Anagami Phala or Arahatta Phala depending on the person. If he is an Anagami, Anagami Phala will arise. If he is an Arahant, then Arahatta Phala will arise. How many times? Only one time. Then Bhavanga will arise. There is subsidence into life continuum. In Nirodha Samapatti we get Javanas that arise for two moments and then we get one Javana that arises for only one moment, that is emerging from Nirodha Samapatti.

Then there are what are called Phala Samapatti and Jhana Samapatti. In those sustained attainments of Jhana and Phala–''in the congnitive process of attainments, as in the stream of the stream of the life-continuum, there is no fixed procedure regarding the processes.'' that means there is no saying that Jhana consciousness must arise how many times or Phala consciousness must arise a hundred times or a thousand times. There is no limit, there is no saying.

''It should be understood that even many (sublime and supramundane) Javanas take place (in immediate succession).'' So this paragraph is for Samapatti thought processes, Samapatti Vithi There are two kinds of Samapatti Vithi–one is Jhana Samapatti and the other is Phala Samapatti, sustained attainment of Jhana and sustained attainment of Phala.

If a person gets the first Jhana for the first time, there is only one moment of Jhana and then subsidence into Bhavanga. Later h practices again to get into that Jhana. He must practice so that he becomes thoroughly familiar with that Jhana. That means he must be able to enter inot that Jhana whenever he likes; he must be able to enter quickly; he must be able to get out of the Jhana at the time he wants. In order to achieve that mastery he must enter into the Jhanas again, again and again. Later on when he wants to get into the Jhana he practices meditation again and this time Jhana thoughts arse immeasurable number of times because he can be in tht Jhana is long as he wants to. That means within the limit of the body of human beings. It is said human body can only survive for seven days without food. So he mav be jn that Samapatti for seven days or six days, four days or one hour or two hours–as long as he likes. During that time when he is in the Jhana Samapatti only Jhana thought moments arise one after the other. SInce there can be billions of thought moments in one snap of the fingers, you can imagine how many Jhana Moments arise during a Samapatti thought process.

Also there is Phala Samapatti. When a person wants to–a person cannot get into Magga again–wants to enjoy the bliss of emancipation–that means he wants to have the Phala thought moment arise again because he wants to have the Phala thought moment arise again because when Phala Cittas arise in his mind he is very peaceful. Phala Cittas take Nibbana as object. Nibbana is peace. When Cittas takes Nihbana as object, Citta is also peaceful. They enjoy this like they would enjoy a vacation. When you are tired of daily activities or work, then you want to take a vacation. These people, the enlightened persons are always wearied with the conditioned phenomena, the five aggregates. To them these five aggregates appear as something loathsome, something to be wearied of. And so as an escape from the suffereng of five aggregates they enter into Phala Samapatti. When they want to enter into Phala Samapatti they practice Vipassana again. Then instead of Magga there arises Phala for many many moments. Here also one can be in Phala Samaptti for as long as one wishes. If he is a human being it can be for a maximum of seven days.

In the Samapatti thought processes–that means the later sustained Jhana thought processes and later sustained Phala thought processes–there is no fixed number of Jhana and Phala Cittas arising. There can be billions and billions of Jhanas and Phalas arising. This paragraph shows that there are some Cittas that arise many many times.

Now let us find out the Javanas that arise only once, then two times, three times, four times, five times, six times, seven times and many times. Javanas that arise only once–what are they? Rupavacara and Arupavacara Jhanas on first attainment. Abhinna also arises once only. Magga arises only once. And then? There is one more. Look at the attainment of cessation. On emerging from the attainment of cessation Anagami or Arahatta Phala appears for only one time. All these Javanas appear for one time only.

Two times–look at attainment of cessation. Fourth Arupavacara Jhanas arise twice in the attainment of cessation process. Only that? There can be two or three Phala moments, so Phala Javanas after Magga. For what kind of person? For the person of not so keen intellect. For those who have keen intellect Phala will arise three times.

Three times–Phala will arise three times after Magga moment for those of keen intellect.

Four times–During twin miracle the reviewing Javanas (they are Kamavacara Javanas) will arise four times.

Five times–Reviewing Javanas for similar occasions. Twin miracles are for Buddhas only. There are some occasions where Arahants also have to reflect very aquickly. So disciples have reviewing Javanas that last for five moments. And also Kamavacara Javanas at the time of death, fainting etc. arise five times,

Six times–Regular Kamavacara Javanas.

Seven times–Regular Kamavacara Javanas.

Many times–Jhana and Phala Javanas in later sustained attainment or Samapatti Vithi.

Let's go through it again.

One time–Rupavacara and Arupavacara Jhanas on first attainment, Magga Javanas, and Anagami and Arahatta Phala on emerging from Nirodha Samapatti.

Two times–Fourth Arupavacara Jhana in Nirodha Samapatti' process and Phala Javanas after Magga for person of not so keen intellect or average intellect.

Three times–Phala Javanas after Magga for those of keen intellect.

Four times–Reviewing Javanas for the Buddhas at twin miracles and others.

Five times–Reviewing for the disciples and also Kamavacara Javanas at death, fainting etc.

 Six or seven times–Regular Kamavacara Javanas.

Many times–Rupavacara, Arupavacara and Phala Javanas at sustained attainment or Samapatti Vithi.

Javanas can arise just once, two times, three times and so on. Whether they arise just once or two times they always experience or they always enjoy the taste of the object fully. Even though they only arise once they can do their task properly. This is the procedure of Javana.

Now the summary (page 178)–''It should be known that limited Javanas arise seven times.'' ''Limited Javanas '' mans Kamavacara Javans.'' ... the path and direct knowledge only once, the rest (sublime and supramundane) many times.'' It is a real summary. It is too short. It is not complete. We have to understand one time, two times, three times and so on. I think it is not so difficult. Since we are doing Javanas we only have to have in mind the Javana function.

Do you want to refresh your memory? Please look at the 121 types of consiousness and find out the Javanas. How many Javanas are there if we take Lokuttara as eight? 55. Those 55 are what? 12 Akusala Cittas, Hasituppada which is Kiriya. There are three Ahetuka Kiriya Cittas but the first two do not function as Javana. Kamavacara Kusala eight, Kamavacara Kiriya eight, Rupavacara Kusala five, Rupavacara Kiriya five, Arupavacara Kusala four, Arupavacara Kiriya five, Lokuttara eight. So all together there are 55 Javanas.

Now look at the first column, Akusala Javanas; how many times can they arise? One time–no. Two times–no. Three times–no. Four times–no. Five times–yes, if they happen to be in the death thought process. They can arise for six times. They can also arise for seven times.

What about Hasituppada? It can arise only seven times.

What about Kamavacara Kusala? One time–no. Two times–no. Three times–no. Four times–no. Five times–Yes. Six times–Yes. Seven times–Yes.

What about Kamavacara Kiriya? It may arise four or five times or six times or seven times ordinarily.

Rupavacara Javanas–One time? Yes. Two times? Seven times? No. Many times? Yes.

Rupavacara Kiriya is the same–one time or many times.

First Arupavacara–one time at first attainment. Two times? No. Three times? No. Four times? No. Five times? No. Six, seven times? No. Many times? Yes.

Second Arupavacara Jhana–One time or many times.

Third Arupavacara Jhana–One time or many times.

Fourth Arupavacara Jhana–One time? Yes. Two times? Yes. In cessation thought process, three times? No. Four times? No. Five times? No. Six times? No. Seven times? No. Many times? Yes.

Arupavacara Kiriya Jhanas are the same.

Now Lokuttara Cittas–look upon them as only eight. First Magga Citta–Once only. Second Magga Citta–Once only. Third Magga Citta–Once only. Fourth Magga Citta–Once only. First Phala Citta–two times, three times or many times only. Second Phala Citta–two times, three times or many times. Third Phala Citta–one time yes, two times, three tiems or many times. Fourth Phala Citta–one time emerging from Nirodha Samapatti, two times, three times or many times in Phala Samapatti.

Now you understand Javanas and how many times they arise and also you can say in what kind of thought process they arise and on waht occasion they arise and how many times. Now I think we understand almost all about Javans., that means the Javanas in different kinds of thought processes and how many times they arise and on what occasion.


The next section is analysis by way of individuals–Puggalabheda. The Pali word means division by individuals. There are twelve kinds of individuals. First I think we should be familiar with these twelve. Then we will find out what Cittas belong to which individuals.

First there is the dividsion of individuals into Ahetuka, Dvihetuka and Tihetuka. Ahetuka individuals are those whose Patisandhi Citta belongs to Ahetuka Cittas. How many Cittas do the function of Patisandhi? 19. Among them how many are Ahetuka? Two Santiranas accompanied by Upekkha. If a being is reborn in hell or reborn as an animal his Patisandhi must be Akusala Vipaka. He is said to be an Ahetuka person or individual. And also a person may be reborn a human being, but he may be born blind, deaf or so on. In that case his Patisandhi Citta is Ahetuka Kusala Vipaka. Since he is reborn a human being he belongs to happy destination, happy existences, in Pali called Sugati. The other person who is reborn in hell or as an animal or as a ghost is called a Duggati person. First there are persons born with Ahetuka Patisandhi Cittas.

Then there are persons born with two root Kamavacara Vipaka Cittas. They are called Dvihetuka. And there are beings who are reborn with root Kamavacara Vipaka Cittas or Rupavacara Vipaaka Cittas or Arupavacara Vipaaka Cittas. They are called three root persons. Basically there are no root persons, two root persons and three root persons.

No root person is of two kinds–one born in Duggati, four woeful states and one born as human being but born blind and so on. So the first one is called Duggati Ahetuka person. The second one is called Sugati Ahetuka person. So we get two kinds of Ahetuka persons–Duggati Ahetuka and Sugati Ahetuka. Then what about Dvihetuka person–can there be Duggati and Sugati? No. If he is Dvihetuka he belongs to Sugati only. There is no Dvihetuka Patisandhi in four woeful states. Therefore Dvihetuka only belongs to Sugati, happy destinations or unhappy existences.

What about Tihetuka or three root beings? They belong only to Sugati. Three root persons can be subdivided into how many? Let us see. Three root person as Puthujjana, three root person as Magga person and three person as Phala person. Since threr are four Maggas and four Phalas we get eight of them. We add Puthujjana so we get nine persons. There are nine Tihetuka persons, one Dvihetuka person and two Ahetuka persons. A together there are twelve Puggalas, twelve individuals, twelve persons. Again twelve individuals are Duggati Ahetuka, Sugati Ahetuka, Dvihetuka–we don't have to say Sugati here because if it is Dvihetuka it is Sugati–and then Tihetuka Puthujjana, then Sotapattaa, Magga person, Sotapatti Phala person and so on. When we refer to them we need not use the word Tihetuka. That is understood because anyone who gots Magga and Phala is a Tihetuka person. With regard to eight noble persons we don't need to saay Tihetuka, but they aare Tihetukaa perssons. So there are nine Tihetuka persons, one Puthujjana and eight noble ones. There are nine Tihetuka persons, one Dvihetuka person and two Ahetuka perssons. So antogether there are twenve puggalas or individuals.

"To those with double rooted and rootless rebirth consciousness . . ."–that means to those who are Dvihetuka and Ahetuka. ". . . functional Javanas and absorption Javanas do not arise. " Functional Javanas means Kiriya Javanas. Absorption Javanas, Appana Javanas–you remember Appana Javanas? They are Rupavacara Jhanas, Arupavacara Jhanas and Lokuttara Cittas, these are called Appana Javanas. How many of them are there? 26. So to those who are Dvihetuka and Ahetuka–that means two kinds of Ahetuka and Dvihetuka–there are no functional Javanas and no Magga and Phala.

"Likewise in a blissful plane"–blissful plane means Sugati. " . . . resultants accompanied by knowledge"–four come from Kamavacara resultants, five from Rupavacara resultants and four from Arupavacara resultants and four Phala Cittas. " In addition to these mentioned earlier these do not arise in a blissful plane''–that means Sugati Ahetuka.'' Great resultants disassociated with knowledge are not found in a woeful plane. ''That means for a Duggati Ahetuka person no great resultants disassociated with knowledge occur. Actually for a person that is Duggati Ahetuka there are no Kamavacara Vipakas and also Rupavacara, Arupavacara and Lokuttara. Again for those of two root and Ahetukas what Cittas can they not experience? Kiriya Javanas and Appana Javanas.'' In a blissful palne''–that means Sugati Ahetuka Nanasampayutta Vipaka, four from Kamavacara Vipaka and then Rupavacara, Arupavacara Vipaka and Lokuttara, these do not arise. And to a Duggati Ahetuka even the four Nanavipayutta Vipaka do not arise.

I think I will stop here. Please read on and try and find out for yourself.

Tape #22

Chapter 4 (E)

Twelve Individuals (5)

Today we will begin the study of the individuals. There are twelve kinds of individuals. First we will make ourselves familiar with these twelve types of individuals. Please look at he sheets handed out today. Puggalas and Cittas. Puggala is a Pali word which means individual. There are twelve types of individuals and the first is Duggati Ahetuka. Duggati means unhappy destination; that means the four woeful states. Ahetuka here means those whode Patisahdhi Citta, whose relinking Citta is Ahetuka. How many Ahetuka Cittas are there which function as Patisahdhi, Bhavanga and Cuti? The two Upekkha Santiranas. One is the resultant of Akusala and the other is the resultant of Kusala. So duggati Ahetuka persons have Santirana which is the resultant of Akusala as Patisandhi Citta. These beings are those born in hell, animal kingdom, humgry ghosts and Asura ghosts. They are always Puthujjanas. Puthujjana means ordinary persons or unenlightended beings. I put the word 'Puthujjana' between brackets because actually we don't use the word Puthujjana when we want to describe Duggati Ahetuka persons. Duggati ahetuka person is always a Puthujjana. So it is understood or implied but in order for you to understand clearly I put the word in brackers. When we talk about what kind of person experiences what knd of Cittas we do not say 'Duggati Ahetuka Puthujjana'. We way ' Duggati Ahetuka ' and Puthujjana is understood.

The next person is Sugati Ahetuka. Sugati means happy destiny. So Sugati maans human realm, Deva realms and Brahma realms. They are called Sugati, happy destinations. The Patisandhi Citta or relinking consciousness of Sugati Ahetuka person is also from the Ahetuka Cittas. It is the Ahetuka Citta or Upekkha Santirana which is the resultant of Kusala. Here also we just say Sugati Ahetuka because if a person is Ahetuka he is always a Puthujjana.

Then the third one is Dvihetuka. 'Dvi' means two. So Dvihetuka means one whose Patisandhi Citta is accompanied by two roots. Those roots are Alobha and Adosa. Now there are six roots, three Akusala roots and three Kusala roots. 'Dvi' here means two from good roots, so Alobha and Adosa. Those whose Patisahdhi persons. If he is Dvihetuka person he si definitely of Sugati and also he is definitely a Puthujjana. So when we just say 'Dvihetuka person' , we mean he belongs to Sugati and he is a Puthujjana.

The next one is Tihetuka Puthujjana. Here we need to say 'Tihetuka Puthujjana' , not just Tihetuka because there are Tihetuka Puthujjanas and Tihetuka noble persons, Ariyas. So we need to say 'Tihetuka Puthujjana'. If he is a Tihetuka Puthujjana he is already in Sugati. There is no need to say 'Sugati Tihetuka Puthujjana'. Tihetuka means those whose Patisandhi is accompanied by three roots. Those three roots are Alohha, Adosa and Amoha.

Then the nest person is Sotapanna. When we say 'Sotapanna' we don't need to say 'Sugati Tihetuka' because only Tihetuka persons can become Sotapannas. Sotapanna means a person from the moment of Sotapatti Phala immediately after a moment of Sotapatti Magga. At the moment of Sotapatti Magga he is called Maggattha.At he bottom of the page, the bottom line you see the word Maggattha. He is called a Maggattha person. But from the moment of Phala until he reaches the next Magga he is called a Phalattha person. Also he is called Sotapanna, Sakadagami, Anagami and Arahant. Sotapanna means a person from the moment of Phala following Sotapatti magga until he reaches the next higher stage.

The next person is Sakadagami. You already know who Sakadagami is. We don't say Sugati Tihetuka because they always are Sugati Tihetuka.

And the next person is Anagami. It is the same. He is an Anagami from first Anagami Phala until he reaches the next higher stage.

Then the last one is Arahant. Arahant always belongs to Sugati and he always has three roots accompanying his Patisandhi Citta. Arahant is a person from the first moment of Arahatta Phala until his death.
Now we will try to find out how many Cittas will arise in these individuals, these types of individuals. In the manual it is not so easy, not so clear. Let's look at the sheet. Now Duggati Ahetuka, those born in hell and so on, they cannot have Kiriya javanas. First let us say they cannot have Appana Javanas. You know Appana Javanas? Rupavacara Kusala and Kiriya, Arupavacara Kusala and Kiriya and Lokuttara. We will take Lokuttara Cittas as eight. They are called Appana Javanas. These persons cannot have Appana Javanas because they are born as Ahetuka; they are born with Patisandhi Citta which is not accompanied by any of the Hetus. So those that are born as Duggati Ahetuka and actually also those born as Sugati Ahetuka cannot have Appana Javanas in that life. That means they cannot get Jhanas; they cannot get enlightenment in that life because the resultant consciousness which functions as the relinking consciousness for them is actually an obstacle to reaching Appana Javanas, an obstacle to reaching Jhanas and enlightenment. Since they do not have Appana Javanas, they do not have Kiriya Javanas also. Kiriya Javanas are only experienced by Arahants. Since they cannot have Appana Javanas, they cannot become Sotapannas. Sakadagamis, Anagamis and Arahants. So they cannot have Kiriya Javanas. They also cannot have Nanasampayutta Vipaka. Now Nanasampayutta Vipaka, four from Kamavacara Vipaka, five from Rupavacara Vipaka, four fomr Arupavacara Vipaka and also Phalas, but they are already taken by Kiriya Javanas and Appana Javanas–so they cannot have Nanasampayutta Vipaka. Also they cannot have Nanavipayutta Mahavipaka. You know Mahavipaka. Which are the Mahavipaka? The eight Kamavacara Vipaka. The Kusalas are called Mahakusala; the Vipakas are called Mahavipaka and the Kiriya are called Mahakiriya. So they cannot have Nanavipayutta Vipaka also. That means they cannot have any of the Mahavipakas. In Duggati Ahetuka how many Cittas can arise in them? How many Cittas can be experienced by them? You need to have these cards and strike out what is not arising in those individuals. So what Kiriya Javanas will you strike out form th e 89 types of consciousness? Hasituppada, Kamavacara Kiriya eight, Rupavacara Kiriya five, Arupavacara Kiriya four. And the Appana Javanas–Rupavacara Kusala five, Arupavacara Kusala four and Magga and Phala eight. And then Nanasampayutta Vipakas four and then Nanavipayutta Vipaka four. How many Cittas remain? 37–Twelve Akusalas, 17 Ahetukas and eight Kamavacara Kusala. So they experience only 37 types of consciousness or only 37 types of consciousness can arise in their minds. This is for Duggati Ahetuka person, those reborn in hell, hungry ghosts, animals and Asura ghosts.

Next Sugati Ahetuka again they cannot have Kiriya Javanas simply because they are not Arahants. They cannot get Appana Javanas because their Patisandhi Citta is such that they cannot get Appana Javanas in that life. Thye cannot have Nanasampayutta Vipakas also because they are born as Ahetukas. So how many do we strike out? Kiriya Javanas–Kamavacara Kiriya eight, Rupavacara Kiriya five, Arupavacara Kiriya four, Appana Javanas–Rupavacara Kusala five, Arupavacara Kusala four and all Lokuttara. And then Nanasampayutta Vipaka, so four from Kamavacara Vipaka. So how many are left? 41-37 plus four. So only 41 types of consciousness arise in the minds of Sugati Ahetuka individuals. Sugati Ahetuka individuals are those human beings who are born blind, deaf and so on. Some kinds of Petas or ghosts are also Sugati Ahetuka. We will study about them in the fifth chapter. So for Sugati Ahetuka individuals there are only 41 types of consciousness.

The the next one is Dvihetuka, those who are born with two roots as a human being or as a Deva. They are Sugati. They cannot have Kiriya Javanas. They cannot have Appana Javanas. They cannot they Nanasampayutta Vipakas. They also have how many types of consciousness? 41. So Sugati Ahetuka and Dvihetuka persons have the same number of or types of consciousness, 41.

Next is the Tihetuka Puthujjana. Tihetuka Puthujjana cannot have Kiriya Javanas–Kamavacara Kiriya eight, Rupavacara Kiriya five, Arupavacara Kiriya four and then all Lokuttara Cittas and Hasituppada. So how many Cittas can they have? Akusala twelve, aHetuka 17, Kamavacara Kusala eight, Kamacavara Vipaka eight, Ripavacara Kusala five, Arupavacara Kusala four, Rupavacara Vipaka five, Arupavacara Vipaka four. How many are there 63. Altogether there are 63. We will come to that later. In the manual it may be different. You get 63 because here Tihetuka Puthujjana means Tihetuka Puthujjana in Kamavacara, Rupavacara and Arupavacara realms. If we mean only for those who are born in Kamavacara realm there will be only 54. Here we are taking Tihetuka Puthujjanas all. 54 is for Kamavacara Tihetuka individuals only . There is no Kiriya. They are already taken out. We have to take out Vipaka. Similarly if they are born in Rupavacara or Arupavacara we take out Kamavacara Vipaka. So if we say Tihetuka Puthujjana we mena all–Kamavacara, Tihetuka we take out the five Ruapvacara Vipaka and the four Arupavacara Vipaka and get 54. If we take all Tihetuka Puthujjanas we get 63.

Then Sotapannas–here again we will take Sotapannas as all. all kinds of Sotapannas–Kamavacara, Rupavacara and Arupavacara. For Sotapannas Ditthigatasampayutta Javanas are eliminated. Sotapannas have eradicated Ditthi and Vicikiccha.So four kinds of consciousness accompanied by wrong view and Vicikiccha–five from Akusala Cittas they do not have. And then Kiriya Javanas sicnce they are not Arahants they do not have–so Hasituppada, Kamavacara Kiriya, Rupavacara Kiriya and Arupavacara Kiriya. And then Magga Cittas since they are phala persons they do not have Magga Cittas, no Magga Cittas at all. And then the three upper Phala Cittas–Sotapannas do not have Sakadagami Phala, Anagami Phala and Arahatta Phala simply because they have not attained it yet. So seven from Akusala, 17 from Ahetuka, then Kamavacara Kusala eight, Kamavacara Vipaka eight, Rupavacara Kusala five, Rupavacara Vipaka five, Arupavacara Kusala four, Arupavacara Vipaka four and then Sotapatti Phala–let's take that as one. So altogether there are 59. Please be reminded that we take Lokuttara as eight. That is for Sotapatti Phalattha.

If you know consciousness for Sotapatti Phalattha you know consciousness for Sakadagami Phalattha because Sakadagami Magga person does not dradicate any more Akusalas or any more Kilesas. So they have the same number and the same types of consciousness as Sotapatti Phalattha individuals have. So for them also there are 59 cittas–seven from Akusala, 17 from Ahetuka, Kamavacara Kusala and Vipaka, Rupavacara Kusala and Vipaka, Arupavacara Kusala and Vipaka, and here for them Sakadagami Phala. They do not have Maggas. There is no Sotapatti Phala, no Anagami Phala and no Arahatta Phala. When a person reaches a higher stage the lower stages of consciousness automatically vanish for them therefore Sakadagamis do not have Sotapatti Phala. Since they have not attained higher stages, they do not have Anagami and Arahatta Phalas. They can only have Sakadagami Phala.

Then Anagami–What does Anagami eradicate? Dosa, the two Dosamula Cittas are eradicated totally. Although also what is called Kamaraga, desire for sense objects. Althouvh they have eradicated desire for sense objects, they have desire for Rupavacara and Arupavacara realm. So they still have Lobha; they have not eradicated Lobha altogether. they have eradicated Dosa altogether. So we subtract two more from the Akusala. So four Ditthigata-vipayutta Cittas and the last one that accompanied by Uddhacca only five remain, and then 17 from Ahetuka, Kamavacara Kusala and Vipaka, Rupavacara Kusala and Vipaka and Arupavacara Kusala and Vipaka and then Anagami Phala. There is no Sotapatti Phala, no Sakadagami Phala because they have passed those attainments and no Arahatta Phala because they have not attained it yet. So how many? 59 minus two, 57. So 57 for Anagami Phala person.

The last one–Arahants. Arahants do not have Kusala Javanas and they do not have Akusala Javanas. How many from Ahetuka? All 18, very good. And then we strike out Kamavacara Kusala eight, so we have Kamavacara Vipaka eight and Kamavacara Kiriya eight. Then we strike out Rupavacara Kusala five. So we have Rupavacara Vipaka five and Rupavacara Kiriya five. Similarly we have Arupavacara Vipaka four and Arupavacara Kiriya four and then the last one Arahatta Phala. So there is no Sotapatti Phala, no Sakadatami Phala and no Anagami Phala and no Magga. So how many 53 because they can have aH Hasituppada, but they do not have any of the Akusala. So 18 Ahetuka Cittas, eight Kamavacara Vipaka eight Kamavacara Kiriya, five Rupavacara Vipaka, five Rupavacara Kiriya, four Arupavacara Vipaka, four Arupavacara Kiriya and then last Arahatta Phala one. So we get 53 types of consciousness experienced by Arahants.

Now we must understand that not all these types of consciousness are experienced by a particular Arahant or a particular person. If the Arahant does not Jhana he will not experience Rupavacara Kiriya and Arupavacara Kiriya. Arahants may or may not have Jhanas. This is very simple. If you want to go on, there are more complicated ones.

All Magattha individuals have only one Citta. That is very easy. Maggatthu person means the person at the moment of Magga Citta. There is only one Citta for such a person. So for Sotapatti Maggattha there is only one Citta which is Sotapatti Magga Citta. Sakadagami Maggattha person has Sakadagami Magga Citta. For Anagami Magga person there is Anagami Magga Citta. For the Arahatta Magga person there si Arahatta Magga Citta.so we have only Citta for each noble person.

Now once again, first one Duggati Ahetuka–how many Cittas? 37. Sugati Ahetuka individual has how many Cittas? 41. Dvihetuka? 41. Tihetuka Puthujjana? 63. Sotapanna? 59 . Sakadagami? 59 . Anagami? 57. Arahant? 53.

Please open the manual on page 179–Guide to Section 24. ''Those beings for whom the functions of rebirth, Bhavanga and death are performed by either of the two types of investigating conseciousness accompanied by equanimity have a rootless (Ahetuka) rebirth consciounsess. Those for whom these functions are performed by one of the great resultants disassociated from knowledge (Nanavipayutta) have a double–rooted (Duhetuka) rebirth consiousness, the root of non-delusion or wisdom being absent.'' That means only Alobha and Adosa are present; there is no Amoha. ''In such beings the functional Javanas, (Kiriya Javanas), which are exclusive to Arahants, cannot arise, nor can such beings attain absorption either by way of Jhanas or the path.''These persons cannot get Jhannas or enlightenment. ''Moreover, the only Cittas that can perform the role of registration (Tadarammana) for these beings are the three types of rootless investigating consciousness.'' Now I want you to consider that whether it is correct or not. ''The only Cittas that can perform the role of registration for these beings are the three types of rootless investigating consciousness.'' That means three Santiranas. Is that correct? First we must we must understand what is meant by ''for these beings'' . Is it both Ahetuka and Dvihetuka ro only Ahetuka. This paragraph deals with both Ahetuka and Dvihetuka persons. So when he says ''for these beings'' we must take as both Ahetuka and Dvihatuka. If it is so, it is not correct. Dvihetuka persons may have four Kamavacara Vipakas disassociated from knowledge.

In the next paragraph the last three lines–“In a woeful plane, where the rebirth consciousness is invariably rootless, even two-rooted great resultants do not perform the role of registration; (that is correct.)” only the rootless resultants can arise in this role.” There is a contradiction here. I think the first one beginning with “ Moreover, the only Cittas” ... is not correct.

So for Duggati Ahetuka person only Santirana can perform the fucntion of Tadarammana. For Sugati Ahetuka persons Kamavacara Vipaka disassociated from knowledge can perform Tadarammana function as well as the Santiranas. For Dvihetuka persons it is the same as for Sugati Ahetuka persons.

Then supramundane Javanas–“Lokuttara Javanas are experienced by he noble persons respectively.” “Respectively” means Sotapatti Phala is experienced by Sotapanna only; Sakadagami Phala is experienced by Sakadagami only and so on. So Sotapanna cannot experience Sakadagami Phala, Anagami Phala and Arahatta Phala.

Now in this section there are two terms you have to be familiar with–Sekha and Asekha. In section 25, page 180–“Amongst those with triple rooted (rebirth consciousness), to Arahants, no wholesome or unwholesome Javanas arise. Similarly, to trainees and worldlings,” –now trainees–the Pali word for trainees is Sekha. You have the word on page 178 “Tatha sekkhaputhujjananam”. Sekkha–S E K K H A. Sometimes it is spelled with only one K. So it can be Sekha or Sekkha. Sekha means those who are still training, those whose training has not yet completion. Such persons are called Sekha or Sekkha. Traning means training as Magga and Phala. So Puthujjana has nothing to do with it. Sekhas are those who have reached enlightenment but have not yet become Arahants. If we take noble persons or enlightened persons to be eight in number, then seven are Sekhas–Sotapatti Maggattha, Sotapatti Phalattha and so on through Arahatta Maggattha. These seven persons are called Sekha or Sekkha because their training has not yet come to completion. They are still training. If they are called trainees what we call Puthujjanas? It is a technical term.

An Arahant is called Asekha. On page 180, section 126 in the Pali verse “AsekkhÈnaÑ”. Asekha means non-asekha or here also sometimes one K can be dropped, so it may be either Asekha or Asekkha. They are called those beyond training, those who have completed training. That means those training has come to completion, who does not have any more training to undergo.That means those who have reached the highest stage of enlightenment–Arahants. So Arahants are called Asekha of Asekkha.

Please not these two because when you read translations of the discourses you will find these two terms. You should understand what is meant by trainees and what is meant by non-trainees. If you do not know Abhidhamma, you do onot know those and if you do not understand clearly, then sometimes you may have wrong understanding of the discourse. Sekha means those who are still training and they are the lower seven noble persons. Asekha means those who are not in training–that means those who have completed the training and they are the Arahatta Phalattha or Arahants.

Then section 26–“According to circumstances, it is said, those beyond training experience 44 classes of consciousness.”. Now in our reckoning how many were there? 53. So in this verse 44 means for those who are in Kmavacara sphere. For all Arahants in general we still have 53. 44 means 53 minus nine. Which are the nine? Rupavacara Vipaka five and Arupavacara Vipaka four.

And trainees 56. Those you have to add up. You have to take out nine and add one, one, one so altogether you have 56 for trainees. Now trainees are taken altogether–Sotapannas, Sakadagamis and Anagamis.

And the rest 54. The rest means what? Puthujjanas. So they have 54. The details are given in the explanation in the guide. On page 181 just above the heading “analysis by way of planes” there is a paragraph beginning with “These figures are for those in the sense-sphere plane”. These are for sense- sphere plane only. If we take for those of all planes, we have to add in Rupavacara Vipaka and Arupavacara Vipaka. And then there is a table on page 182.

Now this is just plain understanding of what we find in the manual, but we have to understand Puthujjanas, Sotapannas and so on who are born in Kamavacara plane, who are born in Rupavacara plane and who are born in Arupavacara plane. Tihetuka Puthujjana can be Kamavacara Tihetuka Puthujjana, Rupavacara Tihetuka Puthujjana, Arupavacara Tihetuka Puthujjana. Also there is Kamavacara Sotapanna, Rupavacara Sotapanna and Arupavacara Sotapanna. The same is true for Sakadagamis, Anagamis and Arahants.

As though it were not enough we have to answer more. That means a Puthujjana may get Jhanas or he may not get Jhanas. There are Puthujjanas with Jhanas and without Jhanas, Sotapannas with Jhanas and without Jhanas, Sakadagamis, Anagamis and Arahants with Jhanas and without Jhanas. So we have Kamavacara Tihetuka with Jhana. First we should say Kamavacara Tihetuka Puthuijjana without Jhana and then Kamavacara Tihetuka Puthujjana with Jhana, Rupavacara Tihetuka Puthujjana with Jhana only, Arupavacara Tihetuka person with Jhana only. Then there is Kamavacara Sotapanna with or without Jhana, Rupavacara Sotapanna with Jhana only. And then there are Kamavacara Sakadagamis, Anagamis and Arahants with or without Jhanas. If we go into these details we will have to make many cards. The ones we have already done are for individuals in general, for Tihetuka Puthuijjanas of all realms, for Sotapannas of all realms and so on.

Suppose we try to find out Tihetuka Kamavacara Puthujjana with Jhana and without Jhana. If he is without Jhana then we will have to take out the Jhana consciousness. So there are how many here? 63. So you take out Jhana consciousness and since they are from Kamavacara we also take out Rupavacara Vipaka and Arupavacara Vipaka Cittas. So the number goes down.

Now the chart on page 182 does not differentiate between those with Jhana and those without Jhana. So we can assume that they are for with Jhana or just for in general. So if you look at the chart–first for woeful rootless rebirth consciousness, that means Duggati Ahetuka, and then Sense-Sphere-Plane–12 unwholesome, 17 rootless, 8 wholesome. There are altogether 37.

Then there is blissful rootless rebirth consciousness, Sugati Ahetuka–41. And the two-rooted rebirth consciousness, Divhetuka which is the same as above, 41.

Three-rooted worlding is 54. That is for those who have Jhanas. If for those who are without Jhanas minus nine so then it is 45.

Then the Stream-enterer, Sotapanna is 50. If he doesn’t get Jhana, then minus nine, 42. And Sakadagami is the same. Anagami is 48 minus nine so 39. And Arahant is 44. If he doesn’t get Jhana 44 minus nine, so 35. You must understand this. So Tihetuka, three-rooted worldling, Tihetuka with Jhana and without Jhana must be understood.The same is true for Sotapanna, Sakadagami, Anagami and Arahant–they must be understood as with Jhanas and without Jhanas. The numbers given in the chart are for those with Jhanas. So if you want to know for those without Jhanas you subtract nine Cittas–Rupavacara Kusala and Arupavacara Kusala and for Arahants Rupavacara Kiriya and Arupavacara Kiriya. So we get 45, 41, 41, 39, 35.

With gard to fine-material-plane and inmaterial plane there is only one, with Jhanas. None are without Jhanas there.

If you have time, I think you should make cards for those different individuals, for example Kamavacara Tihetuka without Jhana, mavacara Tihetuka with Jhana, Kamavacara Sotapanna with Jhana and without Jhana and so on.

Next we go to t he last section. It is called Bhumibheda, analysis by way of planes. It is strange that we have not yet studied the 31 planes of existence. The author is giving us which types of consciousness arise in which plane.

“In the sense-sphere plane all these foregoing cognitive processes occur according to circumstances.” That means for Kamavacara realms all Vithi Cittas arise. So for Kamavacara realm how many Cittas are there? Now here we must understnad the manual is saying ‘Vithi Cittas’. That means there are no Vithimutta Cittas. So if we find not how many Vithi Cittas can arise in Kamavacara realm we say 80. But it we say how many Cittas can arise in Kamavacara realm we have to add Vithimutta Cittas also. Vithimutta means those that function as Patisandhi, Bhavanga and Cuti. In the Kamavacara realm all 89 types of consciousness arise, but if we say Vithi consciousness we get only 80. Do you understand that. There are 89 types of consciousness but there are Cittas that function as Patisandhi, Bhavanga and Cuti. When they function as Patisandhi, Bhavanga and Cuti, they do not arise any door. They are door-freed. So they are called Vithimutta, free from Vithi, out of Vithi. When we say Vithi Citta, it means one thing or when we say Vithimutta Citta .... or when we just say Citta we mean a different thing. So only Vithi Cittas are mentioned in this manual because it is a chapter on Vithi. According to this manual in the sense-sphere plane, that means Kamavacara planes “all these foregoing cognitive processes occur according to circumstances.” Later on he will say 80. In section 29, “ In the sense-sphere plane, according to circumstances, 80 kinds of process consciousness are found,” . Process consciousness means Vithi Cittas, so 80 are found.

“In the fine-material sphere plane” (Rupavacara) “all occur) with the exception of javanas connected with aversion and registration moments.”Now Dosa is the direct opposite of Jhanas. When there is Dosa, Jhanas cannot arise. The Brahmas are those who gain Jhana and then are reborn as Brahmas. So for them although they have not eradicated Dosa altogether as Magga does, but by way of the planes where they exist these two Cittas are supressed. These two Cittas do not arise in Brahmas. If you go back to the third chapter you will find that the section on Vatthu, section on bases. So in the fine-material or Rupavacara planes with the exception of Javanas connected with aversion, two Dosamula Cittas and with the exception of registration moments. That means Tadarammana arise only in what? After Kamavacara Javanas, to Kamavacara beings and then? When taking Kamavacara objects. There are three conditions. Do you remember? Go back in the manual, Tadarammana Niyama right-page 175, section 20. “Registration occurs, they say, in connection with clear and very great objects when there is certainty as regards sense-sphere Javanas.” So registration. Tadarammana arises only after Kamavacara Jhanas. And then “sense-sphere beings”–only to Kamavacara beings, and “sense-sphere object” only when taking Kamavacara objects. So only when these three conditions are met can Tadarammana arise. But here we are dealing with Ruapvacara realm, so Tadarammana cannot arise. So for Kamavacara realm there are 80 Vithi Cittas; but how many Cittas? 89 Cittas.

“In the inmaterial plane with the further exception of the first path,” now if you remember the last section in the third chapter, Sotapatti Magga cannot arise in the Arupavacara realm, because Sotapatti Magga can be attained only through voice from others, only through getting instructions from others. Arupavacara Brahmas have no ears to hear the instructions. So there can be no Sotapatti Magga Citta in the Arupavacara realm.

And then “fine-material-sphere consciousness”, Rupavacara consciousness you cannot get in Arupavacara realm. They are lower Cittas, so they disappear. And “smiling consciousness”, it cannot arise because they do not have bodies. Therefore they cannot smile ...” and the lower nmaterial classes of consciousness” that means when you get to the second Arupavacara realm you do not have first Arupavacara Citta; and when you get to the third you do not experience the first and second. In the fourth you do not experience the first, second and third Arupavacara Cittas because they are lower Cittas and they just disappear when you reach the higher position then the former position is not for you. In the inmaterial sphere there is no first path, Sotapatti Magga, no Rupavacara Cittas, no Hasituppada and for each Arupavacara realm there are no Cittas from a lower Arupavacara realm.

“In all planes, to those who are devoid of particular sense organs, cognitive processes”, that means consciousness pertaining to cognitive processes, “connected wiht the corresponding doors fo not arise.” That means if a person is devoid of eyes there can ge no corresponding consciousness, so no seeing consciousnes and so on. In the Rupavacara realm what bases are missing? Nose, tongue and body. For Rupavacara realm we have to strike out nose consciousness, tongue consciousness and body consciousness. Also in Kamavacara realm if a person is born blind then he cannot have seeing consciousness and so on.

“To the non-percipient beings”. that means the mindless beings “there is absolutely no cognitive process whatsoever.” For mindless beings there is no mind at all, No Cittas, no Cetasikas.

The summary is that for sense-sphere plane there are 80 and (or Rupavacara plane there are 64 and for Arupavacara plane there are 42. Now can you find out the 64? Because 80 is easy. 80 means 89 minus five Rupavacara Vipaka and four Arupavacara Vipaka. What are the 64? How many from Akusala? Ten from Akusala. How many from Ahetuka? You take out six, so twelve. How many from Kamavacara Sobhana? Kamavacara Kusala eight and Kamavacara Kiriya eight. And then Rupavacara Kusala and Kiriya and Arupavacara Kusala and Kiriya and eight Lokuttara Cittas. So we get 64. But if we say how Cittas you add Rupavacara Vipaka five. So 64 plus five is 69.

For the Arupavacara realm there are 42. What are the 42? Ten from Akusala, and then one from Ahetuka. Which one? Manodvarajjana. Then Kamavacara Kusala eight, Kamavacara Kiriya eight and no Rupavacara. Arupavacara Kusala four and Arupavacara Kiriya four and Lokuttara seven without Sotapatti Magga. So there are 42. These 42 are the same as the 42 mentioned in chapter three, last section.If we say just Cittas, we must add four Arupavacara Vipakas.

This is something like a trap. Sometimes we ask how many Cittas can arise and then if you are not careful you say 42 or 64 and are wrong. If we say how many Vithi cittas arise in Kamavacara, Rupavacara or Arupavacara plane, you mention only the Vithi Cittas, no Vithimutta Cittas. If we say how many Cittas are there then we must include Vithimutta Cittas. How many Vithimutta Cittas are there? Actually nine, Rupavacara Vipaka five and Arupavacara Vipaka four. Kamavacara Vipaka eight when they are functioning as Bhavanga, Patisahdhi and Cuti are Vithi free. But they have another function.What is that function? Tadarammana function.When they are performing Tadarammana function they are not Vithi free. So you do not take not eight Kamavacara Vipakas. Eight Kamavacara Vipakas can be Vithi free sometimes and sometimes they are within Vithi. But five Rupavacara Vipakas and four Arupavacara Vipakas are always Vithi free. They only have three functions ... Patisandhi, Bhavanga and Cuti. The eight Kamavacara Vipakas have four functions–Patisandhi, Bhavanga, Cuti and Tadarammana. Again when they are functioning as Tadarammana they are not Vithi free, they are within Vithi, but when they are functioning as Patisandhi, Bhavanga and Cuti they are Vithi free. Since generally they are within Vithi also we do not take them out when we say Vithimutta. So again for Kamavacara realm how many Cittas? 89. How many Vithi Cittas? 80. For Rupavacara realm how many Cittas? 64 plus five 69 Cittas. How many Vithi Cittas? 64. For Arupavacara realm how many Citta? 46–42 plus four. How many Vithi Cittas? 42.

Now the conclusion–“Thus the cognitive process connected with the six doors according to circumstances contines on uninterrupted as long as life lasts,” so these thought processes Vithis go on and on as long as life lasts, that is for this one life. Actually they continue to arise and disappear for the next life also.”... intercepted by the life-continuum.” Vithis do not follow another Vithi. There must always be moments of Bhavanga between one thought process and another, between one Vithi and another. So for example hearing thought process cannot immediately follow seeing thought process. First there must be seeing thought process. Then three must be Bhavanga moments intervening, sometimes millions of moments or maybe any number. So these thought processes go on and on and on during our lives only interupted by moments of life continuum, only interupted by Bhavanga moments. So these Bhavanga moments are like buffer zones between thought porcesses. That is why when we show diagraom of thought process we put both at the beginning and at the end Bhavanga moments to show that Bhavanga moments precede and follow each thought process.

This is the end of the fourth chapter. We can end it here or if you want to go into details about different individuals you can do so. At this stage of your knowledge it is enough if you understand for beings in general–Tihetuka Puthujjana in general, Sotapanna in general and so on. After you become familiar with that much then you can go on into the explanation and try and find how many Cittas go with Tihetuka Puthujjana with Jhana or without Jhana and so on. You may also go to the chart on page 182 and find out about this. Thet are very handy and for easy reference they are very good.

How is your familiarity with the chart? I think there is still time. The first column–tell me the name of the types of consciousness Akusala. The next three columns? Ahetuka. The next three columns? Kamavacara “Sobhana. The next three columns? Rupavacara. The next three columns Arupavacara. The remaining? Lokuttara.

Which are Kamavacara consciousness? How many? 54. They are twelve Akusala, 18 Ahetukas and 24 Kamavacara Sobhanas. Which are the Mahaggata? 27–15 Rupavacara and twelve Arupavacara. What do you call 54 Kamavacara and 27 Mahaggata? Lokiya or mundane consciousness, so mundane consciousness 81. How many Lokuttara Cittas are there in biref? Eight. And in detail? 40. In Mahaggata and Lokuttara how many first Jhana Cittas? 11. Second Jhana? 11. Third Jhana? 11. Fourth Jhana? 11. Fifth Jhana Cittas? 23, three Rupavacara Cittas, all twelve Arupavacara Cittas and fifth Jhana Cittas from Magga and Phala, altogether eight.

What do we need to know? Twelve Akusala Cittas–how many are accompanied by Somanassa? Four. How many by Upekkha? Six . How many by Domanassa? Two.

 Now Ahetuka Cittas–how many are accompanied by Somanassa? Two, Hasituppada and Santirana. How many are accompanied by Upekkha? 14. How many are accompanied by Dukkha? One. How many are accompanied by Sukha? One.

Then Kamavaraca Sobhana 24–how many are accompanied by Somanassa? Twelve. How many are accompanied by Upekkha? Twelve.

Rupavacara 15–how many are accompanied by Somanassa? Twelve. How many be Upekkha? Three.

Arupavacara twelve–how many are accompanied by Somanassa? None. How many by Upekkha? Twelve.

Twenty Magga Cittas–how many are accompanied by Somanassa? 16. How many are accompanied by Upekkha? Four.

Twenty Phala Cittas–how many are accompanied by Somanassa? 16. How many are accompanied by Upekkha? Four.

In 121 types of consciousness how many are accompanied by Somanassa? 62. And Upekkha? 55. Domanassa? Two. Dukkha? One. Sukha? One.

Let’s find out Hetus. Among twelve Akusala Cittas how many are accompanied by two Hetus? Ten. How many are accompanied by one Hetu? Two. Two Hetus here means Lobha and Moha or Dosa and Moha. One Hetu means Moha.

We will skip Ahetukas because they have no roots.

Then 24 Kamavacara Sobhana Cittas–how many are accompanied by two Hetus? Twelve. How many by three Hetus? Twelve. Two Hetus here means Alobha and Adosa. Three Hetus means Alobha, Adosa and Amoha.

Mahaggata and Lokuttara Cittas have only three Hetus. These Hetus are accompanied by Alobha, Adosa and Amoha.

Do you want to go to functions? Akusala Cittas have what function? Javana function. Then seeing consciousness? It has one function, seeing. Hearing consciousness has one function hearing. Smelling consciousness–smelling function. Tasting cosciousness–tasting function. Body consciousness–one function. Then two receiving consciousness have one function. What function? Receiving. Somanassa Santirana? Two functions? What? Santirana and Tadarammana. And then two Upekkha Santiranas? Five functions ... Patisandhi, Bhavanga, Cuti, Santirana and Tadarammana. Pancadvarajjana has one function. What? Avajjana function, adverting Manodvaravajjana? Two functions? What? Adverting and determining. Hasituppada has one function, Javana. And then Kamavacara Kusalas have one function, Javana. What about Kamavacara Vipakas? They have four functions,Patisandhi,Bhavanga, Cuti and Tadarammana. Then Kamavacara Kiriyas? One function. Rupavacara Kusala? One function. Rupavacara Vipakas? Three functions. And Arupavacara Kusala? One function. Arupavacara Vipaka? Three functions, Arupavacara Kiriya? One function. All Magga Cittas? One function. Phala Cittas? One function. We will stop here.

*  In the  talk  Pancadvara  was  mentioned  but it  is  Kiriya,  so  I removed  it  where  it  was  appropriate.
* I removed  Pancadvarajjana in  this  paragraph  where  appropriate.

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