Abhidhamma Lectures 05 - Buddhism, Philosophy, and Khmer Literature


Buddhism, Philosophy, and Khmer Literature

The teachings of the Buddha are aimed solely at liberating sentient beings from suffering. The Basic Teachings of Buddha which are core to Buddhism are: The Three Universal Truths; The Four Noble Truths; and The Noble Eightfold Path.

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Sunday, June 16, 2019

Abhidhamma Lectures 05

Tape# 23

Chapter 5 (A) - Tape 1

 The Planes of Existence

Before we go to the fifth chapter I must correct a mistake I made last week. I said that in the Kamavacara realm 80 Vithi Cittas can arise and all Cittas can arise also. That is not correct. Resultants of Rupavacara and resultants of Arupavacara cannot arise in the Kamavacara realm. So whether it is Vithi consciousness or non-Vithi consciousness there are only 80 types of consciousness in the Kamavacara realm, not 89.

So today we come to the fifth chapter. The fifth chapter is called vithimuttasangaha. It primarily deals with what are called process free or consciousness that are out of Vithi. But actually it will deal with the others also. This chapter is divided into four sections. The first section concerns the four planes of existence; the second is about the four modes of Patisandhi, rebirth relinking; the third concerns the four kinds of Kamma; the fourth is the fourfold advent of death or the four kinds of death, so Patisandhi in the next life.

The first section deals with the planes of existence. There are four or in detail there are 31 planes of existence. There are of existence are said to be 31. They are actually connected with types of consciousness. You already know that some types of consciousness can arise in Kamavacara realm, some in Rupavacara and some in Arupavacara. So the 31 planes of existence are according to Abhidhamma really existing or they have objective experience. They are like houses. Beings are reborn in those planes and when they are reborn in those planes, they are reborn with a certain type of resultant consciousness which is clled Patisandhi Citta. So not all Patisandhi Cittas can arise in each and every plane of existence. In some planes there can be only one type of resultant consciousness, but in others there may be more than one.

          First, the 31 planes of existence may be divided into four Apayas, Kama-Sugati, Rupavacara and Arupavacara.

The Four ApÈyas

The first four are called Apaya. We usually translate Apaya as woeful states because there is no happiness in those realms. So they are called Apaya. There are different meanings given to the word Apaya, but I think we will follow just what is given in the manual. Apaya means devoid of hppiness, In these realms there can be very little happiness, very little comfort. Mostly there is suffering, so they are called Apaya. It comes from 'Apa' and 'aya'. 'Apa' means no or devoid of. 'Aya' here means happiness. These are the states or realms wher suffering predminates.

          There are altogether four Apayas. The firsk one is Niraya. Niraya is translated as hell. Niraya and Apaya are pretty much the same. 'Ni' and 'Aya' - 'Ni' here also is iin the negative sense, so no happiness. This is the lowest of the planes of existence.

          Those who do evil deeds are reborn in niraya. It is translated as hell. For Buddhists hell is not eternal. Hell is like a prison. You commit some crime and then you pay for that crime for some time in prison. Then you can come out of the prison after the end of the sentence. In the same way a person who does Akusala is reborn in hell or other Apaya states. He will serve a term or a number of years. After that he can escape or he can be reborn as a human being or even as a Deva. Beings have a store of Kusala and Akusala Kamma. Later when we study Kamma you will understand that - Kamma that gives results in this life, Kamma that gives results in the next life, Kamma that gives results in lives beginning with second next life and so on. One of these accumulated Kamma can help those born in Apaya realms. They will be reborn again as human beings or even as Devas. Hell in Buddhism is not eternal. It is also temporary, but that 'temporary' may mean millions and millions of years.

          Niraya is said to be situated in the earth. The earth is said to be 24,000 Yojanas. The first 12,000 Yojanas are said to be iron. Above that is earth; so there is iron earth and earth earth. Niraya is said to be situated on the iron base of the earth. Niraya is said to be situated on the iron base of the earth, Niraya is in the earth. There are people who are swallowed up by the earth, like Devadatta, It is said that Devadatta was swallowed by the earth and went to hell, the lowest of the Nirayas. So Niraya has its own specific location.

          Now the other three are Tiracchana-Yoni, Pettivisaya and Asurakaya. You can get the English translation from the chart in the book. Tiracchana-yoni means animal kingdom. Pettivisaya means Petas. They are translated as hungry ghosts. Asurakaya means the host of Asuras. Asura is also a kind of Peta. They are differentiated here from the Petas. Petas always suffer hunger and thirst. It is said that they cannot get enough. They are always hungry and they are always thirsty. Even though somebody may give them something to eat and something to drink, as a result of their Kamma in the past they do not remain food for them. They may change into fire or something like that. Those are called Petas.

          Now Asurakaya–there are two kinds of Asuras. There are god suras and demon Asuras. Here the demon Asuras are meant. They are like Petas. but the difference is that sometimes they enjoy some kind of happiness, but at other times they suffer; they have different kinds of suffering. So those who are born in Asurakaya may not be so bad as those born as Petas and those born in Niraya. Sometimes they enjoy good things and other times they suffer.

          There is another kind of Asura. They are called Deva Asuras. They are enemies of the Devas. In some discourses you may find fighting between Devas and Asuras. I think you are familiar with the Dhajagga Sutta. In the Dhajagga Sutta, banner Sutta, it is mentioned that Devas and Asuras fight with each other. The king of gods said to his followers "if you are afraid just look up at my banner. Look at my banner, if you are my banner, fear will go away." It is said between the fighting of Devas and Asuras there is no conqueror, no winner. Sometimes Devas win. Sometimes Asuras win. There is no killing. They just run away. That's a long story. I cannot tell you here.

          These three belong to the four Apaya realms. Tiracchana-yoni-you already know the animal realm. Animals have no special location or special place. They live with us human beings. The hungry ghosts also live on the same plane, same level as human beings. Asurakayas also live on same plane as human beings. These three do not have any special location assigned for them. They live with human beings. They live with human beings. They live in the forests or in the villages or towns. These four are clled the Apaya realms. These four are always full of suffering.

Human Realm

          Along with these Petas, Asuras and animals there are Manussa. Manussa means human beings. Human beings are called Manussa because they have strong, sharp minds. The word 'Manussa' literally means those who have sharp, developed minds. They have sharp or developed minds so that human beings can if they are good, they can reach the stage of Buddhahood, and if they are bad they cn do any of the heinous crimes, and so they can go down to the lowest Avici Hell. Human beings are those which are capable of the best and the worst. It is said that only a human being can become a Buddha, no Devas, no Brahmas. Human beings live on the earth.

Six Deva Realms

          Above the human beings there are six realms of Devas. The first one is called Catummaharajika. It comes from 'Catu' which means four and 'Maharaja which means great king. The four great kings, they are celestial kings of the four directions.

          Now according to the commentaries a world consists of your great islands or four great continents. In the middle of these four great continents there is what is called Mount Meru. These four great kings guard each dirction. For the eastern direction there is one of these great kings, for the southern direction another, for the western direction another, for the north another. They are for the east Dhatarattha. Virulhaka rules the south. The eestern celestial king is Virupakkha. The north is ruled by Vessavana. It is said they are king of Gandhabbas, Kumbhandas, Nagas and Yakkhas respectively. Gandhabbas are said to be heavenly musicians or something similar. Kumbhandas are another kind of spirit. Nagas are snakes or dragons. Yakkhas are also demons or spirits. The place where these four great kings and their people, their followers or spirits live is called Catummaharajika. They live from the base of Mount Meru up to half of Mount Meru.

          Above them is Tavatimsa. You are familiar with Tavatimsa because it is the place where Buddha went and preached Abhidhamma. Tavatimsa is explained to come from the word 'Titimsa'. That means 33.33 people when they were human beings did service to the community. They made or repaired roads. They built rest houses. They helped people. As a result they were reborn in the celestial world. the place where they were reborn is called Tavatimsa. So the word 'Titimsa' changed to t he word 'Tavatimsa'. But the commentaries say it is just a name., because there are Tavatimsas in all the world cycles not just this world cycle. Tavatimsa is just the name of that place. Tavatimsa is situated on the top of Mount Meru. So the celestial mansions in Tavatimsa are located on the mountain itself and also in space. They may be called both earth-bound and space-bound. Catummaharajika gods are earth-bound. Manussa (human beings) are also earth-bound.

          Above Tavatimsa there is Yama. Yama is also said to mean of great happiness. The divine king there is called Suyama. Tavatimsa is the place where Sakkha king of the gods lives.

Above Yama rthere is Tusita. Tusita is also familiar to you Buddha's mother is there. Seven days after the Buddha's birth she died. She was reborn as a male deity in Tusita. Tusita is said to be the best of the six celestial realms because Bodhisattas are always reborn in Tusita heaven before they come down to the human world. Tusita heaven is like a Dhamma place for Devas. Many people aspire or wish to be reborn in Tusita heaven, so they can listen to the Dhamma preached by the Bodhisattas there. Do you remember the story of a man called Dhammika when he was about to die? The deities came to him and asked him to go to their respective realms. Then he asked which was good. The people who were with him said "Tusita is good". So he said, "May this garland be attached to the chariot from Tusita heaven." And so the garland was hanging from the chariot from Tusita heaven. Tusita is a good place to go to.

          Next is Nimmanarati. Nimmana means creation. 'Rati' means delight. So Nimmanarati means delighting in one's own creations. That means those beings, when they want to enjoy, they create enjoyment for themselves. They enjoy these creations. If you want to enjoy something you don't have to go to other people. You justcreate that enjoyment. Such beings are called Nimmanarati. They have the power to create objects of sensual enjoyment just by thought.

          Then the sixth, the uppermost of the Deva realms is Paranimmita-vasavatti. 'Para' means others. 'Nimmita' means created. 'Paranimmita' means created by others. 'Vasavatti' means making other follow their wish. That means they have control over what is created by others.

          Now here in the manual it says "The gods of the Paranimmita vasavatti realm cannot create such objects themselves," That is not correct. Actually it means that they do not create themselves for them to enjoy, they let others, their followers or subordinates create for them. I think it is not that they cannot create for themselves, but that they don't bother to create or they don't make effort to create themselves. They let other beings create for them.

          These number 5 and number 6 Devas are different. Number 5 Devas create for themselves. Number 6 Devas, they are more lazy. The don't create for themselves. They let other gods, lesser gods create for them. It is said that the lesser gods always know what is in theoir minds, in minds of these Devas and so accordingly create what they enjoy. If you are a cook and you have been serving a person for some time, you know that this person likes this kind of food or that kind of food. Even though that person does not say anthing, you cook the food that person likes. In the same way these subordinate Devas have been with the ruling Devas for a long time, so they know what they like. They create sensual things for them. The Paranimmita-vasavatti Devas enjoy the sensual delights created by the lesser Devas.

          These six celestial realms are called Deva Loka or six Deva realms. Now if you look at the chart on the left hand side first we see the word 'earth'. That means they are situated on the earth. Tavatimsa itself is situated on the earth because it is located on the top of Mount Meru. To the left we get Apaya four and then in the other box is Kama-sugati. Kama-sugati begins with what? Manussa, human beings. Human beings and the six Deva realms altogether are called Kama-sugati, they are called happy destination. 'Sugati' means happy destination. 'Gati' means something to go to, a place or realm to go to. That's called Gati. There are seven Kama-sugati realms. Manussa is called Sugati, happy realm because there can be a lot of happiness especially when compared to the four Apayas. Manussa is much better. And compared with Manussa Catummaharajika is much better and so on.

          Four Apaya realms plus Kama-sugati seven, altogether eleven are called Kamavacara realm. Of the eleven Kamavacara realms four are woeful states and seven are happy destination, Kama-sugati.

          Beginning with Yama, Tusita, Nimmanarati, Paranimmita-vasavatti they are situated in space or in air. So the mansions there may be floating here and there.

Brahma Realms

16 R|pÈvaraca Realms

Above them there are Brahma realms. First there are Rupavacara Brahma realms. Rupavacara realms are from number on through number sixteen. The first threeBrahma-Parisajja, Brahma-Purohita and Maha-Brahmathese three realms are all situated on the same plane. So they are put on one line on the chart. Brahma-ParisajjaParisajja means retinue, so Brahma's retinue. Parisajja comes from Parisa which means audience. Brahma-PurohitaPurohita menas a minister, so Brahma's minister. And Maha-Brahma means a great Brahma. These three are located on one plane. They are situated in space.

          Then above them another threeParittabha, Appamanabha and Abhassara. Parittabha'Abha' means radiant, luster; 'Paritta' means little, so minor luster. 'Appama' means infinite, measureless, limitless, so infinite luster. Abhassara means radiant, so radiant luster. These Brahmas are always bright beings. These three are also on one plane.

          On the next plane there are three realmsParitta-subha, Appamana-subha and Subhakinha. Paritta-subha, minor aura; here aoso it is radiant. Appamana-subha is infinite aura. Subhakinha is steady aura. Subha means good and Kinha means undoubted. So Subhakinha is translated as steady aura. Here also there are three realms. Now we have nine Brahma realms.

          Above them are two realms. One is Vehapphala and the other is Asanna-satta. Vehapphala is translated as great reward. 'Veha' means great and 'Phala' means result or reward. Number eleven is Asanna-satta, mindless beings. Here 'Sanna' means mind, not just perception. Those without mind are called Asanna-satta. The realm or abode of them is also called Asanna-satta.

          Above them are five realms called Suddhavasa. 'Suddha' means pure. 'Avasa' means house or an abode. Suddhavasa means the abode of pure beings. The realm of pure beings. They are pure because they are all Anagamis. Only Anagamis are born in these five pure abodes. Their names are the following: the first one is Aviha-beautiful abode. 'Viha' means to forsake, so Aviha is not forsaking, so durable. The second one is Atappa, serene. Atappa really means cannot be satisfied. Sudassa means good looks. Sudassi means having clear sight. Akanittha means highest pure abode. Akanittha means not young, not little. So it means great or highest. These are the five realms where only Anagamis are reborn.

          Now we have 16 Rupavacara realms. The first three are called first Jhana realms. The second three are called second Jhana realms. The third three are called third Jhana realm. Vehapphala, Asanna-satta and the five Suddhavasa are called the fourth Jhana realm. The 16 Rupavacara realms are divided into four Jhana realms. Here we follow the fourfold method, not the fivefold method.

          Later on in the next section we will study who is born in those realms and with what Patisandhi Cittas.

4 Ar|pÈvacara Realms

          Now we come to the last four which are Arupavacara realms - matterless beings, materialess beings, mind only beings. The first one is Akasanancayatana realm. The second one is Vinnanancayatana realm. The third one is Akincannayatana realm. The fourth one is Nevasanna-nasannayatana realm. There is no matter, no physical body, only mind, only Citta and Cetasikas arising and disappearing in those four realms. Although they are only Cittas and Cetasikas, they need some kind of location. That's why they are situated high above the suddhavasa realm. This way we get 31 Bhumis or 31 planes of existence. How many are Apaya realms? Four. How many are Kama-sugati? Seven. Apaya four and Sugati seven altogether eleven are Kamavacara realm. When we say Kamavacara realm we mean four Apayas, one human realm and six Deva realms. The others are Brahma realms. They are divided into two Rupa Brahmas and Arupa Brahmas. Rupa Brahmas are divided into fourfirsst Jhana, second Jhana, third Jhana and fourth Jhana realms. In fourth Jhana realm there are Vehapphala, Asanna-satta and Suddhavasa. Vehapphala and Asanna-satta are on the same plane. Suddhavasa is above them beginning with Aviha one above the ohter. After the Suddhavasa come the four Arupavacara. So altogether we get 31 planes of existence.

          These planes are always connected with some kind of Citta or consciousness. We have learned how many Cittas can arise in these realms. We have studied the individuals. There are twelve individuals.

Individuals and Realms

          Now we will study how many individuals can be reborn in with' realms. Look at the sheet handed out today called planes and individuals. It is customary in Burma to know how many individuals can be born in how many realms. When we add them all up we get 214 individuals. We still have to find out these 214.

          First the abbeviations on top of the chart: DA means Dugati Ahetuka; SA means Sugati Ahetuka; DV means Dvihetuka; TI means Tihetuka, actually Tihetuka Puthujjana; SoM means Sotapatti Magga; Sotapatti Magga actually means Sotapatti Maggattha person; SoP means Sotapatti Phalattha person. And then there are Sakadagami Maggattha, Sakadagami Phalattha, Anagami Maggattha, Anagami Phalattha, Arahatta Maggattha and Arahatta Phalattha. So there are twelve individuals.

          Now where can these individuals be reborn? In Niraya only one kind of individual can be reborn and that is the Dugati Ahetuka. In the next section we will learn with which Citta they take Patisandhi in Niraya.

          Then in the next one, Tiracchana-yoni only Dugati Ahetuka can arise. In Petti-visaya and Asurakaya only Dugati Ahetuka may arise. So only one individual may arise in each of the four woeful states. So in the Apaya realms altogether we get four individuals.

          Then the human realmin human realm how many individuals can be reborn there? Eleven. The only exception is Dugati Ahetuka. Since they are Dugati they don't belong to human realm. So in the human realm there are eleven individuals all except the first, Dugati Ahetuka.

          In Catummaharajika, the first Deva realm there are eleven individuals beginning with Sugati Ahetauka and so on.

Then in Tavatimsa there are ten individuals. There can be no Ahetuka beings in these realms. There are Dvihetuka, Tihetuka and eight noble persons.

          There are also ten individuals in Yama, Tusita, Nimmana-rati and Paranimmita-vasavatti. In the five higher Deva realms in each of them only ten individuals can be reborn. There are no Dugati Ahetuka and Sugati Ahetuka. In Catummaharajika and human realms Sugati Ahetuka can be born. We will find them later in the second section.

          Now first Jhana threeBrahma-parisajja, Brahma-purohita and Maha-Brahma - in those realms how may individuals can be reborn? There are no Dvihetuka and Ahetuka individuals. Only Tihetuka individuals are born there. So there are nine individuals and nine multiplied by three is 27.

          In second Jhana three there are nine individuals. In third Jhana three there are also nine individuals. Then in Vehapphala there are nine individuals, the same. First, second, third Jhana planes and Vehapphala have the same number of individuals.
But Asanna-satta has only one and that is Sugati Ahetuka. We are finding Ahetuka persons among Brahmas because it is just Rupa. There are no Hetus. Not only Hetus are absent but all Cittas and Cetasikas, so they fall under sugati Ahetuka because they are Sugati and there are no Hetus. Therefore they are called sugati Ahetuka. One kind of Brahma is called Ahetuka person.

          Then Suddhavasa five only three individuals can be reborn there. They are Anagami Phalattha, Arahatta Maggattha, and Arahatta Phalattha. There is no Anagami Maggattha because one must first become an Anagami to be reborn there. So one has already become an Anagami and will become an Arahant when one is reborn in Suddhavasa. We must understand that Arahants cannot be reborn there. Although we say there are three iindividuals in Suddhavasa, we mean they can be there. So an Anagami dying from Kamavacara realm is reborn in Suddhavasa realm and is an Anagami Phalattha there. Then after more meditation he becomes an Arahant. At the moment of Arahant Magga he is an Arahatta Maggattha person. And from the moment of his first Arahant Phala he is an Arahatta Phalattha person. He is an Arahant. So when we say there can be three individuals in Suddhavasa we do not mean they can be reborn because an Arahant is not reborn anywhere.

          There are four Arupavacara realms. There are no Dugati Ahetukas, no Sugati Ahetukas, no Dvihetukas, only Tihetukas are born here. But one is missing - Sotapatti Megga. There can be no Sotapatti Maggattha person in Arupavacara realm. I think yo remember that. He has no ears. He must hear some instruction from a Buddha or from a teacher so that he can practice meditation and become enlightened. After becoming a Sotapanna he can be born there and attain the higher stages of enlightenment. There is no Sotapatti Magga; so there are seven noble persons and one Tihetuka Puthujjana - there are altogether eight persons. Eight multiplied by four is 32 . If you ADD up all the numbers in the right hand column you get 214 individuals. In Burma we have to be able to say there are 214 individuals. Actually you multiply the individuals that can be reborn in some realms by the number of realms. Then you add up altogether and get 214 individuals. So not all twelve individuals can be reborn in any one of these states, any one of these realms. The most is eleven in the human realm and the Catummaharajika realm. In those realms there can be eleven individuals but in others there are ten, or nine, or one, some three, some eight.

          Now in the chart you see the y's and K's.

Life Span

Now let's go to the life span. Later we will go back to the rebirth linking Cittas because it is on the chart here. We will study the life span of each realm. In Niraya there is no age limit, no fixed life span. If a person is reborn in Niraya he will suffer according to his own Kamma. If his Kamma is bad he may suffer there for a very long time. if he is not so bad, he willl suffer there not so long. There is no fixed life span for Niraya and also for animal Kingdom, for Petas, for Asuras and also for human beings.

          It is said that human beings can live thousands and thousands of years or they may live for only ten years. The lowest life span of humans is ten years and the longest is incalculable. That means human beings may live for thousands of years. The present human life span is believed to be one hundred years more or less. For four woeful states and human beings there os no age limit. You cannot say the life span of a human being is just this or that. It varies with time.

          But from Catummaharajika onwards there is a fixed life span. It is said that the life span of Catummaharajika Devas is how many years? Nine million years. That means nine million human years. On the chart I only put human years. If you want to put celestial years, you may write down celestial years on the left side. First let's look at human years. For Catummaharajika there are nine million human years, so there life span is nine million years. For Tavatimsa you multiply by four, so 36 million human years. For Yama there are 144 million human years. For Tusita there are 576 million years. For Nimmana-rati gods there are 2 billion 304 million human years. And for Paranimmita-vasavatti there are nine billion 215 million years. That is human years.

          What about celestial years? You can see those numbers on page 197 of the manual. You may write those numbers on the chart to the left of the names. For Catummaharajika 500 celestial years, for Tavatimsa one thousand, for Yama two thousand, for Tusita four thousand, for Nimmana-rati eight thousand and for Paranimmita-vasavatti sixteen thousand celestial years. So there is a difference. As to human years Catummaharajika live nine million years. Although by human reckoning it is nine million years, by their reckoning it is only 500 years. For Tavatimsa it is 36 million years by human reckoning but by their own reckoning it is only one thousand years.

          So now you see human years all multiplied by four and celestial years are only multiplied by two. Why? Now it's a little tricky. The life span of Catummaharajika Devas is five hundred. For Tavatimsa the life Span is one thousand. One thousand is by Tavatimsa reckoning, not by Catummaharajika reckoning. By Catummaharajika reckoning it may be two thousand years. Two thousand Catummaharajika years equals one thousand Tavatimsa years. That is why they are multiplied by two and not by four.

          The duration of a day or a year are different. It is said that one day in Catummaharajika is for human beings fifty years. It is taken that there are thirty days in a month. and 360 days in a year. If you multiply those you get niine million years.

          When we multiply in the upper Deva realms, if we are using human years, we multiply by four. If we use celestial years, we multiply by two. That means one day in Tavatimsa heaven is twice as long as one day in Catummaharajika realm and so on. So one day in Catummaharajika is fifty years in human realm. So thirty days in Catummaharajika is 1500 human years. 360 days or one year for Catummaharajika is eighteen human years. And five hundred years for Catummaharajika is nine million human years. These are for six celestial realms.

          Then the Brahma-parisajja1/3 K. K means Kappa. Kapppa is a Pali word meaning world. World means duration. That is 1/3 Kappa or 1/3 world cycle. For Brahma-purohita the life span is 1/2 Kappa. For Maha-Brahamas it is one Kappa, one world cycle.

          Then for Parittabha it is two Kappas, for Appamabhas it is four Kappas and for Abhassara it is eight Kappaps. So twice as much as for the lower one.

          For Paritta-subha it is sixteen Kappas, for Appamana-subha it is 32 Kappas and for Subhakinha it is 64 Kappas. But for Vehapphala and also for Asanna-setta there are 500 Kappas.

          Then for Aviha the first of the Suddhavasa there are one thousand Kappas, Atappa2000 Kappas, Sudassa4000 Kappas, Sudassi8000 Kappas, Akanittha16,000 Kappas, 16000 world cycles.

          And for ŒkÈsÈnaÒcÈyatana 20,000 Kappas, for ViÒÒÈÓaÒcÈyatana 40,000 Kappas, for ŒkiÒcaÒÒÈyatana 60,000 Kappas and for NevasaÒÒÈnÈsaÒÒÈyatana 84,000 Kappas. Once you are reborn there, you will not get out of Samsara for a long, long time. That's why I said you become a Sakadagami and you are reborn as a Deva. Then you come back as a human being and you get out of Samsara. But is you are reborn in Suddhavasa heaven you will be there one thousand world cycles. And if you do not become an Arahant there, you will go up to Atappa, Sudassa, Sudassi and Akanittha, so you will be in Samsara for a long., long time, much longer than a Sakadagami would.

          There is one problem here. I put only K there. On the chart no differentiation is shown between the first three and the others. Actually the K's must be different. In order to understand this we must understand how the world is destroyed, how the world comes to destruction. Now the world comes to destruction by three causesfire, water and wind. When the world is destroyed by ifre, it destroys everything up to and including the first three first Jhana realms. When the world is destroyed by water, an adiitional three realms are destroyed. When the world is destroyed by wind or air another three realms are destroyed.

          When does the world come to destruction? There are four periods in the life of one worlddisintegrating period, destroyed period, evolving period and static period. There are four periods in one time world cycle. Let's say the world comes to destruction. For a long time it does not become destroyed in just one day or one month or after that it stays in that condition for another period - being destroyed, in the destroyed stage. Then after that a new world comes to be formed. That formation period is also one period of many, many years. The last period is where beings arise. So there are these four periods in one world cycle.

It is said that when the world is destroyed by fire up through the first three Brahma realms are destroyed. That means these three Brahma realms do not last for one whole Kappa. There are four segments in one whole Kappa. After the end of one segment the world is destroyed. So the first three Braham realms do not last for the whole Kappa, for the whole segment. So the K's or Kappas for Braham Parisajja and so on cannot be the same as the Maha Kappa.They are smaller or shorter Kappas. The short Kappas are called Asankheyyakappa, incalculable Kappas, incalculable world cycles.

          But beginning with Parittabha K means Maha Kappa. We must understand that there are actuallly three kinds of Kappas. Now you know twoMaha Kappa and Asankheyya Kappa. There is another Kappa you have to understand. That one is called Antara Kappa. Antara Kappa means interim Kappa. Interim Kappa meanslet's say human bings live for ten years. From ten years the life span will increase until it reaches Asankheyyaincalculable years. Then from there it comes down again to ten years. That period from ten years is called Antara Kappa. That may be a very long time. Human beings now live for about one hundred years. They may live for eighty years, fifty years, ten years. Then again the life span will increase. One up and down period is called Antara Kappa. 64 of these Antara Kappas make one Asankheyya Kappa, one incalculable Kappa. And four incalculable Kappas make one Maha Kappa. There are three KappasAnatara Kappa, Asankheyya Kappa and Maha Kappa.

          I follow the general opinion of teachers. There are some teachers who say twenty Antara Kappas make an Asankheyya Kappa, not 64. I think 64 is the common opinion of teachers. 64 Antara Kappas make an Asankheyya Kappa. Four Asankheyya Kappas make one Maha Kappa.

          Now the world is destroyed and formed again during the period of an Asankheyya Kappa. So the first three Brahma realms do not last, cannot last for the whole Maha Kappa. That is why the Kappa for the first three realms cannot be a Maha Kappa. It is taken to mean Asankheyya Kappa. Teh life span of Brahma Parisajja is 1/3 Asankheyya Kappa, 1/3 incalculable Kappa. The life span of Brahma Purohita is 1/2 of an incalculable Kappa. The life span of Maha Brahma is one incalculable Kapa. With Parittabha they can exist for the whole Maha Kappa. From the fourth Brahma realm and above K means Maha Kappa. This is the interpretation given in the subcommentaries. Even the commentaries did not say anything about that. The life span of these realms can be found in the Vibhanga also, the second book of Abhidhamma, the last chapter of the second bood of Abhidhamma. There is just 1/3 Kappa, 1/2 Kappa, one Kappa, two Kappas and so on. But since we understand that when the world is destroyed by fire it includes these three Brahma realms, we know they cannot last for the whole duration of a Maha Kappa. So the teachers make this compromise or something like that. For the first three Brahma realsms Kappa means Asankheyya Kappa. For the Parittabha Brahma realm up through Nevasanna-nasannayatana Kappa means Maha Kappa.

          When the world is destroyed, it can be destroyed by three causes fire, water and air. There is a sequence for the world being destroyd by these three causes. It is destroyed by fire for seven times. The eighth time it is destroyed by water. Then again it is destroyed another seven times by fire. Then for the 16th time the world is destroyed by water. Another seven times it i s destroyed by fire. Then for the 24th time it is destroyed by water. Then seven more times by fire and 32nd by water, Another seven times by fire and the 40th by water. Another seven times by fire and 48th by water it is destroyed. Another seven times by fire and the 56th by water - another seven times by fire and when it comes to the 64th time it is destroyed by air or wind. So there are 64 Kappas. So seven tim by fire and every eighth time by water until the 64th time when the world is destroyed by air or wind. This is how the world is destroyed. There are many other things to know.

          There are distances. Although they are not mentioned or not explained in the texts or even some of the comeentaries, the subcommentaries and some others mention the distances between realms. It is just for your information. You may or may not take it. The distances are in Yojanas. We always have this uncertainty with regard to Yojana. How long is one Yojana? According to one book one Yojana is about tewlve or thirteen miles. Nowadays people take one Yojana to be eight miles. There are cities in India. There is a city called Rajagaha. There is also a city called Nalanda. In the commentaries it says Rajagaha and Nalanda are one Yojana apart. Now they say it is about eight miles; a Yojana is taken to be about eight miles.

          The distances will be in Yojanas. As I said before the earth has two layers. The earth Pathavi (Pathavi means earth.) and iron Pathavi. The lower one is iron Pathavi and the upper one is earth Pathavi. In the iron Pathavi are situated the eight great hells. There is not one hell, but eight great hells. There are many other smaller hells around them. You may find that there are 168 hells or even more. The hells are called Sanjiva, Kalasutta, Sanghata, Roruva, Maha Roruva, Tapana, Maha Tapana and Avici. You are familiar with Avici. Who went down to Avici? Devadatta. If we want to say something very bad about a person, we say you are going to Avici. And so they are 15,000 Yojanas apart. We begin with Avici and go up.

          Then there is human realm. The distance between human realm and Catummaharajika is 42,000 Yojanas. Then from human ralm to Tavatimsa is 84,000 , to Yama is 126,000 and so on. There is no way of proving or disproving these distances. They are all mentioned especially in Burmese books. They are based on the commentaries and also some minor works in Pali.

          I want to give you one problem. We learned that for Catummaharajika their life span is five hundred celestial years. For Tavatimsa the life span is one thousand celestial years. One thousand celestial years is by Tavatimsa reckoning. By Catummaharajika reckoning how many would it be? I want you to find that out. You know what you have to do. Five hundred celestial years for Catummaharajika and one thousand celestial years for Tavatimsa. If we reckon one thousand celestial years for Tavatimsa by Catummaharajika life span how many years of Catummaharajika will be equal to one thousand Tavatimsa? One thousand celestial years for Tavatimsa means two thousand celestial years for Catummaharajika. So two thousand for Yama is four thousand for Tavatimsa and eight thousand for Catummaharajika and so on. This has never been done. I just got the idea today. I want to check with you also. Please make a chart and then we will check your chart with my chart because mathematics is not my subject. You know what to do. The life span of Catummaharajika is nine million by human reckoning. I want to know the life span of Tavatimsa by Catummaharajika reckoning, Yama reckoning, Tusita reckoning, Nimmanarati reckoning and Paranimmita-vasavatti reckoning.

Tape# 24
Chapter 5 (B)

The Four Kinds of Patisandhi

Last week we studied the 31 planes of existence and also the life span of these planes. Now the life span of these planes is given in the section we are studying today but since in the charts the years are given I taught the life span last week.

Today we come to the second section in the fifth chapter, that is the four knds of Patisandhi. Now you all know that Patisandhi means rebirth or relinking. Patisandhi is actually the first moment in one life. Before we study different kinds of Patisandhi we must refresh our memory of the 19 Cittas that function as Patisandhi, Bhavanga and Cuti. Do you remember the 19 Cittas? There are two from Ahetukasone from resultant of Akusala and one from resultant of Kusala, and then eight Kamavacara Vipakas, five Rupavacara Vipakas and four Arupavacara Vipakas. These 19 Cittas function as Patisandhi, Bhavanga and Cuti.

          Please look at page 194 of the manual. Rebirth-linking is fourfold. The first is rebirth in the woeful plane. It is called Apaya Patisandhi, Patisandhi in Apaya plane. The second is rebirth in the sensuous blissful plane. What are the sensuous blissful planes? There are sevenhuman beings and six celestial realms. They are called sensuous blissful planes, in Pali Kama-sugati. There are eleven Kama planes; four are Apaya or woeful planes and seven are blissful planes. The third is rebirth in the fine material sphere, that is Rupavacara Patisandhi. Then there is rebirth in the inmaterial sphere, Arupavacara Patisandhi.

          In the woeful states, when a being is born in hell, or as an animal, or as a Peta, or as an Asura, so when a person is born in one of these four woeful states his Patisandhi is Akusala Vipaka Upekkha Sahagata Santirana. That means the Santirana consciousness, investigating consciousness accompanied by Upekkha, neutral feeling and that belongs to Akusala Vipaka. With that Citta' the person takes Patisandhi in the four woeful states. That same Patisandhi Citta functions as Bhavanga during the lifetime. That means this Citta repeats again and again, millions of times during life. At the end of one life it functions as death consciousness. At the end of this class we will have learned that Patisandhi, Bhavanga and Cuti in one life are one and the same type of consciousness. They have the same object also. One Patisandhi arsises in woeful plane.

          Then there is Patisandhi in Kama-sugati. In Kama-sugati when someone is born as a human being or as some lesser Deva then his Patisandhi Citta is Santirana accompanied by Upekkha, but the result of Kusala. This Upekkha Santirana Citta is not for every human being. This is for these who are born blind, who are born deaf and so on. These are those who are handicapped human beings and some other kinds of Devas.

          Now on page 195 you will see the explanation ''such as those born blind, etc.'' The 'et cetra' is intended to include those born deaf, mute, mentally retarded, deranged, and those born as eunochs, hermaphrodites, and those born sexually indeterminate. It is said that these persons, these human beings are born with Upekkha Santirana that is the result of Kusala as Patisandhi Citta. When we say born blind we must understand that a person born blind is a person who is born with Patisandhi Citta that cannot help eye sensitivity arise when it is due to arise. Now in human beings eye sensitivity does not arise until about eleven weeks. If that Patisandhi Citta does not have the power to give rise to eye sensitivity when it is due, he is called a person born blind. So a person born blind does not mean when he comes out of the mother's womb, but it is a moment as a fetus when the eye sensitivity does not arise. These people are born as a result of Kusala Kamma, but their Kusala Kamma is so weak, so defficient that it is incapable of generating eye sensitivity. So sometime a person takes Patisandhi with another type of consciousness, but through some accident or illness he may become blind in the womb of the mother and may be born blind. Such persons are not included here. The persons included here are those whose Kamma is so weak that it is incapable of generating eye sensitivity when it is due to arise.

          But for those who are born spontaneously they may be different. When a being is born spontaneously they may be defficient of eye sensitivity or ear sensitivity etc. at the moment of Patisandhi. But generally human beings are not born spontaneously except at the beginning of one world cycle. So those who are whose merit is so weak that it is incapable of gererating eyes when they are due, ears when they are due are called born blind, born deaf and so on. There are those who are born so dull of mind that they cannot differentiate east from west or are unable to differentiate morning from evening. Those people are also said to be included in this statement.

          Then some earth born deities–here there is some textual problem. In the Burmese edition of Abhidhammatthasangaha and also P.T.S. edition, it is different. I think this manual follows the Sinhalese edition. According to Sinhalese edition, according to the text given in Venerable Narada's book we have one meaning. According to Burmese edition and P.T.S edition we get another meaning. According to this edition (the manual), according to this explanation, there are two kinds of beings, two kinds of lower celestial beings; one is earth-bound deities and the other is fallen Asuras. They are said to be different kinds of beings. We will go according to this first. So earth-bound deities are those who do not dwell in the higher heavenly realms, but who dwell close to the human beings on trees, on mountains, on rivers. They are called Bhummadevas. The word 'Bhumma' comes from the word 'Bhumi' which means the earth. They are called Bhummadeva because they live close to us human beings.

          ''While the more powerful deities in this class may possess double or tirple rooted types of rebirth consciousness, they are often accompanied by retinues which may include deities of defective merit who manage to maintain their lives with difficulty''. So these earth-bound deities may have some lesser deities as their servants, as their followers, as their retinue. Those have defective merit in their past lives. So although they are born as celestial beings, they may be not so happy or not so good a those that are born in higher celestial realms. Those whose merit is defective and who have difficulty maintaining themselves are here called earth-bound deities. Those deities are reborn with Kusala Vipaka Upekkha Sahagata Santirana as relinking consciousness.

          Then there are some Asuras that are called fallen Asuras, fallen from bliss, fallen from comfort. These beings are said to dwell in villages or in the vicinity of villages living off the remains of food discarded by the residents. They are something like ghosts, but they don't belong to Apaya. Actually they belong to Catummaharajika, the lowest celestial realm. They also haunt or oppress human beings when they fail to obtain food. When they do no obtain food, they will haunt you or possess you and ask you for food. They are called fallen Asuras. According to this reading earth-bound deities and fallen Asuras are different kinds of beings.

          In the Burmese edition and the P.T.S. edition the text is a little different. According to those editions earth-bound deities and fallen Asuras are the same kind of deity. Earth-bound deities really meanor Bhummassita in Pali (You see the Pali word in the book.) 'Bhumma' means earth and 'Sita' means to depend on. Here Bhummassita means those deities who are reborn in the vicinity of the earth-tree deities, river deities, mountain deities and so on. Those who live depending on those earth-bound deities are called Bhummassita. So here Bhummassita means those who live depending on gods who dwell in the vicinity of the earth. That means those lesser deities who dwell depending on tree deities and so on. They are actually fallen Asuras because they do not have enough to eat, they do not have enough to wear and so on. They are called fallen Asuras because they have fallen from happiness. In this reading Bhummassita and Vinipatikasura are just one kind of celestial being. Although they are celestial beings, they may not be as happy or as comfortable as some human beings. These deities are born with Kusala Vipaka Upekkha Sahagata Santirana as relinking Citta.

          Now we come to Maha Vipaka, eight Kamavacara Vipaka. They serve as Patisandhi Citta for those who are born in Kama.sugati, who are born as human beings without defects and who are born as deities in Catummaharajika and so on. For them the Patisandhi Citta is one of the eight Kamavacara Vipaka. A human being without dejects may be born with the first Kamavacara Vipaka Citta as relinking consciousness or second or third or fourth and so on depending upon what kind of Kamma gives results. So human beings are born with one of these Kamavacara Vipaka Cittas. Also the beings in the six celestial realms beginning with Catummaharajika and so on, they are born with one of these eight Kamavacara Vipaka consciousness. These types of Vipaka consciousness also serve as Bhavanga and Cuti for those beings. When a Citta serves as Patisandhi it also serves as Bhavanga and Cuti there are altogether nine Kama-sugati Patisandhione for those who are born with defects and for some lower celestial beings, and eight for full-fledged human beings and Devas. So there are nine Kama-sugati Patisandhi. Nine plus one, Apaya Patisandhi, altogether we get ten Kamavacara Patisandhi. There are ten Kamavacara Patisandhi because we take eight Kamavacara Vipaka individually. Actually there are ten kinds of consciousness that serve as Patisandhi, Bhavanga and Cuti in Kamavacara realm-four Apaya realms and seven Kama-sugati realms.

          Then in the manual the life span of these beings is given. We have already studied the life span. Today's sheets are just for your information because we have covered the life span last week. Life span of Devas is actually taken from the second book of Abhidhamma, the Vibhanga. In Vibhanga it is stated that one day in Catummaharajika is equal to fifty years for human beings. Then thirty days in Catummaharajika is equal to 1500 human years. 360 Days for Catummaharajika is 18,000 years for human beings. Five hundred such years amount to nine million human years. Last week we calculated the life span of Devas both by human years and celestial years.

          The next sheet is just tentative. This is not given in any books. I just thought of it and I thought it would be good to calculate life span for different realms by some standard. Catummaharajika life span by Catummaharajika reckoning is five hundred years. But by Tavatimsa reckoning they are only 250 years. By Yama standard they are only 125 years. By Tusita standard they are only 62.5 years. By Nimmana-rati standard they are 31.25 years and Paranimmita-vasavatti they are just 15.625 years. I want you to check it, whether it is correct or not. If it is too difficult you can just leave it out.

          Now we come to the rebirth linking in the fine material sphere, page 197. Rebirth linking in the material sphere is easy. For fine material shpere we only have five types of relinking Cittas, five resultant consciousness - first Jhana, second Jhana, third Jhana, fourth Jhana and Fifth Jhana. How many planes are there in Rupavacara realm? First Jhana, second Jhana, third Jhana, fourth Jhana. That's all. The planes go according to the fourfold method. We will have to adjust for that fourfold method.

          First Jhana Vipaka Citta serves as Patisandhi, Bhavanga and Cuti for those who are reborn in the first Jhana realm. Then for those who are reborn in second Jhana realm the Patisandhi Citta is second Jhana Vipaka or third Jhana Vipaka. For those who are reborn in third Jhana realm their Patisandhi is fourth Jhana Vipaka. For those who are reborn in fourth Jhana realm, that is Vehapphala, Asanna-satta and Suddhavasa, Patisandhi Citta is fifth Jhana Vipaka. These Jhana Vipaka consciousness act as Patisandhi Bhavanga and Cuti for those who are reborn in these Brahma realms.

          There are sixteen Brahma realms. For mindless beings there is no Patisandhi Citta. If there is no mind there can be no Citta, no consciousness, no mental factors. For them Rupa, material properties serve as Patisandhi. They are called those having Rupaa as Patisandhi, the others are those who have mind as Patisandhi. For the Asannasatta beings that Rupa continues to exist for five hundred world cycles. When they die these material properties disappear. Since there is no Patisandhi Citta for them, there is no Bhavanga Citta or Cuti Citta for them. So for them the whole life is just Rupa, material property. What the material properties are we will learn in the sixth chapter.So there are altogether six Ruapvacara Patisandhis. That means five Rupavacara Vipakas make five Rupavacara Patisandhis and Patisandhi of mindless beings makes one Patisandhi. So altogether there are six modes of Patisandhi in the Rupavacara shpers. You may write the Patisandhi Cittas on this chart so you know at a glance which Ptisandhi serves as Patisandhi in a given realm.

          After that the life span is given in the manual. We talked about the life span last week.

          In connection with life span of Brahmas sometimes we need to understand a little about the world cycleshow the world is formed and hcw it is destroyed. That I cannot tell you here. It is a long story. It is explained in the commentaries that one world cycle consists of four Asandheyya Kappas, for incalculable Kappas. One world cycle consists of four Asankheyya Kappas. One Asankheyya Kappa is equal to 64 Antara Kappas. I talked about that last week. In the manual it says twenty.

          Four Asankheyya Keppas are the periods in one Meha Kappa. One world cycle is divided into four periods. When we talk about Asankheyya Kappas we begin with destructionthe period when destruction takes place, when destruction of the world takes place. It may take a long time for the world to be destroyed. The world is destroyed by fire or sometimes by water and sometimes by air. It will take many years for the world to be completely destroyed. That one period is called in Pali Samvatta Kappa-the period of destruction.

          Then another period follows where the world remains as destroyed. Nothing more happens, First there is a period of destruction of the world. Then there is a period where the world just stays destroyed.

          The third period follows when the new world is created or begins to form. That also takes a long, long time-time for the mountains and rivers to appear and also for the realms to form. It is actually a long time again.

          Then comes the fourth period when the world exists as formed. It is the only period when beings can be in this world. During the period of destruction all beings die and reborn in some other Brahma realm which are not effected by the destruction. During that time there are no beings. When he world is destroyed there are no beings. When the world is forming there are no beings. So for only one quarter of one Maha Kappa is it a time for beings to arise or exist.

          It is said that the world is destroyed by fire for seven times. Then the world is destroyed by water. Then it is destroyed by fire for another seven times and the 16th time by water and so on. When it reaches the 64th time it is destroyed by air.

          Now you may want to know how destruction takes place and so on. I will refer you to the Visuddhi Magga. In the 13th chapter of the Visuddhi Magga you may find the description of the world being destroyed and formed. It is interesting how first human beings appear in the world and then how the world was formed. So check Visuddhi Magga chapter 13 in connection with remembering past lives. Chapter 13 deals with what are called Abhinnas.

          Let up go to rebirth relinking in the inmaterial sphere, Arupavacara Patisandhi. Arupavacara Patisandhi is very easy. You know the four Arupavacara Vipaka CittasAkasanancayatana, Vinnanacayatana, Akincannayatana and Nevasanna- nasannayatana. For those who are reborn in Akasananacayatana realm which is Arupavacara realm, Akasanancayatana Vipaka serves as Patisandhi Citta and then Ehavanga and also Cuti. For those who are reborn in second Arupavacara realm, second Arupavacara Vipaka Citta serves as patisandhi, Bhavanga and Cuti. For those who are reborn in the third Arupavacara realm, Bhavanga and Cuti. That mean a person who gets Arupavacara Jhana as a human being or as a Deva, so when he is reborn, he is reborn in one of the four Arupavacara realms. When he is reborn there, the Arupavacara Vipaka arise due to the Jhana he attained in the previous life. The same is true when a person gets first, second, third, fourth or fifth Jhana as a human being, as a Deva or as a Brahma - he well be born in the world of Brahmas according to the Jhana, according to the highest Jhana he attained. If a person gets first Arupavacara Jhana here for example, then after his death he will be reborn in the first Arupavacara realm. Then their life spans nobody knows–20,000 world cycles, 40,000 world cycles, 60,000 and 84,000. In a given life Patisandhi, Bhavanga and Cuti are the same. They have the same or identical object. Patisandhi Cittas take Kamma or Kamma-nimitta (sign of Kamma), or Gati-nimitta (sign of destiny) as object. If the object of Patisandhi Citta is Kamma all through the life the object of Bhavanga Citta will be Kamma and the object of Cuti Citta will be Kamma. The same is true if the Patisandhi takes Kamma-nimitta or Gati-nimitta as object. Similarly the Bhavanga and Cuti Cittas will take Kamma-nimitta or Gati-nimitta.

There are altogether how many types of rebirth? Ten for Kamavacara, six for Rupavacara and four for Arupavacara. There are altogether twenty. You already know what Cittas act as Patisandhi in what realms.
          Let's go back to the beginning. For those born in the four woeful states what is the relinking consciousness? Akusala Vipaka Upekkha Sahagata Santirana. For those who are born as deficient human beings and also for some lesser deities what is the relinking consciousness? Kusala Vipaka Upekkha Sahagata Santirana. For full-fledget human beings and for the six celestial realms what is the Patisandhi Citta? How many Patsiandhi Cittas? There are eight Patisandhi Cittas, the eight Kamavacara Vipaka. We are all human beings so our Patisandhi Citta may be one of those. Buddha's Patisandhi Citta was also one of those.

          Then for those who are born in Rupavacara realms what are the Patisandhi Cittas? Five Rupavacara Vipaka Cittas and also one matter for mindless beings. Then for those who are born in the four Arupavacara realms what are the Patisandhi Cittas? Four Arupavacara Vipakas.

          In the next section we will study what Kusalas give what results to what Vipakas. Next section is very interesting section because it is about Kamma. When it comes to Kamma we can relate it to ourselves to some extent. The others are very theoretical.

Fourfold Kamma

The next section is called Kamma-catukka, or four types of Kamma. There are altogether sixteen types of Kamma. There are four fourfold divisions, four groups of four. There are sixteen types of Kamma treated in this section. The first group consists of 1. Productive Kamma 2. Supportive Kamma 3. Obstructive Kamma 4.Destructive Kamma. There are four kinds of Kamma here. What is Kamma? If you have been with me, you know what Kamma is. Kamma is volition, Cetana. Technically speaking Kamma means Cetana, volition which accompanies actions, which accompanies actions by body, by speech and by mind. Popularly we will say Kamma means actions or deeds. Technically or to be exact you say Kamma is the mental volition that accompanies those actions or deeds. All volitional action except that of the Buddha and Arahants is Kamma. So all volitaional action or Cetana becomes Kamma except that of the Buddhas and Arahants, Buddhas and Arahants do not acquire Kamma.

          ''Buddhas and Arahants do not accumulate Kamma since they have eradicated ignorance and craving, the roots of Kamma.'' So long as there is craving and ignorance, we will always be doing something that will give results in the future. Buddhas and Arahants since they have no ignorance and craving their actions are just actions; their deeds, their Cetana or volition does not amount of Kamma which give results. Neverless the Buddhas and Arahants are bound to experience the ripening of their past Kamma as long as their psycho-physical personality persists, that is, until they pass away,'' So Buddhas and Arahants do not get new Kamma. They may do good deeds, but their doing good deeds is not Kusala. They do not acquire new or fresh Kamma after they become Buddhas or Arahants. But they are still subject to the results of their past Kamma. Even Buddhas and Arahants sometimes will suffer from the results of their Akusala Kamma.

          Buddha for example often had a back ache or a headache. He also had pain when a piece of rock hit his foot. Also Arahants suffer pain. So even though they have become Buddhas and Arahants, although they have eradicated all the mental defilements and so they do not accumulate new Kamma, still they suffer, they still enjoy the results of their past Kamma.

          ''The law of Kamma is self-substistent in its operation, ensuring that willed deeds produce their effects in accordance with their ethical quality just as seeds bear fruit in accordance with their species.'' The law of Kamma is actually not created by the Buddha. It is discovered by the Buddha. Actually it is the law of nature. Buddha discovered the law of Kamma, saw the mechanism of Kamma when he attained during the second watch of night the supernormal knowledge by which he could watch of the night the supernormal knowledge and being reborn in another. He could see for example this being is reborn in hell because he did some Akussala in a previous life. This being is reborn in blissful state because he did some Kusala in a previous life. So the law of Kamma taught by the Buddha is the law discovered by the Buddha, seen by himself. It is not based on logic or just thinking, but it is based on intuitive knowledge, based on actual seeing.

          The direct products of Kamma are the resultant states of consciousness and mental factors. Now the word 'Vipaka'you have met the word 'Vipaka' many times. We met it in the first chapter. Vipaka is the name for those results that are identical in nature with Kamma. Vipaka means a result which must be identical with the Kamma or the cause.

          The results of Kamma are not only Cittas and Cetasikas. There are results of Kamma among the material properties. When we come to the sixth chapter, we will study which material properties are caused by Kamma and so on. The name 'Vipaka' is only given to those that are identical in nature with the cause. That means only Cittas and Cetasikas are called Vipaka. Material properties are not Vipaka, although some material properties are the result of Kamma. In the manual they are called Kammasamutthana or Kammaja Rupa.

          For example, at the moment of rebirth as a human being there arises one of the eight Kamavacara Vipaka Cittas and along with that Citta Cetasikas arises. That Citta and Cetasikas are called Vipaka of Kusala Kamma of the past. Along with the Citta and Cetasikas there arise thirty particles of matte for the human beings. They are the result of past Kamma, but they are not called Vipaka. They are called Kammasamutthana Rupa. When we say Kamma gives results we must understand that it gives results not only as Cittas and Cetasikas but also as Rupa.

Productive Kamma

          These four, Productive Kamma and so on, are grouped with respect to their function, by what they do. The first one is called productive Kamma. Productive Kamma means a Kamma that gives results at the moment of Patisandhi and during life time. A Kamma that gives result at Patisandhi and also during the course of existence is called productive Kamma or Janaka Kamma. This Janaka Kamma may be either Kusala or Akusala Kamma. And as I said when it produces results it produces consciousness an mental states as well as materiality which is born of Kamma.

          ''During the course of existence it produces other resultant Cittas and the continuities of Kamma born materiality … '' When we study the results of Kamma we must study these results at relinking and the results during life time. They are different. At Patisandhi, at rebirth, they produce Patisandhi Citta, Cetasikas and Kammaja Rupa. During life time they produce Vipaka consciousness and Kamma-born materiality.

          ''Only a Kamma that has attained the status of a full course of action…''–that means only a Kamma which is full-fledged can have the function of producing rebirth linking.'' … But all wholesome and unwholesome Kammas without exception can produce results during the course of existence.'' The productive Kamma is that which produces the result itself. It doesn't have to get help from others. It produces the results itself.

Supportive Kamma

          The next one is supportive Kamma (Upatthambaka). It is said that supportive Kamma does not gain an opportunity to produce its own results. It doesn't give results of its own, but it supports the productive Kamma either ''by enabling it to produce its pleasant or painful results over an extended time without obstruction or by reinforcing the continuum of aggregates produced by another Kamma.'' It just supports the results of some productive Kamma. The example is given here as ''When through the productive function of wholesome Kamma one is reborn as a human being.'' So a person is reborn as a human being as a result of productive Kamma.

          ''Supportive Kamma may contribute to the extension of one's life span, or ensure that one is healthy and provided with the necessities of life,'' Thes results we get being supported by this Kamma, supportive Kamma. Supportive Kamma cannot give results by itself. It helps the result of other Kamma.
          ''When an unwholesome Kamma has exercised its productive function by causing a painful disease, other unwholesome Kamma may support it by preventing medicines from working effectively, thereby prolonging the disease.'' The supportive Kamma just prolongs the result of some other Kamma.

          ''When a being has been reborn as an animal through the productive force of unwholesome Kamma,…'' - so as a result of Akusala Kamma a being is reborn as an animal. '' … Supportive Kamma may facilitate the ripening of more unwholesome Kamma productive of painful results, an may also lead to an extension of the life span so that the continuity of unwholesome resultants will endure long.'' A supportive Kamma is just that which supports that which extends the result or some other productive Kamma.

Obstructive Kamma

          The third one is obstructive Kamma, Upapilaka Kamma. ''Obstructive Kamma is Kamma which cannot produce its own result but nevertheless obstructs and frustmates some other Kamma, countering its efficacy or shortening the duration of its pleasant or painful results. '' This Kamma also does not give its own result but actually interferes with the result of other Kamma.

          ''Even though a productive Kamma may be strong at the time it is accumulated, an obstructive Kamma directly opposed to it may counteract it so that it becomes impaired when production its results. For example, a wholesome Kamma tending to produce rebirth in a superior plane of existence may be impeded by an obstructive Kamma so that it generates rebirth in a lower plane.'' The Kusala Kamma is strong enough to give result in a superior plane of existence, but an obstructive Kamma may interfere with it so that there is rebirth in a lower plane.

          ''A Kamma tending to produce rebirth among high families may produce reibirth among low families,…'' because it is obstructed by this Kamma.'' … Kamma tending to longevity may tend towards shortness of life…'' because of the obstruction of this Kamma.''… Kamma tending to produce beauty may produce a plain appearance etc.'' so this Kamma interferes with or obstructs the result of other Kamma.

          '' In the opposite way, an unwholesome Kamma tending to produce rebirth in the great hells may be counteracted by an obstructive wholesome Kamma and produce rebirth in the minor hells or among Petas.'' A person has done a lot of Akusala or a powerful Akusala. Normally it would lead him to rebirth in the great hell. He may acquire much Kusala after doing that Akusala. That Kusala Kamma can obstruct or interfere with the Akusala Kamma, so the result of Akusala Kamma may not be as bad as it normally would be.
          You know Ajatasattu. Ajatasattu killed his own father. Actually he was to be reborn in Avici hell. After listening to the Buddha's discourse, the Samanaphala sutta, he became the disciple of the Buddha. He had great respect and devotion for the Buddha. Maybe he acquired much Kusala. When the died an he was reborn, he was not reborn in Avici hell, but some smaller hell near Avici. So one Kamma can obstruct another Kamma. Good Kamma can obstruct bad Kamma. Bad Kamma can obstruct good Kamma.

          ''During the course of existence many instances may be found of the operation of obstructive Kamma. For example, in the human realm such Kamma will obstruct the continuum of aggregates produced by Kamma, facilitating the maturation of Kamma that results in suffering and causing failures in regard to property and wealth or family and friends etc. In the lower realms obstructive Kamma may counteract the rebirth-producing Kamma, contributing to occasions of ease and happiness.'' For example although a being may be reborn as an animal, an obstructive Kusala Kamma can help him to get even happiness an comfort in that life.

Destructive Kamma

          Now the last one is destructive Kamma, (Upaghataka) It also can be wholesome or unwholesome. ''It supplants other weaker Kamma, prevents it from ripening, and produces instead its own result.'' It is called destructive Kamma. it prevents the result of other Kamma and gives its own result according to this explanation.

          ''Somebody born as a human being may, through his productive Kamma, have been originally destined for a long life span, but a destructive Kamma may arise and bring about a premature death.'' An example of this would be Devadatta who was swallowed up by the earth and went to Avici hell. First he had supernormal powers. They disappeared when he began to plot against the Buddha. Then when he died, he was swallowed by the earth and he was reborn in Avici hell. There his heinous cirme of causing blood to be congealed in the Buddha and causing the schism in the Sangha, that destructive Kamma was so powerful that it cuts the result of the Kusala Kamma and immediately took him to hell.

          "At the time of death, at first sign of a bad destination may appear by the power of evil Kamma,"by the power of Akusala Kamma the sign of a bad destination may appear to the person who is dying. That means he is going to have a bad rebirth.

          "…..Then a good Kamma may emerge,"emerge by itself or influenced by those who are near him. That Kamma expels the bad Kamma, and having caused t he sign of a good destination to appear, produces rebirth in a veavenly world." That is also destructive Kamma.

          You know the story of a hunter who in his old age became a monk. When he was about to die he had bad signs of destiny. His son who was an Arahant brought him to the Pagoda and had flowers brought to him. Then he let the old monk offer flowers to the Buddha. Then the sign of good estiny appeared to him. His offering of flowers, that Kamma, was a destructive Kamma. It prevented the ripening of bad Kamma and instead gave good results. After the ripening of bad Kamma and instead gave good results. After his death the old monk was reborn in the celestial world.

          "On the other hand a bad Kamma may suddenly arise, cut off the productive potential of a good Kamma, and generate rebirth in a ; woeful realm." This is the opposite case. Somebody may have a good sign of destiny first, but later a bad Kamma may arise and then give him a sign of bad destination, so it will take him to woeful realm.

          So destructive Kamma can be both Kusala and Akusala. It cuts the result of the other Kamma and it gives results itself.

          Sometimes destructive Kamma does not give results. Somethimes it just cuts off the results of another Kamma. You all know the story of cakkhupala. Cakkhpala became blind, Destructive Kamma made him blind. That destructive Kamma did not cause him to be reborn in hell. Acutally Cakkhupala was an Arahant so it cannot give results. Somethimes it supplants the weaker Kamma and gives results itself. Sometimes it just supplants the weaker Kamma. It does not give results. Both ways it goes.

          "The Vibhavini-Tika distinguishes between productive Kamma and destructive Kamma on the ground that productive Kamma produces its result without cutting off the result of some other Kamma while destructive Kamma does so after first cutting off another Kamma's result". This I s the difference explained by a Tika, a commentary on the manual.

          "But other teachers cited by the Vibhavini hold that destructive Kamma does not produce its won result at all; it completely cuts off the reusult of other Kamma, giving still a third Kamma the opportunity to ripen."

          So what's happening here? We expect the teachings of Abhidhamma to be very exact, but here teachers have different opinions and we are not sure who is correct. The explanation here is that these four sets of Kamma among these four sets of Kamma the first three sets are given here according to Suttanta method, not through Abhidhamma method. Only the last four, 'by place of ripening', is in accordance with Abhidhamma. That's why there can be difference of opinion.

          These four are the first group in the fourfold four groups of four Kammas treated in this section. After giving the names of the Kamma, the section will teach us what results are produced by what Kamma.

          We will continue next week with the others. Do you have any questions? I know you may have many questions.

Student: I could not hear the question for t he most part. You might want to check the tape.
Sayadaw: I think it can be both obstructive and destructive Kamma because aperson has done Akusala. Then he does much Kusala there may be ne that can supplant the Akusala Kamma. It could be destructive Kamma as well as obstructive Kamma.

Student : Inaudible.
Sayadaw: To some extent yes. If we have much obsturctiv e Kamma say much Kusala Kamma that can obstruct Akusala Kamma, the result of Akusala Kamma will be obstructed. So either Kusala or Akusala Kamma may obstruct either Kusala or Akusala Kamma. That is why we are encouraged to do much Kusala. We can at least obsturct the results of Akusala Kamma.

Student : Inadiable.
Sayadaw: They belong to the same Kappa. You know there will be five Buddhas in this Kappa. The previous Buddha belongs to this Kappa. An Anagami (couldn't hear name) came down (from Suddhavasa) and asked Buddha to preach.---------was an Anagami. There can be Anagamis not only from the time of the immediate previous Buddha but Anagamis from the time of other Buddhas as well.

Student :Inaudible.
Sayadaw: one Maha Kappa-I think I explained to you that there are four periods in one Maha Kappa. Buddha said it cannot be stated in terms of one year, ten years or in terms of centuries. So it is very, very long. The example he gave is to suppose there is a rock about one league high and one league wide and one league deep. A man comes once every one or two hundred years and rubs it with a soft cloth. The rock will wear away but one Kappa has not ended. So it's very long.

Student : How long is one league?
Sayadaw: It is about eight miles.

Tape# 25

Chapter 5 (C) - Tape 3

Kamma - Part One

Last time we finished the first four kinds of Kammaproductive Kamma, supportive Kamma, obstructive Kamma and destructive Kamma. This time we go to the next group - by order of ripening, by order of giving results. That means when there are these four then number one will give results first. If there are only three and number one is not present, then number two will give results and so on.

          The first one is called weighty Kamma. The second is called death proximate Kamma. The third is habitual Kamma. And the fourth is reserve Kamma.

Weighty Kamma

          Weighty Kamma is the Kamma which is powerful, which is so bad or wicked. In the explanation of weighty Kamma it is said here in the manual that it cannot be replaced by any other Kamma as the determinate of rebirth. These Kammas give results as rebirth. Weighty Kamma is so powerful that it cannot be replaced by any other Kamma as the determinate of rebirth. That means if there is a weighty Kamma then it will certainly give results in the next life.

          Now in one commentary, the commentary to Abhidhammatthasangaha, it is said that this Kamma cannot be replaced by or prevented by another Kamma. But there are some teachers in Burma who think it is not really true. because one weighty Kamma can replace another weighty Kamma. In that case one weighty Kamma can be replaced by another weighty Kamma–not by proximate Kamma or habitual Kamma or reserve Kamma. It can be replaced by another weihgty Kamma.

          Weighty Kamma means with regard to Akusala the five heinous crimes or sins like killing one's own mother, killing one's father, killing an Arahant, causing blood to congeal in the body of the Buddha, and causing a schism, a division in the Sangha. If a person has done all these five (Actually it is impossible to do all five.), but if a person has done all these five, then the last one has the priority. If the last one has the priority, the others will not give results. In the same way to wholesome Kamma, weighty Kammas are those that are Jhanas. So if you get Jhanas, the higher Jhanas will have priority over the lower Jhana in causing results. With regard to weighty Kamma in determining the rebirth. But they cannot be replaced by any other Kamma such as death proximate Kamma and so on.

          "On the unsholesome side, it is the five heinous cirmes together with a fixed wrong view that denies the basis for morality." That means the wrong view that takes that there is no Kamma, there is no results of Kamma and so on.

          "If someone were to develop the Jhanas and later were to commit one of the heinous crimes, his good Kamma would be obliterated by the evil deed." You all know about Devadatta. Devadatta was the Buddha's cousin. He gained not only Jhanas, but supernormal powers disappeared. Although he onece had the supernormal powers, since he commited two of these heinous could not save him from being reborn in hell. The supernormal powers cannot make him to be reborn in the world of Brahma.

          "If someone were first to commit one of the heinous crimes, he could not later reach a sublime or supramundane attainment. If someone has done one of these crimes he will not get Jhana in that life; he will not get enlightenment in that life.

          Also you know king Ajatasattu. He killed his own father. About eight years before the death of the Buddha he went to the Buddha and asked the Buddha to teach him the benefits of being a recluse. Buddha spoke to him what is called Samanaphala Sutta. Although he had all other conditioning for reaching Stream-enterer or becoming a Sotapanna, but because he had killed his own father, he could not attain Sotapanna. When he left the Buddha said: "If this king had not killed his own father, he would have become a Sotapanna on this seat." If a person has dne these crimes. He cannot expect to get Jhanas in that life or he cannot expect to get enlightenment in that life. They are so powerful that no other Kamma can interfere with them. On the wholesome side they are Jhanas and Abhinnas and on the unwholesome side they are the five heinous crimes.

          Among the five with regard to causing the blood to cngeal in the Buddhanow here in the manual the expression used is the wounding of a Buddha. It can lead to misunderstanding. It is explained in the commentaries that the Buddha's physical body is invulnerable to cuts or wounds or whatever. That means nobody can wound the Buddha. Nobody can cut the skin of the Buddha against his will. The commentary explained that by the effort of another person Buddha's body cannot be cut nor can blood be drawn from is what is meant by wounding the Buddha here.

          Devadatta tried to kill the Buddha. Buddha was walking on Gijjhakuta Hill. Devadatta pushed down a big rock toward the Buddha. The rock hit another rock. A splinter from the rock hit the Buddha's foot. In Burma we say it hit the big toe, but in the commentary the word big toe is not used, just the edge of the foot. That means it could be the big toe or somewhere else. When it happened the skin was not cut, but the blood congealed in the foot and Buddha had pain. When Buddha had pain the physician Jivaka cut open that place to let the blood out. That is said to be meritorious Kamma. I just said Buddha cannot be cut. But here Jivaka cut that wound and let the blood out. The commentary said "by cutting the skin with a knife at the Buddha's wish," that means with his permission. If the Buddha gives permission his body can be cut. It was to allow the congealed blood out. Devadatta's act was a very grave offense or crime. The physician Jivaka's act was meritorious Kamma.

          The last one is schism in the Sangha, causing the Sangha to be divided. That can be done only by a monk. So tyou lay people don't have to worry about causing a schism in the Sangha because it is not just dividing monks, setting one group of mnks against another. Although that may b a very grave offense, it is not this offense. This offense can be done only by monks because schism of the Sangha happens only when two groups of Sangha in one Sima (Sima is a place where monks do some acts of Sangha) when monks perform their acts of Sangha, all monks must assemble in one place. There should not be two groups apart from each other doing Sangha's Kamma. Here this monk wanted to divide the Sangha. And so in this case there are two groups away from each other doing Sangha Kamma. They perform act of Sangha at the same time. They do Uposatha at same time. That is what constitutes schism of the Sangha, causing schism of the Sangha. Only a monk can do that and not lay people. That is also said to be the most heinous of these five offenses. Devadatta did two of them - causing blood to congeal in the Buddha's foot and causing schism in the Sangha.

Death Proximate Kamma

          The next Kamma is death proximate Kamma, in Pali Asanna Kamma. Asanna means near or close. Here near means near death, close to death. This Kamma is a Kamma remembered or done shortly before death. A person may have done a good Kamma in the past, may be years ago. If he remembers that Kamma just before death, that Kamma becomes a result giving Kamma. Sometimes that Kamma may be done just before death. Such a Kamma is called death proximate Kamma. It is done immediately prior to the last Javana processthat means immediately before the death thought process. Before that process there are thought processes going on and on and on So during those moments a Kamma may be remembered and that Kamma may give results in the next life. A Kamma may be done also and give results in the next life.

          Now I've told you about a hunter who when he became old, his son made him a monk. When he was about to die the signs of hell appeared to him. So he was brought to the terrace of the shrine, Cetiya. Flowers ewere brought to him. And he was made to offer the flowers to the Buddha, to the shrine. The proximate Kamma changed his sign of destiny. Instead he saw the signs of good rebirth.

          Death proximate Kamma is very important in that it can determine the next rebirth either good or bad. So even though a person may be good all his life, if he remembers something bad just before his death, then that bad Kamma will get chance to give results. In the same way if a person is bad all the time, but if he remembers some good Kamma in the past or does some good Kamma before death, then that Kamma becomes Asanna Kamma, death proximate Kamma and it will get chance to give results.

          "For this reason in Buddhist countries it is customary to remind a person of his good deeds, to urge him to arouse good thoughts during the last moments of his life. "A person needs good friends to create favorable conditions or circumstances so that he gets good moods and remembers his good deeds, so he could die with these thoughts.

          There are many stories. One is about a king in Sri Lanka. When he was about to die, he was expecting his general to come to him. His general had become a monk, but he had not shown up yet. So he said "The general was with me when I was winning and fighting battles. Now he knows I am going to lose the battle with death, so he doesn't show up." The general went to the king and talked to him about the meritorious things he had done in the past. The king then remembered all his meritorious deeds and was in a good mood. Then before he died he said, "The general was a good companion on the battlefield as well as in the battle with death." And so he died peacefully. This is death proximate Kamma.

          Please do not misunderstand this. It does not mean that you can be wicked all your life and then do just one good thing before you die. It does not mean that all your bad deeds will not have a chance to give results. They will not have a chance to give results in the immediate next life, but in lives following they will have chance to give results either good or bad. Sometimes a person may be good all his life but by some chance he had a bad thought just before death and then he may be reborn in some woeful state. But he will not be there for a long time. He will get out of it soon. The next life is bad however because of that death proximate Kamma.

Habitual Kamma

          The next in order of ripening is habitual Kamma, Acinna Kamma. Habitual Kamma is that which we do habitually, that which we do every day - like meditating, studying, teaching, paying respect to the Buddha, offering to monks and so on. When one habitually performs a Kamma either good or bad it becomes powerful. In the absence of weighty Kamma or death proximate Kamma, this type of Kamma assumes the rebirth generating function. When there is no weighty Kamma and when there is no death proximate Kamma, this habitual Kamma will give results or will generate the rebirth in the next life. This habitual Kamma is also very important because sometimes habitual Kamma itself may become a death proximate Kamma. If a person has been doing Kusala Kamma constantly, it follows that this habitual Kamma will present itself to the dying man. So habitual Kamma is actually as important as death proximate Kamma.

          In the Visuddhi Magga and in other commentaries by the Venerable Buddha­ghosa the order given is weighty Kamma, habitual Kamma and death proximate Kamma. In this manual the order is different. Here it is weighty Kamma, death proximate Kamma and habitual Kamma. So there is a difference in the order of these two. The commentaries of the Abhihammatthasagaha explained habitual Kamma or Acinna Kamma is very powerful Kamma because it is done again and again or because it is habitual Kamma.

          Let's say there are cattle. When cattle are put in a corral in the evening, an old ox may be the one to enter last. So he will be close to the gate. But when in the morning the cattle are let out, he may be the first to get out of that place, simply because he was close to the gate. In the same way death proximate Kamma is not as powerful as habitual Kamma, but since it was done just before death, it gets chance to give results. That is why death proximate Kamma is given priority over habitual Kamma in the Abhidhamma­ttha­­sangaha.


Reserve Kamma

          The last one is reserve Kamma. The Pali word is Katatta. Katatta means because it is done it is called Kamma. The Kamma that is not included in the three mentioned before is called a reserve Kamma. A reserve Kamma is not weighty, not death proximate, not habitual, but some kind of Kamma and is potent enough to generate rebirth. "This type of Kamma becomes operative when there is no Kamma of the other three Kammas do not arise, this Kamma will give results. This Kamma can be the Kamma done in this life or the Kamma done in past lives. So it can be Kamma done not only in this life, but in past lives also. Sometimes we do some meritorious deeds not serously. Sometimes we do it lightly. Such Kamma amy be called reserve Kamma. IT is not weighty, not death proximate, not habitual, but just done with not much seriousness. That kind of Kamma gets the chance to give results when the three other Kammas are absent.

          This group is arranged according to the ripening of the Kamma or according to Kamma giving resultsso weighty Kamma, death proximate Kamma, habitual Kamma and reserve Kamma.

          The next group is with respect to the time of taking effect, with respect to the time of giving results. Again there are four kinds of Kammas. You are all familiar with these four kinds. They are immediately effective Kamma, subsequently effective Kamma, indefinitely effective Kamma and defunct Kamma.

DiÔÔhadhammavedanÊya Kamma

          The Pali word for the first is Ditthadhammavedaniya Kamma. That means Kamma whose results are to be experienced in this life. 'Ditthadhamma' means in this life; 'Vedaniya' means to be experienced. So a Kamma whose result is to be experienced in this life is called Ditthadhammavedaniya Kamma. It is translated as immediately effective Kamma. Immediately effective means effective in this life, not in the next moment, not tomorrow or day after tomorrow. It may be immediate after some minutes, tomorrow, day after tomorrow or it may be in this life. This immediately effective Kamma means Kamma that gives results in the same existence in which it is performed. If it does not give results in this life because of the absence of the necessary conditions, it becomes defunct.

          According to the Abhidhamma of the seven Javanas in a Javana process, the first Javana being the weakest of all generates immediately effective Kamma. You have already studied the thought processes. Normally in a thought process there are how many moments of Javana? Seven thought moments of Javana. The first Javana meoment or Kamma at the first Javana moment is immediately effective Kamma. This immediately effective Kamma is said to be the weakest of all.

          There are stories especially in the Dhammapada. Somebody offered food to Maha Kassapa for example. Then he became a rich man immediately. Isn't that a great result? In the books it is said that this result is not great. This result is rootless result. As a result of this Kamma when you see riches, when you have riches, you will have Kusala Vipaka. When you enjoy it you will have Kusala Vipaka. Also the riches are the results of this Kamma, but not direct results. The immediately effective Kamma gives results that are only Ahetuka. Rupa is also called Ahetuka. So it's not so great. Compare it with another result in the realm of Devas. To be rich as a human being or to become a Deva which would you choose? To become a Deva. So rebirth as a Deva is much greater result than becoming rich as a human being. Although in our eyes the result of immediately effective Kamma is great, but if we compare with result of subsequently effective Kamma it is not so great. It is called the weakest of all. It can only give results in this life.

          Why is it called weakest? Because it does not have Asevana condition. Asevana means repetition. So one Javana is repeated seven times. The first one has not received any Asevana condition from the preceding thought moment. Immediately before Javana is Votthabana. Votthabana and Javana are different. Votthabana belongs to Vipaka. Javana belongs to either Kusala or Akusala. So the first Javana does not get Asevana condition from Votthabana. That's why it is called the weakest. With the second, third, fourth and so on they gain momentum because one is supported by another and another. Kamma or Cetana of the first Javana is said to be the weakest of all.

          Sometimes we would like to get results in this very life, right? So if we want to get results in this very life our Kusala must be done very systematically and also meet the necessary conditions. In the Dgammapada we will find these conditionslike one must have a good Cetana, a very strong volition, the offerings one makes must be got by fair and just means, the person who accepts it must have just emerged from Nirodha Samapatti or Phala, Samapatti and so on. Even when all these conditions are met the results it gives are just Ahetuka.

Subsequently Effective Kamma

          The next one is subsequently effective Kamma. That means the Kamma whose result is experienced in the next life. "If it is to ripen it must yield its results in the existence immediately following that in which it is performed. "If the Kamma is done in this life, it will give result in the next life. "Otherwise it becomes defunct." If it does not give result in the next life, it is defunct. It will not give result at all. "This type of Kamma is generated by the last Javana moment, (the seventh Javana moment in a process, which is the second weakest in the series." Taking the seventy Javana as the second weakest is the opinion of Ledi Sayadaw. But there are other teachers which do not agree with him. There are teachers who say Javanas gain momentum form first to seventh, so the seventh Javanas is strongest. But Ledi Sayadaw takes it that the first is not strong, the second is a little stronger, the third is stronger still, the fourth is strongest, then the fifth is weaker down to sixth and seventh. Ledi Sayadaw takes it that the seventh Javana is the second weakest. In his opinion the five Javanas in between are the strongest.

          This Kamma gives results in the next life. If it is a good Kamma it will give rebirth as a human being or as a Deva; if it is an Akusala Kamma it will give result in the woeful states.

Indefinitely Effective Kamma

          The third one is indefinitely effective Kamma. Aparapariya vedaniya. It means Kamma whose result is to be experienced in other lives. "This Kamma is a Kamma which can ripen at any time from the second future existence onwards, whenever it gains opportunity to produce results." It is important to know that here it is from the second future existence onwards. In other books you will find just in other lives or other rebirths. But actually the correct meaning to understand here is from the second future existence onwards. Let us call this life the first life and the next life the second life. The ne after the next life is the third life. So in Burma we say indefinitely effective Kamma is Kamma that gives results from the third life to the end of Samsara. In the commentary called Vibhavini, Abhidhammattha Vibhavini, which is the commentary of the Abhidhammatthasangaha, the word used is from this life onwards. That is not the case. In the Tikas to Anguttara Nikaya and also the Tika to Visuddhi Megga it is expressly said that from the existence which is next to this life. That means this life, next life and the other life. So it comes to the same thing. The second future existence or as we say in Burma beginning with the third life until the end of Samsara.

          "Whenever it gains an opportunity to produce results, "so during this time from the third life until the end of Samsara, it will give results. Here also we must understand that it will not give results again and again all through this period. It will give results just one time. If it has given results it is finished, no more results. So when we say it will give results from second future existence onwards means when it gets an opportunity it will give results in this period of time. Then after giving results, it is finished. It will not give results again.

          "This Kamma generated by the five intermediate Javana meoments of a cognitive process never becomes defunct so long as the round of rebirths continues." So it is generated by the five intermediate Javana moments. That means the second, third, fourth fifth and sixth Javana moments.

          No one, not even the Buddha nor an Arahant, is exempt from experiencing the results of indefinitely effective Kamma. Buddha and Arahants have eradicated the two roots of existence–craving and ignorance. Since craving and ignorance are destroyed, they do not acquire fresh Kamma. But they are not exempt from, they are not' freed from experiencing the results of their good or bad Kamma in the past. That is why the Buddha and the Arahants sometimes suffer from pain and so on. They experience the results of their good or bad Kamma in the past. Indefinitely effective Kamma is always with beings. Beings have this Kamma in store for them. We beings do good Kamma sometimes and bad Kamma sometimes. The store of this good or bad Kamma is the one that gives results whenever it has an opportunity, whenever the necessary conditions arise. That is why a being who is reborn in four woeful states can come up to human realm. Because as an animal or a hell-being it is very difficult to get Kusala. Although they may get very little Kusala there, they can still be reborn as human beings or even as Devas because of this store of Kamma, this indefinitely effective Kamma. This store of Kamma is our hope.

          The first Kamma will become defunct if it cannot give results in the present life. The second Kamma will become defunct if it cannot give results in the next or second life. But this indefinitely effective Kamma will become defunct only when it has given result or the person has become an ARahant and gets out of this Samsara.

          Now you know Angulimala. Angulimala the robber killed thousands of people. So he had a great store of Akusala Kamma. But he was fortunate to meet the Buddha. He became the Buddha's disciple and then later on he became an Arahant. When he died as an Arahant, he got out of this Samsara. So the Akusala Kamma, the murder of many human beings cannot give results to him. They all become defunct Kamma when he died as an Arahant.

Defunct Kamma

          The last one is called defunct Kamma. The Pali word is 'Ahosi'. Ahosi means it happened, it arose. It just arose; it doesn't give results. "This term does not designate a special class of Kamma, but applies to Kamma that was due to ripen in either the present existence or the next existence, but did not meet cnditions conducive to its maturation." So this is not a special class of Kamma. When the other three do not give results in their respective periods, then they are called defunct Kamma.

          "In the case of Arahants all their accumulated Kammas from the past which was due to ripen in future lives becomes defunct with their final passing away." Sometimes whensomething is wested in Burma, we say it has become Ahosi Kamma. There was Kamma, but not result of it.

          This group of four is arranged in according to the time of taing effect, the time of giving result. The first Kamma gives results in this life. The second Kamma gives results in the next life. The third Kamma gives results from the third life until the end of Samsara. The fourth does not give results. The fourth is just the three when they become inoperative or when they become defunct.

          These three sets are given according to th Suttanta method. Actually it is not Abhidhamma. The last set is according to Abhidhamma. By way of function, by way of ripening, by time of ripening, they are taught according to Suttanta method. That is why there is difference of opinions amongst teachers. We have now covered twelve types of Kamma. They may overlap each other because destructive Kamma and weighty Kamma may be the same for example.

          Now we come to the last group that is by place of ripening. In which realms do they give results. According to the realms in which they give results they are divided into four again. They are # 1 unwholsome Kamma, # 2 wholesome Kamma pertaining to the sense sphere (Kamavacara Kusala Kamma), # 3 wholesome Kamma pertaining to the fine material sphere (Rupavacara Kusala Kamma), # 4 wholesome Kamma pertaining to the inmaterial shphere (Arupavacara Kusala Kamma). The first one is Akusala. The second one is Kamavacara Kusala. The third one is Rupavacara Kusala. The fourth one is Arupavacara Kusala. They are arranged with respect to the place in which the effect takes place.

Unwholesome Kamma

          You all know that Akusala Kamma gives results where? Mostly in the four woeful states as Patisandhi. As results during life they may give results in human world and Deva world also. By place of ripening there are four kinds of Kamma.

          There are three kinds of unwholesome Kamma–bodily Kamma that is unwholesome, verbal Kamma that is unwholesome and mental Kamma that is unwholesome.... Akusala Kaya Kamma, Akusala Vaci Kamma and Akusala Mano Kamma. They are divided according to the doors of action. We will come to what the doors are. Here the doors are not eye, ear and so on. Here door means a different thing. First let us understand that there are three kinds of Akusala Kamma: Kaya Kamma, bodily action, Vaci Kamma, verbal action, Mano Kamma or mental action. So Kamma is done through body; Kamma is done through speech and Kamma is done in mind only. There are three kinds of Kamma.

          "How ? Killing, stealing and sexual misconduct are bodily actions generally occuring through the door of the body, known as bodily intimation." Before the sixth chapter you may not quite understand bodily intimation. Among the 28 material properties there are two that are called the intimationsbodily intimation and verbal intimation. Bodily intimation means just to be simple let us say–movements of the body, actions of the body. Verbal intimation means speech or talk.

          These three Kammas–killing, stealing and sexual misconduct–are done through the door of the body, that means done through the action of the body. Here Dvara or door does not mean eye door, ear door, nose door and so on. The door means just the bodily intimation. So here bodily intimation means just movements of the body. Killing is done by body. Stealing is done by body. And sexual misconduct is done by body.

          With regard to these Kammas there are two levels of Kamma we should undrstand. The one that is just Kamma and the one that becomes a full course of Kamma, full-fledged or rebirth-giving Kamma. You know what Kamma is. Kamma means volition, Cetana. Since whatever we do, we do with Cetana, we say Kamma means deeds or actions. Actually Kamma means Cetana. "Volition is an unwholesome Kamma regardless of whether or not it completes the action, but if it does reach completion of the action and achieves its aim (E.G. the death of the intended victim, the appropriation of another's property, etc.) then it becomes a full course of action."When it completes the action for example killing - you kill a being. It is killed and it dies. When it dies that Kamma becomes a full course of action, a full-fledged Kamma. But you may want to kill it. You may try to kill it, but you don't kill it. Then it is Kamma, but not a full course of Kamma.

That is the difference. Again you try to steal something, but you cannot steal it. When you have stolen it and you get another person's property, then it will become a full course of Kamma. That is the difference between Kamma and a full course of Kamma, you try to steal and do not get it, then it is not a full course of stealing.

          "The characteristic of a full course of action is being a Kamma with the potency to take on the rebirth - generating role." If it becomes a full course of Kamma, it can give rsults as rebirth. Otherwise it will give results in and during life, not at relinking.

          When we talk about results, we have to understand two kinds of results results at relinking and results during life. Results at relinking are given by the Kamma that has become a full course of action.

          "In relation to action, the doors (Dvara) are the media through which Kamma is performed. The door of the body is bodily intimation (Kayavinnatti), a type of mine-produced material phenomenon by which a person expresses, through the medium of the body, a volition arisen in the mind (see VI, #4 )." To simplify it, it means a movement of the body.

          The expression 'generally occurring' (Bahullavuttito) is used because such actions as killing and stealing can be done by speech....." The expression 'generally occurring' or 'generally occurring through the door of the body' is used because these actions such as killing or stealing can also be done by speech, by command or by writing. "....Yet even in such cases these actions are still considered bodily Kamma." Killing can be done by speech. You can give command to another person to kill or you can write a letter to another person commanding them to kill. You can use speech to cause another person to kill or to steal, but still it is called bodily Kamma . Mostly these Kammas are done through bodily action.

          Then the next is false speech–that means lying, slandering, harsh speech and frivilous talk are verbal actions generally occurring through the door of speech. Here also door means speech known as vocal intimation. Through our speech other people know our intentions. That is why it is called vocal intimation Here also lying, slandering or back-biting, harsh speech and frivilous talk, 'they are usually done by speech, but you can write something down and lie to other people. So they can be done by bodily actions also. "Though such actions as false speech, etc. may also be done bodily, i.e. by writing or by hand signals, because their main medium of execution is the door of speech, they are still considered verbal Kamma."

          You want to scare the crows away. So you pretend to throw a rock at them. That is Musavada. You don't throw the rock. You pretend to throw a rock, so they will fly away. That is Musavada. So false speech and others can be done by bodily action also. Their main medium of execution is speech, so they are called speech Kamma, Vaci Kamma.

          The thrid group–covetousness, ill will and wrong view - are mental actions generally occurring only in the mind without bodily or vocal intimation. What is covetousness? "It is the mental factor of greed or Lobha, arisen as the wish to acquire another person's property." When we see someone driving a Mercedes, we want that to be our own. It is something like that. That is called Abhijjha, covetousness.

          "Even though greed arises for another's property, it does not become a full course of action unless one gives rise to the wish to take possession of that property." You have a strong wish, a strong desire to possess that property. Then it becomes covetousness. But if it is not that strong, it does not become a full course of Kamma. It is not just ordinary Lobha. It is called Visama Lobha, unfair Lobha.

          The next one is Vyapada, ill will. "It is the mental factor of Dosa, hatred, which becomes a full course of action when it arises with the wish that another being meets with harm and affliction." 'May he meet with death' or 'Hay danger befall him' it is something like that. When you say something like this, it is the opposite of Metta (loving-kindness). In this way ill will becomes a full course of action.

          "Wrong view (Micchaditthi) becomes a full course of action when it assumes the form of one of the morally nihilistic view which deny the validity of ethics and the retributive consequences of action." There are three kinds of Micchaditthi mentioned here. Three such views are mentioned in the Sutta Pitaka. "The first one is called Natthika-Ditthi, nihilism, which denies the survival of the personality in any form after death, thus negating th moral significance of deeds." There are no results in the future. When we deny the future results, we also deny the present Kamma. Actually they deny both Kamma and results. It is said that Natthika-Ditthi denies results.

          The second one is the inefficacy of action view, Akiriya Ditthi which claims that deeds have no efficacy in producing results and thus invalidates moral distinctions." Akiriya Ditthi is the one that denies causes, that denies Kamma. There is no Kamma as such that gives results.
          "The last one is Ahetuka Ditthi, the acausality view, which states that there is no cause or condition for the defilement and purification of beings, that beings are defiled and purified by chance, fate or necessity." This view is said to deny both cause and effect. When a person takes one of these views and it reaches seventh Javana, it becomes a real Micchaditthi. Thse three Abhijjha, Vyapada and Micchaditthi are occurring in the mind only without bodily or vocal intimation. They are Mano Kamma.

          So there is Kaya Kamma, Vaci Kamma and Mano Kamma. How many Kaya Kammas are there? Three - killing, stealing and sexual misconduct. How many Vaci Kammas are there? For - false speech, slandering, harsh speech and frivilours talk. And how many Mano Kammas? Three - covetousness, ill will and wrong view.

          With regard to the first one Panatipana, killing, when a person ro a being is really killed then it becomes a full course of action. Stealing when a person steals and gets the property of another person then it becomes a full course of a tion. And Kamesu Micchacara, when a person actually commits illicit sex, it becomes a full course of action.

          Musavada false speech–can you be free from false speech? It is very difficult especially in this modern society to be 100% honest. They are called white lies. We often say, ' have a nice day ' or something like that. We may not mean it. Or ' good to see you ', right? But it becomes a full course of action only when it causes injury or loss to another person. So a white lie may not become a full course of action, a full course of Kamma. Although it is lying it will not give relinking result. But if it causes injury to others or if it causes loss to others, it becomes a full course of action.

          Then slanderingI don't know what slandering means. Here slandering or in Pali Pisuna Vaca means dividing two people. I say something to you that is bad about him. Then I say something to him bad about you, so that you two become divided. That is what is called Pisuna Vaca. Posuna means crushing, crushing the friendship between two people. That is what is called Pisnua Vaca. Slandering may not be Pisnua Vaca. You may say something bad a bout a person behind his back, but that is not slandering. Pisuna Vaca is done with the intention of destroying friendship between two persons or two groups. They become really divided if it becomes a full course of action. If they do not become divided, it is just Pisnua Vaca but not a full course of action.

          Pharusa Vaca is harsh speech, abusive language. Only when the intention is evil does it become Pharusa Vaca. That means sometimes mothers curse their children. ' May something bad happen to you ' or something like that because they are angry. But in their hearts they don't want anything to happen to their children. They don't mean it. They just say it. That is not called Pharusa Vaca. That does not amount to harsh speech because the intention is pure, the intention is good. Conversely even though you may be smiling, if you have a bad intention even though the words are soft, it is harsh speech. For example the king sentencing a criminal to death sometimes he may be laughing and say 'put him to sleep' or something like that. That is Pharusa Vaca.

          There is a story given in the commentary that one day a mother could not control her son. So she said, 'May a buffalo attack you!' Then the son went out in the forest and a real buffalo followed him. So he said if my mother had real intention may the buffalo attack me and if not may it go away. Then the buffalo went away. If the intention ; is harsh, then it becomes harsh speech. If the intention is not harsh then it does not amount to harsh speech.

          Then Samphappalapain writing about Samphappalapa, frivilous speech we Buddhists may not be just. There are stories of Ramayana and Mahabharata. For Hindus these are epic stories, real stories, but Buddhist authors say they are not true. They say they are gossip or something like that. So whenever the commentaries commented on Samhappalapa they say talking like in Ramayana or Mahabharata. If the Hindus knew this, they would be very angry with us. This frivilous talk means nonsense talk. Here also it is said only when the other person really believes in it, does it become a real Samphappalapa. Sometimes you may something to somebody, but he does not believe it. Then it is not Samphappalapa.

          Then the Mano Kamma Abhijjha when you have the real desire to possess another person's property, to make another person's property your own property, that strong desire is Abhijjha.

          If you have the strong desire that another person be killed or come into danger then that is Vyapada. And Micchaditthi is wrong view.

          These ten are called ten unwholesome or Akusala Kammas. There can be just Kamma or there can be a full course of Kamma.

          I think we will stop here.

Student : Inaudible.
Sayadaw: According to Hindus, Buddhists are Natthika-Ditthi because Buddhists do not believe in the existence of Atta. For them Natthi means no Atta. So Hindus call us Natthika-Ditthi. According to Buddhists Natthika-Ditthi means those who do not believe in the results of Kamma, that there are no results of Kamma.

Student : What is the difference between false speech and frivilous talk?
Sayadaw: False speech is with the intention of deceiving and also that causes injury or loss to others. Frivilous talk is just talking nonsense, talk that is not true, talk that does not lead to any purpose, that does not lead to fewness of wants, that does not lead to the practice of Dhamma. Such talk is Samphappalapa or frivilous talk. In the texts as well as the commentaries it is said there is such talk as animal talk. That is talk about kings, talk about robbers or thieves, talk about politics or something like that. All of them are classified as animal talk. The commentaries are very understanding in this matter. Although you may be talking about the king if you conclude your talk with an observation such as 'all of these have passed away now and are impermanent'. They don't amount to animal talk. You may talk about politics but at the end you say all of them are impermanent.

Student : Inaudiable.
Sayadaw: When you do a Kamma there are seven Javana moments. Seventh Javana moment gives results gives results here in this life. Last Javana moment gives results in the next life. Then the intermediated Javana moments may give results we don't when. For example a person is reborn in hell and then escapes from hell and is reborn as a human being. His rebirth as a human being is a result of his indefinitely effective Kamma, not the Kamma he did in hell, but the Kamma he did before going to hell. The same thing can happen in the Deva world. A person who is reborn as a Deva may go to hell as the result of the indefinitely effective Kamma.

Student : Inaudible.
Sayadaw: When we say rebirth with regard to human beings we mean conception. At the moment of conception there takes place a combination of Citta (consciousness), mental factors and material properties. When we say rebirth we mean those three things. These things are the result of Kamma in the past.

Student: Inaudible.
Sayadaw: To a great extent. Kamma is so powerful that when it produces the relinking Citta, the relinking Citta arises again and again all through the life. Also the material properties produced by Kamma arise at every moment in this life. But when a relinking consciousness repeats itself we no longer call it relinking consciousnes repeats itself we no longer call it relinking but Bhavanga. But actually as you know they are identical. We will have an occasion to talk about death and rebirth when we get to the last section of this chapter.

Tape# 26

Abhidhamma - Chapter 5 (D)

Kamma - Part 2

          Last week we finished the ten unwholesome Kammas. First there is the threefold unwholesome Kammabodily actions, verbal actions and mental actions. Then there are ten unwholesome Kammas - killing stealing and so on,three of bodily actions, four of berbal actions and three of mental actions.

          Today we come to section 23by way of roots and consciousness. Of these ten unwholesome Kammas killing, harsh speech and ill will spring form the root of hatred. That means when a person ills, or speaks harshly, or is angry, that Akusala is accompanied by the root of hatred, it is accompanied by Dosa. Sexual misconduct, covetousness and wrong view from the root of greet. Through Lobha people commit sexual misconduct, have covetousness and wrong view. Whenever we have wrong view we have some kind of attachment. So wrong view is always accompanied by Lobha or greed. The remaining four arise from two roots, both from Lobha and Dosa.

          The first one killingkilling can be caused by Dosa. Sometimes the underlying motivation for that killing may be greed. And hatred may be the underlying motivation for sexual misconduct. Sometimes people may steal as revenge or people may commit sexual misconduct as revenge. But Abhidhamma holds that the volition that drives the act of cutting off the life faculty of another being is always rooted in hatred. So killing is defined as cutting of the life faculty. The act of cutting the life faculty is always accompanied by Dosa or aversion to the continued existence of the being.

          ''While the volition that drives the act of sexual transgression is always rooted in greed i.e. desire to enjoy sexual pleasure with the illicit partner. The volition driving the other four act - stealing, lying, slandering and frivilous talkmay be accompanied by either greed or hatred. '' All Akusala (unwholesome) courses of action are invariably accompained by Moha. There is always Moha… Moha and Lobha or Moha and Dosa or just Moha.

          The manual says, '' According to classes of consiousness this unwholesome Kamma is altogether twelvefold.'' We understand Kamma to be Cetana, volition. The author is saying that according to the classes of consciousness this Akusala Kamma is altogether twelvefold. That means twelve types of Akusala consciousness arise. Here Citta itself as a composite whole rather than the individual factor of volition or Cetana is considered to be Kamma. Sometimes Akusala Cittas are called Kamma. This is just usage. When we say Akusala Citta is Kamma we mean Akusala Citta along with its concommitants including Cetana. But to be exact as you know only Cetana is Kamma. Sometimes Cetana as well as other mental factors and here even Citta is said to be Kamma. Akusala Kamma according to classes of consciousness is twelvefold. That means there are twelve Akusala Cittas.

Wholesome Kamma of Sense-sphere

          Next we come to wholesome Kamma of sense sphere, Kamavacara Kusala. There is only one Akusala. We don't say Kamavacara Akusala because Akusala is always Kamavacara. There is no Rupavacara or Arupavacara Akusala. With regard to Kusala there are Kamavacara Kusala, Rupavacara Kusala, Arupavacara Kusala and Lokuttara Kusala.

          Kamavacara Kusala is also threefold - that is there is bodily action, verbal action and mental action. The author did not mention what these are … what are bodily actions, what are verbal actions, what are mental actions. The teachers understand it to mean the opposite of the ten Akusala Kammas we just met. When the Akusala Kamma are killing, stealing, sexual misconduct and so on here Kusala Kamma is taken as the abstention from killing, stealing, sexual misconduct and so on. The first three - abstention from killing, stealing and sexual misconductis the Virati. There are three abstinences–Samma Vaca, Samma Kammanta, Samma Ajiva, right speech, right action, right livelihood. Abstention from killing stealing and sexual misconduct is Samma Kammanta, right action. Absention from lying, slandering and so on is right speech, Samma Vaca. Then the last three are the opposites of covetousness, ill will and wrong view. The opposites are non-covetousness, non-ill will and right view. These last three mental actions are Alobha, Adosa and Amoha. Non-illwill is Adosa and non-delusion is Amoha. In this eway there are ten wholesome Kammas of the sense sphere.

          Wholesome Kamma of the sense sphere is said to be of three kinds. They are Dana, Sila and Bhavana–giving, virtue or morality and mental culture. It is eightfold according to the classes of consciousness. According to consiousness they are eight. That means the eight Kamavacara Kusala Cittas. These three–Dana ,Sila and Bhavana–are expanded into ten kinds of Kusala Kamma. Giving virtue, reverence, meditation and so on, these ten are called the ten bases of wholesome Kamma, ten bases of meritorious deeds.

          The first one is giving. You all know Danagiving or offering. Here the Cetana with which one practices giving, the Cetana with which one practices virtue and so on is called Dana, Sila and so on. Dana is not only the Cetana at the moment of giving. It is the Cetana that precedes and follows the act of giving. Before you practice Dana you try to get something, you try to do something, so that you can give it to other people. The searching for the things to give is also called Dana. After giving whenever you remember, whenever you recollect that Dana you have joy. That rembrance is also called Dana. Dana does not just mean the volition at the moment of giving but the moments that precede and come after that moment of giving. The same is true of Sila and so on.

Giving is explained in the commentary as giving with respect, giving reverently. If you throw away something, that is not Dana. When you make an act of Dana, you make it seriously, you make it with respect, with adoration like when you offer something to the Buddha and so on.

The second one is virtue, Sila. For lay people there are five precepts, eight precepts and ten precepts. For monks there are 227 rules and so on. Taking the precepts and keeping them is called Sila. What if a person does not take the precepts but there arises an occasion to kill and he does not kill. Is that Sila or not at the moment of refraining? It is Sila because it is right action. When you refrain from telling a lie it is right speech. Even though a person has not taken the precepts, if he refrains from killing and so on as the occasion arises, that is also called Sila.

          The third one is Bhavana, meditation, mental culture, the practice of forty kinds of meditation, practice of Vipassana up to the moment of Gotrabhu. Here Bhavana does not cover enlightenment. Enlightenment is enlightenment. Bhavana is the mental culture that leads to enlightenment or may be that leads to and includes the attainment of Jhanas and Abhinnas.

          The next one is reverence, being respectful to others, being respectful to elders, being respectful to monks. Being respectful means for example when a monk comes you stand up from your seat, you greet him, you may take whatever belongings he is carrying, you give him a place to sit. Such a thing is called reverence to your elders, to your parents, to your teachers.

          The fifth one is service. Service is doing something for them. Also service is explained as attending to the sick. Monks attending to other sick monks, that is also service. There are many kinds of service in lay life also - community service, service for the welfare of the religious community, service for the welfare of the monastery, service for the welfare of the Yogis; all these are called service. So when you do something at a retreat and you offer yourself to prepare food, to do the dishes, to clean the house, then that is service.

          Number six is transference of merit. You all know this. It's actually not transference of merit but sharing of merit. The Pali word is Patidana. That means giving what one has obtained. First you do some kind of Kusala, let us say giving. By the practice of giving you get merit. That is called pati in Pali. Then you want to share this merit. You want to make this merit common to othere persons. So you share merit with them, with other persons. That action is what is called transference of merit here. This translation transference of merit is not so good. Transfer means changing place. Here as you all know merit does not change from one person to another. But it is like lighting a candle from the lighted candle of another person. Transference of merit means giving chance for others to get merit for themselves, by having them rejoice at your merit. So when you practice sharing of merit, you say, ''May you share my merit'' or ''May all beings share this merit'' and so on.

          Then there is rejoicing in others' merit. That is saying, ''sadhu, Sadhu, Sadhu.'' Now it is customary in Buddhist countries to say, ''Sadhu, Sadhu,Sadhu'' when merit is shared. When a person rejoices at another's merit he gets merit. He gets Kusala. Now there is a problem here. Can we say 'Sadhu' even though the other person does not share merit with us? For example we see someone doing charity. Can we rejoice at his merit and get merit ourselves? Yes. But is the merit is specifically for those who have departed, for those who have died, then the person who does the merit needs to share. Otherwise the person who has died cannot get the immediate benefit of that merit. When we share merits with those who have departed and they rejoice at our merit, they get merit themselves and they get the results immediately. When we as human beings rejoice at the merit of other people, we don't get immediate results. We just get Kusala. If the merit is done specifically for those who have departed, then we need to share merit with them. And they also need to rejoice at your merit. There are three conditions to be fulfilled for such merit to be immediately effective. The person who does the merit must share with the other person. The departed person must rejoice at the merit. There must be a worthy person to accept the offering, like a Buddha, an Arahant or a monk. When these three condition are fulfilled, then the departed ones get the results immediately. Rejoicing in merit is rejoicing when merit is shared and even rejoicing when it is not shared. When we see someone doing good, and we think it is Kusala, we can just rejoice at their merit. We can just say to ourself 'Sadhu,Sadhu,Sadhu.' We will get merit ourselves.

          The next one is hearing the Dhamma, listening to Dhamma talks. Here hearing the Dhamma or listining to Dhamma talks must be with a pure heart-not to show ourself off or not to get a good reputation–with sincerity and seriousness we should hear or listen to the Dhamma. Listening to or learning the innocent heart may be included with hearing the Dhamma.

 Teaching the Dhammaa person who teaches the Dhamma must be without expectation, without any expectation of personal gain whatever, with the intention of making known the Dhamma to other people so they can get benefit from that Dhamma. Here also teaching other innocent kinds of knowledge is called teaching the Dhamma.

          The last one is straightening out one's view. That means having the right view. Right view meansthere is Kamma, there is the result of Kamma. That is called straightening out one's view.

          Altogather there are ten wholesome Kamma of the sense sphere. First there are three: Dana, Sila, and Bhavana. Now we have ten–Dana, Sila, Bhavana and so on. Reverence and service can be included in virtue because reverence and service are a kind of practice. So they can be included in Sila. Transference of merit and rejoicing in other's merit can be included in giving. Transference of merit is giving. Rejoicing in other's merit is not giving. Giving gets rid of covetousness, Issa and Macchariya. Transference of merit and rejoicing in other's merit both get rid of Issa and Macchariya. So they can both be included in giving. Hearing the Dhamma, teaching the Dhamma and straightening one's view can all be included in Bhavana, meditation. When you listen to the Bhamma you are doing Bhavana, when you are teaching the Dhamma, talking about Dhamma, you are doing Bhavana. Ten can become three or three can be extended into ten wholesome Kammas.

          Straightening one's view is said to be common to all the others because if you do not have right or straight view, you will not do giving, you will not practice Sila and so on. Straightening one's view is like a rudder in a ship. It is very important. It can belong to giving, virtue and meditation.

          We are talking about Kamavacara Kamma. There are twelve Akusala Kamma. That means according to consciousness. And there are eight Kamavacara Kusala according to consciousness. Altogether there are twenty kinds of Kusala and Akusala. These twenty kinds, wholesome and unwholesome, are known as Kamma pertaining to the sense sphere. There are twenty kinds of Kamavacara Kammas-twelve Akusala Kamma and eight Kusala Kamma.

Wholesome Kamma of R|pÈvacara-sphere

          Next we come to Rupavacara Kusala Kamma. Rupavacara and Arupavacara are easy. In Rupavacara Kusala Kamma there is only one. That is Mano Kamma. Rupavacara Kusala is the five Jhanas. These Jhanas are not actions of the body, nor verbal action, but mental action. They are always Mano Kamma. They are only Mano Kamma. They are to be achieved through meditation, not like Kamavacara Kusala. You can achieve Kamavacara Kusala without meditation. Without meditation you cannot acquire Rupavacara Kusala. It is one that always reaches absorption. Only when there is absorption can there be Rupavacara Kusala. Rupavacara Kusala is divided into five according to the Jhana factors. First Jhana has five Jhana factors. Second Jhana has four Jhana factors. Third Jhana has three Jhana factors. Fourth Jhana has two Jhana factors. Fifth Jhana has two Jhana factors. According to the distinction of Jhanaa factors there are five Rupavacara Kusala Kamma.

Wholesome Kamma of Ar|pÈvacara-sphere

          Arupavacara Kusalathere are four. They are also Mano Kamma, mental only. They are not bodily actions. They are not verbal actions. Like Rupacacara Kusala they are to be achieved through Bhavana, meditation. They are those that reach absorption. They are fourfold by the distinction of objects. Do you know the objects of the four Arupavacara Cittas? The first is infinite space. The second has the first Arupavacara Citta as object. The third takes the absence of the first Arupavacara Citta as object. The fourth takes the third Arupavacara Citta as object. Here the distinction is by object, not by Jhana factors. All these have the same unmber of Jhana factors. What are the Jhana factors? Upekkha and Ekaggata. We come to the end of enumeration of Kammas. Kamavacara Kamma, Rupavacara Kamma and Arupavacara Kammatwenty Kamavacara Kamma, five Rupavacaraa Kamma and four Arupavacara Kamma.

Results of the Kammas

          Now we will study the results of these Kammas, which Kammas give which results. Now please look at the chart on page 212. First the results of Kamma are of two kinds. There is the result at relinking or at rebirth. The other is the result during life. There will always be these two kinds of results–results at rebirth and results during life. During life means after rebirth until death.

          In the chart you will see sense sphere volitions. They are Kamma. They there are results at rebirth and during life. Then there are realms of existence in which realms they give results. Next there are the types of consciousness which are the results of the respective Kammas.

          Eleven unwholesome Kammasthere are twelve unwholesome Kammas. From the restlessness is excepted. So eleven unwholesome Kamma give results in four woeful states at rebirth. When it gives results in the four woeful states, the result is in the form of the unwholesome resultantinvestigation with equanimity, Akusala Vipaka Santirana associated with Upekkha. That Akusala Vipaka Santirana accompanied by Upekkha is the result of the eleven unwholesome Cittas or eleven unwholesome Kammas at rebirth in four woeful states. Kamma accompanied by restlessness or Uddhacca cannot give results as rebirth because it is too weak. It is not accompanied by strong Cetasikas. Since it is not accompanied by strong Cetasikas, it has no power to give results at rebirth. Another explanation is that it does not results at rebirth because it is not eradicated by Sotapatti Magga. Sotapatti Magga eradicates wrong view and doubt. A Sotapanna is not born in four woeful states. But here a Sotapanna cannot eradicate restlessness or Uddhacca. He still has Uddhacca and he will not be reborn in four woeful states. So restlessness cannot give results in the four woeful states as rebirth. But during life time it will give results.

          So the next linetwelve unwholesome Kammas give results during life in Kamavacara realms and fifteen Rupavacara realms. In the Kamavacara realm the Vipaka is in the form of Cittas. What are the Cittas there? Seven results of unwholesome actions. But in Rupavacara realm there will be missing three because the Brahmas have no nose sensitivity, no tongue sensitivity and no body sensitivity. Only the other four will ariseeye snesitivity, ear sensitivity, Sampaticchana and Santirana.

          When a person, let us say a human being, sees something undesirable, then he will have Cakkhu Vinnana Akusala Vipaka. That Akusala Cakkhu Vinnana, that seeing is the result of his past Akusals Kamma. Even Brahmas can have seeing consciousness which is the result of Akusala. When they dome down to the human world, they may see ugly things or even if they don't come down to the human world. If they look from Brahma world to the human world they will see undesirable objects. So Akusala can even give results to Brahmas.

          So the eleven Akusala can Kammas give results in the four woeful states at rebirth and only one type of consciousness. Do you know why there is only one type of consciousness? Because that is the one type of consciousness that has the function of Patisandhi, Bhavanga and Cuti. But during life they don't have to be functioning as Patisandhi, Bhavanga and Cuti. So during life all twelve Akusala Cittas, all twelve unwholesome Kammas give all seven types of consciousness in Kamavacara realm and four types of consciousness as result in Rupavacara realm.

          Now next one'' Four-three-root superior wholesome''If you look at the eight Kamavacara Kusala, the first two are accompanied by how many roots? Three roots. Number three and four? Two roots. Number five and six? Three roots? Number seven and eight? Two root? So there are four three root consciousness - one, two, five and six. Each of these three root consciousness or Kammas are diveded into superior and inferior.

          There are two grades of three-root-Kusalathree-root-Kusala which is superior and three-root-Kusala which is inferior. The same is true two root Kusala; there is two-root-Kusala which is superior and there is two-root-Kusala which is inferior. What is superior and inferior? First three root and two root. When you do some meritorious deed if you it without knowledge, without understanding, without the understanding of Kamma and its results, then it is said to be two root. Even sometimes we may do two root Kusala. If we do our Kusala carelessly, our Kusala may not be accompanied by three roots. Sometimes we practice Dana. We just give it. We don't think much of it. When we don't think much of our Kusala it may be two root. If a Kamavacara Kusala Kamma is accompanied by the understanding of the law of cause and effect, the understanding of Kamma and its results, it is called three root. If it is not accompanied by such knowledge or undertstanding, it is called two root.

          Superior and inferiorof a Kusala Kamma is preceded by and followed by Kusala thoughts, it is called superior. If it is remembered again and again by that person it is called superior. Sometimes people do meritorious deeds, but preceding that deed they may have Akusala. After doing the meritorious deed, they may have some kind of regret. '' Oh if I did not give that away, I might have made use of it for myself or my family,'' in such a way one may think. There may be some regret. If there are regrets, the Kamma is called inferior. Being superior is preceded by and followed by Kusala. There is a saying that three kind of volitions or Cetanas are involved in Dana and other meritorious deeds. So when you are going to do a Dana have Kusala Cittas preceding that formal act if giving. And then after giving also, you should have joy and not regret. If you regret after giving, you will get the results in future lives of giving, but you will not want to make use of those results. You will be a very stingy person. Although you may be a millionaire, you don't want to use things which are expensive things which are good. Even though you are rich, you want to use inexpensive things. So it is important when we practice Kusala, we whould see to it that is accompanied by three roots and that it is superior. Only superior gives superior results. If it is inferior it will give inferior results. If you want the best results, you want the Kusala that is accompanied by three results and that is superior.

          Three root superior wholesome Kamavacara can give results in the sensuous blissful plane in the seven Sugati, six Deva Loka and one human world. Three root superior wholesome Kamma (There are four) can give results in seven realms of Kamasugati as rebirth. The results are in the form of Cittas. What Cittas? Those that are accompanied by Nana. Only four.

During life they give results in all Kamavacara realms in the form of eight Vipaka Cittas … eight Kusala Vipaka from Ahetukas and eight Kamavacara Vipakas. Altogether there are sixteen. In the Rupavacara realm there are three less. From the Ahetuka Kusala Vipaka nose, tongue and body sensitivity must be excluded for the Ruapvacara beings. Kamavacara Vipakas are the same eight.

          Next onethree root inferior and two root superiorthey give the same results. Even though it is three root because it is inferior it cannot give three root results. That's very important. If you want to get three root results, we must make our Kusala three root superior. If it is three root inferior - that means it is not preceded and followed by three root Kusalait will not give three root results. It will give only two root results. At the moment of rebirth in Kamasugati, seven realms of Kamasugati, such Kamma will give results as the four Kamavacara Vipaka Cittas without Nana. But during life this Kamma gives rise to twelve Cittasfour Kamavacara Vipaka Cittas not accompanied by knowledge and eight Ahetuka Kusala Vipakas. In the Rupavacara realm five will arise from Ahetukas and four from Kamavacara Vipaka.

          And two root superiortwo root superior means when a person performs or does this Kamma, only two roots are there. Perhaps he does it carelessly. But his two root Kusala is preceded and accompanied by Kusala or he remembers it again and again with Kusala. In that case it is two root superior Kamma. Two root superior Kamma gives two root results, not three root results.

          Then the last is two root inferior. There are four. Inferior means not preceded and not followed by Kusala. It is the lowest form of Kusala. Since it is two root inferior it cannot give two root results. It can only give rootless results. At rebirth for human beings and some kinds of gods (those in Catumaharajika) the result is Kusala Vipaka Upekkha Santkrana. But during life time in Kamavacara realm the results are in the form of Ahetuka Kusala Vipaka. In the Rupavacara realm they are five Ahetuka Kusala Vipaka. Nose tongue and body consciousness are omitted.

          This is Kamma and the result of Kamavacara Kamma. In Kamavacara there are Akusala and Kamma. We divide Akusala into two. The first level is without restlessness. The next level is all twelve Akusala Cittas. The first one is for rebirth result. The second one is for results during life time. Then we divide the Kamavacara Kusala into three root superior, three root inferior, two root superior, and two root inferior. Only three root Kusala superior can give three root result. Three root inferior and two root superior give two root result. Two root inferior cannot give even two root result. It gives rootless results. I think this much is clear.

          Later on we will find the opinion of some..On page 216. We will not go there yet. We will read the table on page 213. It is not difficult.

R|pÈvacara and Ar|pÈvacara Kusala Kamma

          Now we come to Rupavacara and Arupavacara. First Jhana here also inferior degree, medium degree and superior degree. These Jhanas can be developed in three ways. Inferior or limited means a person just got the Jhana and he did not use it again. That kind of Jhana is called of limited development. Of medium development means he enters into the Jhana more often, but he is not fully adept at entering into Jhana or getting out of Jhana. That means he is not fully familiar with that Jhana although he has attained the Jhana. Superior means he is very adept at using that Jhana. He can enter into Jhana any time he wants to. He can get out of Jhana any time he wants to.He can stay in the Jhana as long as he likes. Also if he has many Jhanas he can enter into any Jhana he likes, not in the order given in the books, but in any order.

          So the first Jhana developed in a limited way can give results in the first Brahma plane, Brahma's retinue. The result is in the form of first Jhana resultant. If it is developed in a medium way the result is the same Citta, but the realm is different. That same Citta arises in the second realm, Brahma's ministers. If the development is superior, the same Citta will arise in Mana Brahma realm. First Jhana developed in three ways gives results in three Brahma realms, three first Jhana Brahma realms. Although the realms are three the resultant consciousness is the same, that is first Jhana resultant.

          Second Jhana again may be developed in limited, medium and superior way and gives results in realm of minor luster, realm of infinite luster and realm of radiant luster in the form of second Jhana Vipaka. Third Jhana of the fivefold method of reckoning arises in these realms also.

          Fourth Jhana is also developed in limited, medium and superior way. It gives result as minor aura, infinite aura and radiant aura.

          There is a confusion here. We are familiar with the fivefold method of dividing Jhanas, but the realms for Jhanas are divided according to fourfold method. Both the second and third Jhana of the fivefold method give results in second Jhana realms.

          Fifth Jhanathere is no variation in fifth Jhana. It is just normal. Fifth Jhana gives result in the place of great reward, Vehapphala.The resultant consciousness is fifth Jhana consciousness.

          Fifth Jhana with dispassion for perceptionthat means these persons are misguided. In the commentaries they are called Ditthiyas. That means they have wrong view, something like that. People think that because we have mind wee suffer; if we do not have mind, we would not suffer. After getting fifth Jhana, they develop it with dispassion for mind. Sanna does not just mean perception here. Perception here stands for all mind. So when they practice meditation, they say, ''mind is disgusting, mind is disgusting'' and so on. As a result of their concentration, their Jhana when they die, they are reborn in the realm of non- percipient beings, the mindless beings. There is no resultant consciousness here. At the moment of rebirth there are only material properties, life nonad. It is said in the commentaries that they are reborn there like statues in the position they died here. If they die here lying down, there they will be reborn in lying down posture. If they die sitting here, they will be reborn sitting there for 500 Kappas.

          And then there is fifth Jhana of non-returner, Anagami. Anagamis are reborn in pure abodes only. Their resultant consciousness is fifth Jhana resultant consciousness.

          Then there is base of infinite space. That is first Arupavacara Jhana. It gives result in infinite space realm. The resultant consciousness is first Arupavacara consciousness.

          Then the second one is infinite consciousness. The third one is nothingness. The fourth one is neither perception not non-perception. They give results in their respective Arupavacara realms. The types of consciousness are the four Arupavacara Vipaka consciousness. In brierr Rupavacara Jhana Kusala gives results in Rupavacara realms. Arupavacara Jhanas give results in Arupavacara realms. There are five Jhanas and four Jhana planes. Second and third Jhanas give results in second Jhana plane.

          Now we come to the view of some teachers with regard to Kamavacara Kusala. We learned that Kamavacara Kusala gives results. How many types of consciousness are the result of Kamavacara Kusala? Sixteen - eight from Ahetukas and eight from Kamavacara Kusala. There are some teachers who say that unprompted do not produce prompted results. And prompted actions do not produce unprompted results. The reason they give was the image in a mirror must be exactly the same as the person. The person and the image must be exact. In the same way this is true for Kamma and its result; they must be the same. That means prompted will only give prompted result and unprompted will give unprompted result. This is their opinion. This opinion was held (You may see on page 215) for Venerable Maha Dhammarakkhita Thera, an Abhidhamma master at the ancient Moravapi Monastery in Sti Lanka. In the Atthasalini the name of the holder of this view was given as Mahadattajata and not Maha Dhammarakkhita. Some teachers say that Vibhavini Tika was wrong in giving the name as Maha Dhammarakkhita because the name given in Atthasalini was Venerable Mahadatta. If you want to reconcile these two we may argue that Dhammarakkhita is another name for Mahadatta.

          But the view was not accepted by many teachers because the relinking consciousness being prompted and unprompted does not depend on the Kamma being prompted or unprompted. It depends on how the Kamma, Kammma Nimitta or Gati Nimitta is presented to the mind of a dying person. If these three are presented spontaneously without the intervention of another person then the relinking consciousness is unprompted. If one of these three appear to the dying person with the help of relative and so on, then the relinking consiousness becomes prompted. The being prompted or unprompted of the relinking consiousness does not depend upon the Kamma being prompted or unprompted. This view was designated as 'Kece, some'. I have told you about this once. When the authors say 'some' that means they don't like it or they think it is not up to the standard. According to those teachers the results may be different. Unprompted can give unprompted results and prompted can only give prompted results. There is a chatt on page 216… first superior and first inferior, second superior and second inferior, third superior and third inferior and so on. First superior and first inferior are unprompted. The second two are prompted and the next two are unprompted. The following two are prompted and so on.

          The first one, three root superior, gives results 1-8 of Kamavacara Sobhana Vipaka according to the general view. But according to some since it is unprompted, it can only give unprompted results. Therefore according to them it gives rise to 1,3,5,7 of the Kamavacara Sobhana resultants.

          Then two-rootsfirst inferior two-roots, it can only give two root result. That is 3,4,7 & 8. It is unprompted. But according to some it just gives 3 & 7 as result.

          Then second superior three-rootsecond Kusala Citta, since it is superior and three root it gives all eight Kamavacara Sobhana Vipaka. Here 1-8 means both at rebirth and relinking. They are mixed together. But according to some since it is prompted only those that are prompted are the results so 2,4,6 & 8.

          Then second inferiorinferior means two-roots. When it is two roots only two root resultants can arise. These are 3,4,7 & 8. According to some since it is prompted only 4 and 8 could arise.

          Then the third Cittathird Citta superior has only two roots. According to the general view it will have two root results 3,4,7 & 8. According to some it is unprompted, so the results will be 3 & 7.

          Then the third inferior rootlessrebirth resultants will be rootless. There are no Kamavacara Vipaka, only rootless Vipaka.

          Then the fourth Cittawhat is fourth Citta? Two roots. So it gives two root results –3,4,7 & 8. According to some since it is prompted 4 & 8.

 Fourth inferior only gives rootless results. So there are no Kamavacara Sobhana Vipaka.

          Then the fifth superior, three rootsso 1-8 or according to some only unprompted–1,3,5 & 7.

          And the fifth inferior, two root results3,4,7 & 8. Since it is unprompted 3 & 7 according to some.

          Sixth, root superior three-rootsso 1-8. Since it is Sasankharika, prompted 2,4,6 & 8 will be the results.

          And the sixth Citta inferior two-root results3,4,7 & 8. Since it is prompted, the results are 4 & 8.

          Seventh superior two root results are 3,4,7,8. It is unprompted, so 3 & 7.

          Seventh inferior has rootless results. There are no Kamavacara Sobhana results.

          Eighth superior gives two root results, so 3,4,7,8. Since it is prompted it is 4 & 8.

          Eighth inferior because it is inferior it gives rootless results only. There are no Kamavacara Sobhana Vipaka.

          Rootless resultants are for all. So it is a little complicated.

          The main thing to keep in mind is that according to ‘some only’ unprompted results arise from unprompted Kusala and only prompted results arise from prompted Kusala.

          Now one thing improtant to note is about Anagamis. Please turn to page 218. Non-returners are reborn in the Pure Abodes. You all know that if a person become an Anagami he will not come back to this Kamavacara realm. He will be reborn in one of the five pure abodes. It is said that their rebirth into these five realms is determined by their predominate spiritual faculty. There are five spiritual faculties - Saddha, Viriya, Sati, Samedhi and Panna. If a person's Saddha is predominant he will be reborn in the first pure abode. If his Viriya is predominant, he will be reborn in the second and so on. Non-returners in whom faith is the dominant faculty are reborn into Aviha realm; those in whom energy is the dominant faculty are reborn into the Atappa realm and so on. ''Although none but Non-returners are reborn into the Pure Abodes'', so only Anagamis are born in pure abodes, ''there is no fixed law holding that all Non-returners are reborn there.'' Only Non-returners are reborn in Pure Abodes. Non returners may be reborn in the other Brahma realms also, not just in Pure Abodes. If a Non-returner gets only first Jhana then he will be reborn in first Jhana realm. Only when he gets the fifth Jhana will he be reborn in the file pure abodes. When we say Non-returners can be reborn in pure abodes, we mean Non-returners can be reborn in the Pure Abodes, but Non- returners can also be reborn in the other Brahma realms. Non-returners cannot be reborn in Kamavacara realm because they have given up attachment or desire for Kamavacara realm.

          ''It may be that the Pure Abodes are open only to Non-returners who posses the fifth Jhana, while Non-returners with a lower Jhana attainment will be reborn elsewhere in the fine material plane.'' They will be reborn in first, second, third and fourth Jhana planes. ''All Non-returners must be reborn in the fine material plane because they have eradicated sensual desire, the fetter which leads to rebirth in the sensuous plane.''

          There are three kinds of topmost realms. They are called great reward (Vehapphala), Akanittha and Nevasanna-nasannayatana (neither perception nor non- perception). Those who are reborn in those three realms will not be reborn in other realms. They will become Arahants there and finish their Samsara.

          The Noble Ones who are reborn in the Brahma realms will not be reborn in lower Brahma realms. They may go higher and higher, but they will not go lower. We come to the end of Kammacatukka.

          Kamavacara Kusala gives both identical and non-identical result. The identical results of Kamavacara Kusala are the eight Kamavacara Sobhana Vipaka. Kamavacara Kusala has both identical and non-identical results. But Rupavacara and Arupavacara Kusala give only identical results. There are no non-identical results for them.

          The concluding verse: ''Thus sublime merit, determined according to planes, produces similar results (That means identical results.) both at rebirth linking and in the course of existence.'' Whether it is at rebirth or during life time, they give only similar results. But Kamavacara Kammas can give both identical and non-identical results.

Sadhu, Sadhu, Sadhu.

Tape# 27

Chapter 5 (E)

Process of Death & Rebirth (Part One)

          Today we will pick up where we left off last year. I think we came to the end of the section on Kamma last year. So today we will study the section called the process of death and rebirth.

Four Causes of Death

          First the author mentions the four causes of death. These four causes are 1. the expiration of the life span 2. the expiration of the productive Kammic force 3. the simultaneous expiration of the life span and the productive Kammic force 4. the intervention of a destructive Kamma. These are the four causes of death. These four causes of death are explained with the simile of an oil lamp. Imagine or visualize an oil lamp burning. It will be burning so long as there is a wick, there is oil, there is no gust of wind or there is no deliberate extinguishing by a person. But when the wick is used up the flame will go out. If the oil is used up the flame will go out. When both are used up the flame will go out. Even though there is oil, there is wick, but when there is a gust of wind or somebody extinguishes it, the flame will go out. In the same way the expiration of life span is like the expiration of the wick. Expiration of the Kammic force is like the expiration of the oil. The expiration of both is like the expiration of both. The last one - the flame going out because of a gust of wind or somebody extinguishes it is like a destructive Kamma. So there are these four kinds of death.

Death defined

          Death in Buddhism is defined as the interuption of the life faculties included in the limits of one existence or one becoming. Jivitindriya or life faculty is important. When it expires a person is said to die. When a person dies both mental faculties and physical faculties disappear. With the cessation of the mental and physical faculties one is said to die. Death is just the interuption or cutting off of that life faculty.

Death through expiration of life span

          The first kind of death comes though the expiration of life span. As you know there are some realms which have fixed life spanCatummaharajika, Tavatimsa and so on. But for human beings there is no fixed life span. The life span of human beings is supposed to be about 100 years, If a person ides when he raches 100 years, although his Kammic force is still unexhausted, he is said to die through expriation of life span. His past Kamma may have potential to give him a longer life. But since he was born at a time when humans only live for 100 years, and he dies at the age of 100 years. He is said to die at the expiration of the life span. For celestial beings their life span is longer than that for human beings. When they die at the end of their life span, for example for Catummaharajikas it is at the end of 500 celestial years. Dying at the end of 500 celestial years would be dying through expiration of life span for them.

          Then in the manual there is a saying that "if the productive Kamma is still not exhausted when death takes place through reaching the maximum age, the Kammic force can generate another rebirth on the same plane or on some higher plane as in the case of the Devas." I don't know where he took this from. I have no way of saying whether it is right or wrong. Maybe he took it from the commentary of Ledi Sayadaw. I don't have that book, so I cannot say whether it is true or not. But according to my understanding a Kamma can only give one Patisandhi. One Kamma can give only one Patisandhi. So althogh it is not exhausted, I don't think it can give another Patisandhi result.

Death through expiration of Kammic force

          The second one is the expiration of the productive Kammic force. This is death before the end of a normal given life span. For example human beings are supposed to live for about 100 years now. If a person dies before 100 years he is said to die due to the expiration of the productive Kammic force. His Kamma in the past cannot help him to live up to 100 years. Therefore he dies before he reaches 100 years. In that case he is said to die because of the expiration of the productive Kammic force. When a person dies through the expiration of the productive Kammic force, his life span may not be exhausted. And also there are other favorable conditions for the prolongation of life. Although there are these conditions and although life span is not exhausted, still his Kammic force is exhausted. He dies before he reaches the end of the life span. This is death through the expiration of the Kammic force.

Death through both

          When both the Kammic prodcutive force and the life span simultaneously come to an end, that is death due to the expiration of both. For example a human being dies at the age of 100 years, then he is said to die through expiration of both his life span and Kammic force.

Death through destructive Kamma

          The fourth kind of death is through a destructive Kamma. A destructive Kamma can be a past Kamma done in previous lives or something done in the present life. Destructive Kamma intervenes when a person is killed by his own attempt or by attempt of others or if he is killed by some disease. Also in the case of some persons who commit a very heinous offense against those who are very virtuous, then their Kammic force cannot maintain their life, cannot prolong their life up to the end of their life span or up they reach to their normal end. That kind of death is called death through the intervention of a destructive Kamma. Death through the intervention of a destructive Kamma can be caused by the Kamma of the past. I think you still remember destructive Kamma from when we studied the four kinds o Kamma. When a person dies through a destructive Kamma, that destructive Kamma can belong to the past or i t can be in this life.

          You know there is a story about a king who cut the hands and feet of a hermit who was a Bodhisatta. The Bodhisatta in that life was called Khantivadi because he practised forebearance. He practised patience. The king was displeased with him. The king wanted to test himwhether he had real patience. He ordered the hermit's hands to be cut off and then his legs to be cut off. Although they were cut off, the hermit did not get angry. But this crime was so grave that the king was swallowed by the earth. The king's offense of cutting off the hermit's hands and legs was so bad that it interfered or destroyed the force of his past Kamma. So that force could not maintain his life any longer. Thus he was swallowed by t he earth and died. He was reborn in Avici hell. That sort of death is called death through destructive Kamma. There are many kinds of death through estructive Kammadying in an accident, commiting suicide, and dying in natural calamities as well.

          So there are these four kids of death taught in Buddhism. Among them the first three are called Kalamarana, timely death. That means a person dies when it is time for him to die. But the last one is called Akalamarana, untimely death. There is still life span and there is still force of productive Kamma, but it is cut off through a destructive Kamma. So it is called Akalamarana, an untimely death. His life is like the flame of an oil lamp going out with a gust of wind. These are the four kinds of death.

          Now the author explains what signs come to the mind of a person at the time of death. "In the case of those who are about to die at the time of death the following presents itself through any of the six sense doors. "When a person is about to die one of the three kinds of objects presnets itself to his mind through one of the six sense doors - through eye, through ear and so on. That presentation of the object itself is caused by the force of Kamma. The object appears to the mind of a dying person by the force of Kamma he did in the past. That Kamma may be Kusala Kamma or Akusala Kamma.

Three Kinds of Object at Death

          The three kinds of objects that appear at the time of death are: 1. Kamma 2. Sign of Kamma 3. Sign od Destiny. Any one of these three will present itself to the mind of a dying person. Kamma is the Kamma that is productive of rebirth.


The Kamma here is productive Kamma that gives Patisandhi result in the next existence.

Sign of Kamma

          "The sign of Kamma means some objects that are apprehended previously at the time of performing Kamma"that means the main object at the time of performing that Kamma and also something that was instrumental in perorming that Kamma. There are two kinds of signs of Kammathe main and the secondary or instrumental. Let us say the sign of Kamma is donating a monastery. The monastery is the main object and the furniture used at the monastery, giving alms, the giving of robes and so on are called instrumental in performing the Kamma. There are two signs of Kamma. If it is erecting a pagoda, the pagoda is the main object. The flowers and so on are the secondary objects. It is similar for an Akusla act such as killing an animal. The animal is the main object and the weapon used in killing is called instrumental or a secondary object. IN every sign of Kamma there may be these two varietiesthe main object and the secondary.

          In the text "that had been apprehended previously at the timeof performing the Kamma", refers to the main object. "Something that was instrumental in performing the Kamma" refers to the secondary object.

Sign of Destiny

          "A sign of destiny, that is, ( a symbol of the state) to be obtained and experienced in the immediately following existence." Immediately following existence is called destiny here. The sign of destiny means the sign of that immediately following existence. There are again two varieties of sign of destiny. - the one to be obtained and the one to be experienced. That means if a person is going to be reborn as a human being, the sign of destiny to be' obtained is the wall of his mother's womb. The sign to be experienced is the experience of his life as a human being. If he is going to be reborn in a celestial state, then the celestial realm is the state to be obtained and the celestial mansions, celestial nymphs, trees and others are those that are experienced. If a person is going to e reborn in hell, then hell is the state to be obtained and hell fire and those who do torture to the inhabitants of hell are called the signs to be experienced. in that existence. Here also the sign of destiny is of two kinds the main and the secondary. The main is the existence or the realm where a dying person is to be reborn. The secondary ones are those thinds that you will experience in that life.

          One of these three kinds of objects will present itself to the mind of a dying person. In the manual 'Guide to paragraph 35' on page 221 "It should be stressed that this object presents itself to the Javana proess of the dying person, not to the death consciousness itself. The death consciousness (Cuti Citta) , the final Citta in a life term, apprehends the same object grasped by the rebirth consciousness and Bhavanga of the existence that is about to end." It is important because if we do not understand this we might say that the object of Patisandhi, Bhavanga and Cuti are the same in all lives. The Kamma, sign of Kamma or sign of destiny in one life will be the object of Patisandhi, Bhavanga and Cuti in other lives as wellthat is not correct. As you know in one life the object of Patisandhi, Bhavanga and Cuti remains the same. When we look at the diagram it will be clearer. The object is presented to the Javana process, not the death consciousness. In other words these objects are taken as objects by the Javana process not by Cuti Citta.

          To the mind of a person who is dying any one of these objects presents itself. When they appear to the mind of the dying person, they would appear through any one of the six sense doors. They appear to the dying person through the force of t he Kamma done in the past. 'In the past' means previously in this life or in other past lives.

          Next paragraph"Thereafter, attending to that very object thus presented, the stream of consciousnesscontinually flows, inclining mostly towards that state." "Thereafter attending to that very object thus presented,"taking that object as object- the Kamma, the sign of Kamma, the sign of destiny as object.

          "The stream of consciousness continually flows"goes on andon and on. "Incluining mostly to that state"that means inclining mostly toward the state in which he is going to be reborn in. It says "mostly" because when people die suddenly they may not have time to incline to the state. So the word 'mostly' is inserted here.

          If you kill a fly by hitting it, it may not have time to incline toward the existence in which it is going to be reborn in. There can be no pure continuity of consciousness or there is corrputed continuity of consciousness at that time because it is killed instantly. For those beings the inclining toward the state to be reborn in and the mind to be pure or corrupted cannot happen. So 'mostly' is put here. Now "that stream of consciousness is in accordance with the Kamma that is to be matured whether pure or corrupted." So his stream of consciousness will be pure if the Kusala Kamma is to give result. His stream of consciiousness will be corrupted if Akusala Kamma is to give result. According to the Kamma which will give result his stream of consciousness is pure or corrupted.

          ". . . And in conformity with the state into which one is to be reborn"when a person is going to be reborn in the human realm his mind is going to be inclined toward that realm. If he is going to be reborn in a celestial realm his mind will be inclined toward the celestial realm. It is like your mind inclining toward a place you are going to. You are preparing, packing things up to go to some place. Your mind is inclined toward that place. In the same way since it is a being about to die, his mind will incline towards his future destination.

          "Attending to that very object thus presented"this is a general statement. For most people their mind will take the object thus presented, that is their mind will take the object whether it is Kamma, Sign of Kamma or Sign of Destiny. But sometimes we can do something to change that presentation of objects. I have repeatedly told you about a man who had been a hunter. In his old age he became a monk; his son who was an Arahant ordained him. When the old man was lying on his death bed he saw dogs running after him or surrounding him. At that time he was frightened. He said, "Get them away; get them away", or something like that. When the son heard this, he knew the signs of Niraya, the signs of hell had arisen for his father. So he had his novices bring flowers and put on the terraces of the pagoda. Then he had his father taken to the pagoda. He told his father that these flowers are for you to offer to the Buddha. He told him to offer the flowers to the Buddha and to get his mind clear, to get his mind settled. So when the old monk offered flowers to the Buddha, those signs changed. Instead of seeing dogs running after him, he saw celestial nymphs. When he saw celestial nympgs he said to his son, "Go away, go away." The son asked , "Why?" He said, "Your mothers are coming." With that mind he died and he was reborn as a celestial being. First the object presented was the sign of destiny for hell. His son was an Arahant, so he knew what to do. He tried and succeeded in changing that sign of destiny from a sign of hell to a celestial sign. So "attending to that very object presented" is a general statement. There are cases where one may attend to a sign produced by relatives or who ever is near one at death.

          "Or that rebirth-producing Kamma presents itself to a sense door in the way of renewing." Now there are two kinds of presentation of these objects. The first kind of presentation of object has to do with some kind of Kamma one did in the past. The second kind of presentation is that "rebirth-productive Kamma presents itself to a sense door in the way of renewing". The Kamma appears to him as though he were doing it at that time. It becomes new again and he feels as though he were doing that Kamma at that very moment. That Kamma may have been done years ago or even lives ago. That Kamma which is going to give Patisandhi results becomes so powerful that in his mind he feels he is doing that Kamma again. "The Kamma presenting itself does not appear as a memory image of something that was previously done, but it appears to the mind door as if it were being done at that very moment." He feels as if he were doing that Kamma again at that very moment. In that case it is a Kamma which he experiences again at that time. Therefore the presentation of the object is of two kinds. The first is that he remembers his Kamma or a sign of Kamma or a sign of destiny appears to him. The second one is he feels as though he were doing that Kamma at that moment.

          Now death and rebirth linkingup to this passage the person has not yet died. The person has not yet reached the last though process. "To one who is on the verge of death, either at the end of a cognitive process (That means Vithi Citta) or at the dissolution of the life-continuum, the death consciousness, the consummation of the present life, arises and ceases in the way of death." This is how death occurs. "To one who is on the verge of death" - one who is near his death - " either at the end of a cognitive process"–that means either at the end of Javana or Tadarammana death consciousness will arise. "Or at the dissolution of life continuum"that means after Bhavanga. You can find out that there can be at least four kinds of death thought processes. Actually there are many. From this statement you can get four death thought processes. The first one is at the end of Jevana; death at the end of Tadarammana that is the second one. The third is death at the end of Javana and Bhavanga. The fourth is death at the end of Tadarammana and Bhavanga. There can be these four kinds of death thought processes. There are many more. So death may arise after or at the end of the Javanas or after Tadarammana or after Bhavanga. That death consciousness is the last consciousness in that present life. It is the consummation of the present life, arises and ceases in the way of death - that means by way of death. According to this teaching means arising and disappearance of the last consciousness in one life.

          "Immediately after that (death consciousness) has ceased a rebirth-linking consciousness arises and is established in the subsequent existence." By these words "immediately after death" the author wanted to prevent the opinion that there is an interim life between two lives. It is called Antarabhava in Pali. In Theravada Budhism Antasabhava is accepted. Here since the author belongs to Theravada Buddhism he wants to prevent that from being taken to be true. So immediately after that death consciousness rebirth consicousness arises. There is no time gap between death in one life and rebirth in the next life.

          There may be practical experiences of a person being in something like an interim life. According to Theravada Buddhism that is just one life. That is not an interim period between one life and another. That which is called an interim period is one life. A person dies and then he may be reborn as a g host. He may be living as a ghost for seven days or whatever. He dies then as a ghost and may be reborn as a human being. Theravada Buddhism regards that life as a ghost as just one existence, one Bhava. It is not an interim period between one life and another. But according to the other schools of Buddhism that period is said to be just an interim period. They don't call it a life although the word 'Bhava" is used. Antarabhava–'Antara' means in between so life in between. By the words "immediately after death" the author discarded the opinion that there is an interim period between one life and another. According to the teachings of Theravada Abhidhamma death is immediately followed by rebirth consciousness. As soon as rebirth consciousness arises he is in a new life. So rebirth-linking consciousness arises and is established in the subsequent existence. As soon as the rebirth consciousness arises, he is already in a new life ....... not that rebirth consciousness arises before the new life and then when the new life appears rebirth consciousness has reached its static stage or dissolution stage. So rebirth consciousness immediately after the expiration of death conscisouness comes into being.

          "That rebirth consciousness apprehending the object thus obtained"–that means taking the object which was taken by the thought moments before death moment. "Either supported by the heart base"–that means if he is reborn in the Kamavacara or Rupavacara then his consciousness will have the heart base. If he is to be reborn in the Arupavacara realm then his rebirth consciousness is baseless. It has no base. So the rebirth consciousness is supported by heart base or is without a base.

          It is generated by a volitional formation that is enveloped by latent ignorance and rooted in latent craving as is appropriate." I hope you have the pricture of the diagram in your mind or you can look up the diagram. There is death consciousness and there is rebirth consciousness. That rebirth consciousnes is generated by a volitional formation. Volitional formation just means Kamma. So it is generated by Kamma. "It is enveloped by latent ignorance and rooted in latent craving." In the minds of beings, ignorance Avijja or Moha and craving is always latent. We do not have Tanha at this moment, but it is latent in our minds. So when ther is something desirable, we may have Tanha for that thing. So there is always ignorance and craving latent in our mind.

          If the Kamma is a Kusala Kamma how do you explain ignorance and craving - "enveloped in ignorance and rooted in latent craving"? Actually if it is Kusala Kamma although it is not associated with ignorance and craving since ignorance and craving are latent, it is said to be "enveloped in ignorance and rooted in latent craving." Here with regard to Kusala Kamma their relationship is not association, not Sampayutta, but decisive support, Upanissaya. By a kind of condition called decisive support or Upanissaya Kusala Kamma is supported by ignorance and craving. That means they do not arise at the same time but because there is ignorance and craving there is Kusala Kamma.

          We do Kusala because we have ignorance and we have craving. If we do not have ignorance and craving we don not acquire Kusala like Arahants. Arahants have eradicated all mental defilements including ignorance and craving. So whatever they do just becomes just doing, just Kiriya. So they don't acquire Kusala. But we have craving and ignorance latent in our minds - so not really understanding the true nature of things and being desirous of something we do Kusala. For example we want to be reborn as a human being; we want to be reborn as a celestial being. Therefore we do Kusala. When we do Kusala, that Kusala is supported by ignorance and craving by way of decisive support. They do not arise together, but because there is ignorance and craving there is Kusala. If it is Akusala Kamma we can get both kinds of support - decisive support and support as association, association condition. When you do an Akusala, then ignorance is there and craving may be there. That means it is Lobha Sahagata. If it is Dosa Sahagata, ignorance is association as well as decisive support. Craving is then only decisive support and not association because Lobha does not arise with Dosa Mula Citta. So we have to take it as is appropriate. That means if it is a Kusala Kamma then craving and ignorance support it by decisive support. If it is Akusala Kamma it is coditioned both by way of decisive support and by way of assoication. The Kamma which is "enveloped by ignorance and rooted in latent craving" gernerates or produces the Patisandhi Citta. The Patisandhi Citta is the product of Kamma of the past.

          "That rebirth-linking consciousness, so called because it links together the two consecutive existences, is conjoined with its mental adjuncts,"This is nothing new. Consciousness is always accompanied by Cetasikas. This consciousness is called relinking consciousness because it links together two consecutive existences, the old existence and the new existence. It is called linking, Patisandhi. It is associated with mental factors.

          "....And acts as the forerunner to the conascent states as their locus (or foundation)." This is also not new. Mind or consciousness is the forerunner of other mental states. Forerunner does not mean that mind goes in front and that Cetasikas follow it. But it is called a forerunner because it looks like a forerunner, because it is chief. Cetasikas can only arise when Citta arises. Consciousness is like a foundation, a place for Cetasikas to arise.

          Now in the notes to guide to paragraph 37"The last cognitive process begins when the Bhavanga is interrupted, vibrates for one moment, and then is arrested." He is describing the process.

          "Thereafter follows either a sense-door process taking as object some sense object presenting itself at one of the five sense doors or a bare mind door process taking as object either some sense object or a mental object presenting it self at the mind door. Within this terminal process the Javana phase, by reason of its weakness runs for only five mind moments rather than the usual seven." We will come to that later also.

          "This process lacks original productive Kammic potency, but acts rather as the channel for the past Kamma that has assumed the rebirth-generative function." This is important, you know the death thought process. There are Javanas in the death though process. The question is which produces Patisandhi Citta-Cetana in the death thought process or Kamma in the past. Is it past Kamma or Kamma at the moment of th five Javanas in the death thought process? Here it is said that "the process lacks original productive Kammic potency." So actually we do not call the Cetana associated with the five Cittas in the death thought proces s Kamma. They do not constitute Kamma because it is too weak to be productive of Patisandhi. They "lack the original productive Kammic potency, but act rather as the channel for the past Kamma that has assumed the rebirth-generative function." So they are supportive Kamma.

          You know there are productive Kamma, supportive Kamma and obstructive Kamma. The Kamma in the past is productive Kamma. The Kamma at the moment of the Javanas in the death thought process is supportive. Kamma. So they act as a channel for past Kamma to give results as Patisandhi.

          "Following the Javana stage two registration Cittas (Tadarammana) may or may not follow. In some cases the Bhavanga may follow the last process Cittas. Then the very last Citta, the death consciousness arises performing the function of passing away from the present life. With the ceasing of the death consciousness, the life faculty is cut off. "With the cessation of death consciousness, life faculty is also cut off. Then the body remains a mass of inanimate material phenomena born of temperature (Utu), and continues as such until the corpse is reduced to dust." It is how death occurs.

          "Immediately after that (death consciousness) has ceased. Following the dissolution moment of the death consciousness there arises in a new existence the rebirth-linking consciousness apprehending the object thus obtained in the final Javana process of the previous life." "Apprehending" just means taking, taking the' same object as was taken by the Javanas.

          "This Citta is supported by the heart base in realms which include matter, but is baseless in the inmaterial realms. It is generated by a volitional formation i.e., the Kamma of the previous Javana process (That means Kamma in the past), which in turn is grounded in the twin roots of the round of existence, latent ignorance and latent craving." So that Kamma is enveloped in latent ignorance and that Kamma is rooted in craving. We should understand that to mean that ignorance and craving serve as the decisive support and also as association support.

          "The rebirth consciousness is conjoined with its mental adjusts i.e., the Cetasikas, which it serves as a forerunner not in the sense that it precedes them, but in that it acts as their locus (or foundation)." The one at the moment of the five Javanas as we have learned does not give result or does not generate Patisandhi consciousness. But it is said to throw it down on the object. That means it makes the Patisandhi Citta take the object of the five Javanas in the previous thought process. It helps the Patisandhi Citta; it makes the Patisandhi Citta take the object taken by t he Javanas as object. It is not productive, but it is supportive.

          Let us go to the thought processthe next paragraph. "In the death-proximate cognitive process, only five feebly occurring Javanas should be expected." There are only five Javanas in the death thought process. Now here a person is very close to death, almost at death. At that tiime his body, his material properites, are weak. His heart base is weak. His mind is weak. So the Javanas do not arise seven times as normal, but they arise only for five times.

          "Therefore when death takes place while present objects are occurring..." that means while present objects are existing. ".... and having entered the avenue of sense, then the rebirth-linking and life-continuum ( of the new existence) also take a present object. In the case of a sense-sphere rebirth-linking (Kamavacara Patisandhi), when the object is a sign of Kamma or a sign of destiny perceived at any of the six doors, that object may be present or it may be past." So sign of Kamma may be present or may be past. Sign of destiny may be present or may be past.

          "But Kamma (as object) is only past",because Kamma is past Kamma. It is really past." ... and is perceived only at the mind door." Now the sign of Kamma and the sign of destiny may be of six kinds of objects so they may be presented through the six doors. Kamma is past only and it is presented through mind door only.

          "All these objects (of sense-sphere rebirth) are limited phenomena only." That means they are Kamavacara only. Whether it is Kamma or it is sign of Kamma or it is sign of destiny, it is Kamavacara object only. I hope you remember the objects divided up as Kamavacara objects, Mahaggata objects and Lokuttara object. So Kamavacara Cittas and Cetasikas and Rupa are called Mahaggata objects. Nibbana is called Lokuttara object. The object of the Kamavacara Patisandhi is Kamavacara object.

          Let us look at the chart on page 225. This thought process is just one of many death and rebirth-linking thought processes. Do not take it to be the only death thought process. It is for a man who dies in a Kamavacara realm and who is reborn in a Kamavacara realm. In this example Kamma nimitta is taken as object. It could be Kamma or Gati Nimitta, but here Kamma Nimitta is taken.

          When death arises, there is a death thought process. It begins with Bhavanga first because here the object is present object. So there is past Bhavanga, vibrating Bhavanga, arrested Bhavanga. After that there is Pancadvaravajjana, the mind turning toward the object. And then Sampaticchana, Santiraa and Votthabana (determining) arise. Then there are five Javanas. After the fifth Javana, there is Cuti, death consciousness. That s the end of one life. Immediately after death arises relinking or Patisandhi consciousness. After Patisandhi consciousness there are sixteen moments of Bhavanga. And after the Bhavangas there is another thought process beginning with Manodvaravajjana, and then seven moments of javana and then Bhavanga again. This is the thought process of death and rebirth or how death and rebirth occur.

          The Patisandhi, Bhavanga and Cuti of one life are identical. If the object of Patisandhi is Kamma, then the object of Bhavanga through life is Kamma; the object of death is also Kamma. If it is Kamma Nimitta, it is all Kamma Nimitta. If it is Gati Nimitta it is all Gati Nimitta.

          But in the death thought process beginning with Pancadvaravajjana they take the present visible form as object here. So Javanas also take present visible object as object. The five Javanas take the present visible object as object. When the Patisandhi consciousness arises it takes the present visible object taken by the Javanas in the death thought process. You know a present visible object must last for 17 thought moments. We begin with Atita Bhavanga. We go from Atita Bhavanga 17 thought moments forward. The 17th thought moment falls in the second Bhavanga of the new life. That means the present visible object exists until the second Bhavanga. The person has gone to the next life, but the object remains existing. That Patisandhi of the second life, but the object remainis existing. That Patisandhi of the second life takes the present visible object which was taken by the Javanas. After the second Bhavanga the present visible object disappears. The other Bhavangas take the object which has disappeared or the past visible object disappeared or the past visible object. The object of the death thought process, Patisandhi and two Bhavangas in the new life is the same - the present visible object. The object of the third Bhavanga and other Bhavangas in that particular life onward is the past visible object. The object of the third Bhavanga and other Bhavangas in that particular life onward is the past visible object. Since the visible object is the object of Patisandhi in the scond life, the Bhaangas and Cuti in that life will also take that visible object as object. The difference is only present and past, but it is visible object.

          What is Patisandhi, what constitutes Patisandhi? Patisandhi means Patisandhi consciousness, mental factors and for a human being thirty particles of matter. You will learn about them in the sixth chapter. At the moment of Patisandhi thirty particles of matter along with Patisandhi Citta and Cetasikas arise. Whn we say somebody takes Patisandhi or Patisandhi arises we mean this - Patisandhi Citta, the Cetasikas going along with it and the thirty particles of matter which are produced by Kamma.

          There are four causes of matteryou will learn them in the sixth chapterKamma, consciousness, weather or climate or temperature, and food. They are the four causes of Rupa or matter.

          At the moment of Patisandhi the material properties that arise are the result of Kamma. What we call rebirth for human beings is constituted of Citta, Cetasikas and Rupa born of Kamma.

          The first thought process in the new life begins with Mano-dvaravajjana, seven Javanas and Bhavanga again. They take the new life as object. The object of the first thought process in the new life takes the new life, what we call Patisandhi, as object. Then Bhavanga takes Kamma, Kamma Nimitta or Gati Nimitta as usual.

          So Kamma, Kamma Nimitta and Gati Nimitta in one life is different from those in another life. Although the name of the object is called Kamma, Kamma Nimitta or Gati Nimitta, they are different in their object, in their essence. For example the in life number one let us say is Akusala Kamma, but the object of Patisandhi number two can be Kusala Kamma. Although they are Kamma they are different. The object of Patisandhi number one may be sign of Kamma, but the object of Patisandhi number two may be a different sign of Kamma or sign of destiny or Kamma. Kamma, Kamma Nimitta or Gati Nimitta of one life is different. from Kamma, Kamma Nimitta or Gati Nimitta of another life. There is always difference in Kamma, Kamma Nimitta and Gati Nimitta in every life.

          What is important to remember in this thought process is that Patisandhi is not the result of Cuti. That we must understand. Many people fall into this error. They say Patisandhi is produced by Cuti. Actually Patisandhi is produced by Kamma. Which Kamma? Kamma in the past, not even Kamma at the five Javana moments. It is produced by past Kamma. Past Kamma means it may be in the long past or it may be just the close past. That means it may be Kamma acquired before this death thought process. Before this death thought process there are other thought processes going on and on like a stream of consciousness. At those times there is Kamma. That Kamma is also past. patisandhi is produced by past Kamma, it is not produced by Cuti.

          But we can say that Patisandhi Citta, Patisandhi consciousness is conditioned by Cuti. That condition is proximity. It is called proximity condition - in other words giving place to. If death consciousness does not appear, Patisandhi cannot arise. Death consciousness is a condition for Patisandhi consxdiousness to arise. In that sense Patisandhi consciousness. It is not caused by but just gives place to as a condition.

          In order for you to sit in this place I will vacate this place. So I am a condition for you to be here. It is like that. This should be firmly born in mind because many people make this error of saying Patisandhi is caused by Cuti Citta. Cuti Citta is a Vipaka Citta. As a Vipaka Citta it cannot give result. It is a result of other Kamma and so it does not have the power to give results. But it can be called a condition according to Patthana because it arises and disappears before the Patisandhi Citta arises. So there can be no identical Kamma, Kamma Nimitta or Gati Nimitta for all existences, for all lives. The Kamma, Kamma Nimitta or Gati Nimitta of one life is different from Kamma, Kamma Nimitta or Gati Nimitta of all other lives.
I want you to turn to page 224. "In the case of a sense-sphere rebirth-linking, etc: If the object of the rebirth consciousness is a Kamma, then it is necessarily past and must be a mental object apprehended at the mind door." It is presented through the mind door.

          "If the object is a sign of Kamma, then it can be apprehended at any of the six doors and may be either past or present." Until this it is OK.

          "In the case of the sign of destiny as object (Gati Nimitta), different teachers advance conflicting interpretations. Some commentators including the author of the Vibhavini-Tika, hold that the sign of destiny is necessarily a present visible form (visible object) apprehended at the mind door." so according to that Tika the sign of destiny is a present visible object. It is taken through mind door, not through eye door. You do not see the sign with your eyes. You see the sign with your mind.

          "They interpret Acariya Anuruddha's statement in the text (That is the manual.), as meaning : "When the object is a sign of Kamma, it may be perceived at any of the six doors and may be present or past; when it i s a sign of destiny it is perceived at the sixth door, i.e. the mind door and is present." In the origingal Pali 'Chadvaragahitam' is used. This word means literally apprehended by or taken by six doors. But it can be interpreted to mean by the sixth door also. So the Vibhavini-Tika takes it to mean by the sixth door. According to the Vibhavini-Tika the Gati Nimitta is always present visible object presented through mind door.

          "Other commentators, including Ledi Sauadaw, reject this interpretation as forced and too narrow. They argue that Acariya Anuruddha must be taken at his word as holding the wider view that the sign of destiny can be past or present and may appear at any of the six doors." So according to these teachers Gati Nimitta is the same as Kamma Nimitta. It can be six kinds of objects. It can come through six sense doors.

          "Ledi Sayadaw asserts that when the Abhidhamma texts commonly speak of the sign of destiny as a present visible object appearing at the mind door, this is said by way of its usual manifestation, but does not mean that it does not become manifest in other ways, for example, as the groans of those in hell or as celestial music or fragrance etc." Gati Nimitta may not be visible object only, but it may be audible object or smell and so on.

          There is a story of Dhammika Upasaka in the Dhammapada. When he was about to die the sign of destiny appeared to him That sign of destiny was the chariots form the six Deva Lokas. They each asked him to get into their respective chariots saying, "Please step into our chariot so we may take you to our realm." He saw those signs. He also heard because the Devas were asking him to step into their chariots. There Gati Nimitta is not just visible object, but there it is also audible object. He may have also smelled celestial flowers. I don't that. So the other commentators including Ledi presented through the six sense doors.

          In Abhidhamma or in the teachings of the Buddha there is no transferring of anything from one life to the other life. Now the Patisandhi Citta arises and it arises as a result of Kamma in the past. It is not something carried over to the next life. That is what Abhidhamma teaches. So there are similes to explain this - the simile of an echo, the simile of a lamp, the simile of a seal. That means Patisandhi Citta arises not without a cause. Patisandhi Citta is n ot the cause; it is the result of the cause. When you shout into a cave then the echo comes back. The echo is not your voice, but without your voice there can be no echo. In the same way Patisandhi does not belong to the past lives, but it coes into being because of something in the past.

          It is like an oil lamp. You light your lamp from another oil lamp. Your flame is not the same as the other one. That flame does not come into being however without the flame of the old lamp.

          There is also the simile of the seal. When you put the seal on the paper, the impression of the seal is there. That impression transfers to the paper. Without that seal there can be no impression. So in the same way what arises in the new life is not totally disconnected from something in the past life. Not any one of the past lives is carried over to the next life. That is how we explain this. Whatever arises at the moment of Patisandhi according to this teaching is the result of Kamma in the past - not something taken over to a new life. But there is a kind of continuity going on. So in conventional terms we say a person is reborn. For example we say a Bodhisatta is reborn as a king. The Bodhisatta reborn as a human being, as a Deva or as an animal. Nothing in the past life is taken over to the next life. Something in the past life causes something to arise in the new life. Since it is the result of the cause, it may possess some of the qualities of the cause–not that the qualities are taken over or transferred to the next life. They are themselves the results.

          It is like when you grow a mango tree, you get mango fruit. In the same way the result in the next life is similar to the causes in the past lives. This is how we should understand this life and the next life.

Sadhu! Sadhu! Sadhu!

You may have questions.

Student: Inaudible.
Sayadaw: As I said before the qualities of the cause are produced in the effect not that the qualities are transferred. Something produced by a mango seed and something produced by a plum seed are different. Something produced by mango seed is mango fruit. Something produced by plum seed is plum fruit and so on. We say we accumulate Paramis. The Paramis do not move to another life. The Paramis are Kamma actually. As a result of that Kamma there arises reult in the future. That result possesses the result of the past Kamma. So it is like the potential is carried over, but it is not carried over actually. One cause produces an effect. Another cause produces another effect and so on.

Student : During your lecture tonight you were referring to latent craving and latent ignorance. I can understand how craving can be latent, but please explain how ignorance can be latent.
Sayadaw: Ignorance means not just the absence of knowledge. It is understanding wrongly. It has the characteristic of covering up the true nature. Because this covering up of the true nature is with us, we fail to see the true nature of things. And so it is said to be with us always. It is like an underlying phenomenon.

[January 8, 1997
4675 Armour Drive
Santa Clara, Calif.
Venerable U Silananda & Venerable U Nandisena:
 In the second tape on the death and rebirth process there was a short space where a student, Tam Pham, raised a question which was difficult to understand and was not resolved in the talk. I believe that he had observed a mistake on the handouts entitled 'Cutis followed by Patisandhis for Puthujjanas. 'If I understand correctly this chart is for those who die as Pthujjanas and are reborn as Puthujjanas. Therefore they cannot be reborn in the Suddhavasa. In the chart for Puthujjanas in Vehapphala, for example, "New Bhumi" should be 5-22, 28-31 . Instead of this it presently shows 5-31. This is also true for Subhakinha, Appamana-subha, Paritta-subha, Abhassara, Appamanabha, Parittabha, Maha-brahma, Brahma-purohita, Brahma-parisajja, Paranimmita-vasa vatti, Nimmana- rati, Tusita, Yama, Tavatimsa, Catummaharajika and Manussa. They all include Suddhavasa which should be omitted as this chart is for Puthujjanas only.
 I believe my understanding is correct. Please let me know if I have misunderstood. I felt you would want to correct those charts and let others know. Thank you for your patience.

With Metta,

 The date of the tape was August 1, 1995. Our older handouts had the same error.]

Tape# 28
Chapter 5 (F)

Death & Rebirth (Part 2)

          We will go back to page 223 paragraph 38. It is about the death relinking process. In the death-relinking process the Javanas only occur five times because they are weak at this moment. ''When death takes place while present objects are occuring and have entered the avenue of sense, then the rebirth-linking and life-continuum (of the new existence) also take a present object.'' The object taken by the last process, the death thought process can be present or past: This diagram shows the object that is present. This diagram is just one of the many death relinking thought processes that is possible. This diagram is the present visible object as Kamma Nimitta. Since it is present visible object it lasts for 17 thought moments. But if we count from its arising there are only 14 moments. There are only 14 thought moments in life number one. We may call it the present life. Then after death or Cuti in that life there arises relinking. In this thought process Pancadvaravajjana and Javanas take this object, this present object as object. But Cuti takes the object taken by the Patisandhi and Bhavangas in this life. That means Cuti takes the same object as Patisandhi and Bhavanga take in this lifeKamma, Kamma Nimitta and Gati Nimitta. But the Patisandhi in the next life immediately takes the present object because it is still present - the present object as object. Not only Patisandhi but the two Bhavanga moments also take the present object as object because the present visible object lasts until the second Bhavanga. When death takes place the present object which has entered the avenue of the senses is still existing. So in this case the present visible object is taken by Patisandhi and the two Bhavangas that follow as present visible object.

          After the second Bhavanga the present object disappears. The third Bhavanga takes this object, but not as present object. It is a past object, the visible object which is past. Beginning with Bhavanga 3 through Bhavanga 16 the object taken is the visible object which as now past.

''Therefore the object of sense-sphere relinking (that means the object of Manavacara Patisandhi.) is a sign of destiny or a sign of Kamma which may be present or past and which is taken through one of the six doors.''

After the 16th Bhavanga there is a thought process beginning with Manodvaravajjana and then Javanas. These Javanas are called Bhava Nikanti - that means attachment to existence. These Javanas are Lobha Mula cittas. There are seven moments of Javana and then Bhavanga again. In this next life the Patisandhi takes the present visible object as object. The Bhavanga after the present visible object disappears take the past visible object as object. And Cuti also takes past visible object as object. We can say that the object of Patisandhi, Bhavanga and Cuti is the same. The only difference is that for three moments the object is present and for the others it is past.

While Kamma Nimitta and Gati Nimitta can be presented through any of the six doors and they can be present or past, Kamma is always past and it is presented only through the mid door. That is the difference. Kamma is past and it is presented through mid door. Kamma Nimitta and Gati Nimitta are of the six kinds of objects taken through six sense doors, and they can be present or past.

If you can put colors like this, it will become more easily understood because the color identifies the same things. So the Patisandhi, Bhavanga and Cuti of life number one take the same Kamma, Kamma Nimitta or Gati Nimitta as object. Patisandhi in the next life in the example takes the present visible object as object. The two Bhavanga also take present visible object. Beginning with the third Bhavanga and all Bhavanga thereafter in life number two, and Cuti as well, take the past visible object as object. Therefore the object of Cuti in one life is not the same as the object of Patisandhi in next life.

Then Manodvaravajjana and the seven Javanas take the Patisandhi as object. Patisandhi here means not only Patisandhi Citta but also Cetasikas that accompany it and Rupa born of Kamma. In the sixth chapter you will study material properties. There are some material properties that are born of, or that are produced by Kamma and those that are born of Citta, and others that are born of temperature, and those that are born of Ahara or food. At the moment of conception as a human being let us say there arise the Patisandhi Citta which is a Vipaka Citta (Kamavacara Vipaka or Santirana), and then Cetasikas going along with it, and then thirty particles of matter. There are thirty kinds of material properties arising. So here by Patisandhi we mean Patisandhi Citta, Cetasikas accompanying it, and Rupa born of Kamma. There are thirty kinds of material properties for human beings and for others born out of the womb of a mother. So in the new life the first Javana process takes the Patisandhi as object. These Javanas are always Lobha Mula Cittas.

On the next page (I read it last time also.) with regard to the sign of destiny there is a difference of opinion amongst teachers. It is said in the book, '' In the case of the sign of destiny as object, different teachers advance conflicting interpretations. Some commentators, including the author of the Vibhavini-Tika (That is the usual Tika on the Abhidhammatthasangaha.), hold that the sign of destiny is necessarily a present visible form apprehended at the mind door.'' That Vibhavini-Tika takes the sign of destiny to be only Rupa, only visible object. It is presented, it is taken only through mind door.

'' They interpret Acariya Anurusdha's statement in the text as meaning: '' When the object is a sign of Kamma it may be perceived at any of the six doors and may be present or past; when it is a sign of destiny it is perceived at the sixth door,i.e., the mind door and is present.'' '' The reading as we find it can mean anything, not necessarily as interpretted by the Vibhavini-Tika. So we can have another interpretation of it. The other teachers do not accept that interpretation.

''Other commentators, including Ledi Sayadaw, reject this interpretation as forced and too narrow. They argue that Acariya Anuruddha must be taken at his word as holding the wider view that the sign of destiny can be past or present and may appear at any of the six doors.'' This is the view taken by Ledi Sayadaw and other ancient commentators as well.

''Ledi Sayadaw asserts that when the ABhidhamma texts commonly speak of the sign of destiny as a present visible object appearing at the mind door, this is said by way of its usual manifestation. What Sayadaw meant is that it must be taken as a general statement.'' .. But does not mean that it does not become manifest in other ways,''that means not only Rupa.'' … For example, as the groans of those in hell'that means sound'' or as celestial music or fragrance etc.'' They can also be signs of destiny according to Ledi Sayadaw.

          In the story of the father of Sona which I told you last time, first he saw the flowers. That is Kamma Nimitta. Then later on he saw the celestial nymphs. And he may have experienced the fragrance of the celestial flowers. And also in the story of Dhammika. Upasika the sign of destiny appeared to him in the form of celestial beings coming to him in celestial chariots. And then they asked him to step into their respective chariots. So according to Ledi Sayadaw the sign of destiny can be of any kind and taken through any of the six sense doors.

          This is the Kamavacara death and the Kamavacara Patisandhi. Next is Rupavacara Patisandhi and Rupavacara rebirth consciousness. '' In the case of rebirth-linking in the fine-material sphere, the object is a concept and is always a sign of Kamma. '' When a person practices meditation to get Jhana, he takes the Kasina object, the corpses, or beings and so on as object. When he takes them as object they later become what is called counterpart sign. Counterpart sign means the exact replica of what he is contemplating on. In the case of the earth Kasina for example, at first it is the real earth Kasina, He contemplates on it as '' earth, earth, earth'' again, again and again. Then after some time he is able to memorize the image. So he could see the uimage in his mind's eye without looking at the disk. Then he dwells upon that sign again, again and again until that sign becomes free from blemishes, shining like the disk of the moon and so on. At that time it becomes a Pannatti. First it is an earth Kasina; so when he saya ' earth, earth' it is a Paramattha, ultimate reality. Later on it becomes an image. so it is Pannatti. Dwelling on that Pannatti, taking that Pannatti as object, Jhana arises. His Jhana takes that Pannatti, that concept as object. At the time of death that Pannatti is taken as the object of that death-relinking process. In the case of rebirth-linking in the immaterial sphere, the object is a concept. As a result of Jhana attained in this life, the object of that Jhana appears to him at death. Immediately after death as a result of that Jhana he is reborn in the Rupavacara realm. His relinking consciousness is Rupavacara Vipaka. Since Rupavacara Kusala and Rupavacara Vipaka take the same object, the object of Rupavacara Vipaka which is Patisandhi there is also the concept. So in the case of rebirth-linking in fine material sphere, Rupavacara Sphere, the object is a concept. It is always a sign of Kamma. That object is called a sign of Kamma, not sign of destiny and not Kamma itself.

          "So too, in the case of rebirth-linking in the immaterial sphere, the object which may be a sublime state or a conceptwhich ever is appropriateis always a sign of Kamma.'' The object of Arupavacara Patisandhi is also a sign of Kamma. But here the sign of Kamma may be ultimate reality or a concept. You know that the object of first Arupavacara Kusala is the concept of infinite space. The third Arupavacara Kusala object is the nothingness of the first Arupavacara Kusala. When Arupavacara Vipaka arises as a result of Arupavacara Kusala, it takes the same object. The object of the first Arupavacara Patisandhi is the concept of infinite space. The object of the third Arupavacara Patisandhi is the concept of the nothingness of the first Arupavacara Citta. In the case of the first and the third Arupavacara Patisandhis the object is concept.

          But the object of the second Arupavacara Kusala is the first Arupavacara Citta. The object of the fourth Arupavacara Kusala is th e third Arupavacara Kusala Citta. In that case the object of Arupavacara is Mahaggata because Rupavacara and Arupavacara Cittas are called Mahaggata Cittas. So in the case of second and fourth Arupavacara Patisandhi the object is Paramattha, the object is ultimate reality which is called here Mahaggata. The object of Arupavacara Patisandhis in general is a subltme state, a Mahaggata, or a concept as the case may be. It is always a sign of Kamma or Kamma Nimitta. The object of Rupavacara and Arupavacara Patisandhi is always Kamma Nimitta, sign of Kamma. The object of Arupavacara Patisandhi is some concept and some Paramattha, some ultimate reality or here some Mahaggata.

          Now mindless beings"In the case of non-percipient beings (in the case of mindless beings), only the vital nonad becomes established in the way of rebirth-linking." That means only that group of Rupa becomes Patisandhi. For them Patisandhi has no Citta. For mindless beings Patisandhi means just the nine material properties. They are called materially reborn or beings that have matter as Patisandhi. So no Cittas or Cetasikas arise for these beings. They are reborn there like statues. The difference between a statue and these beings is that have this Jivita, life faculty, while the ordinary statues have no life faculty.

"Those in immaterial planes are called mentally reborn"that is those in Arupavacara who have Arupa as Patisandhi or who have non-matter as Patisandhi.

          "The rest are called materially and mentally reborn." The rest as human beings and Devas are called mentally and materially reborn or those who have Rupa as wellas Arupa as Patisandhi. there are beings whose Patisandhis just consist of Nama. There are beings whose Patisandhis just consist of Rupa. There are others who have Patisandhis which consists of both Nana ans Rupa.

          We come to what rebirth follows what Cutiwhere beings can be reborn after death from certain realms or existences. The information given in the manual itself (I mean the original Pali manuscript) is general information. It is not detailed.

          We have made a detailed chart. First let us understand this general statement. The translation of the first verse is not quite good, but I think it is alright.

          "When one passes away from an immaterial realm, one may be reborn in superior immaterial realms but not in lower immaterial realms,"so here what to ask is what about the same realm. It doesn't say anything about the same realm. But in the guide, in the explanation on the next it is correct. And also here one word is misunderstood. The Pali word 'Puram' does not mean 'superior'. It means after - so after the Arupavacara Cuti. like that. After the Arupavacara Cuti there are Arupavacara Patisandhis except lower Arupavacara Patisandhis. That means those born in Arupavacara realms are not reborn in lower Brahma worlds. They may be reborn in same realm or also in a highter realm. That is for those who from Arupavacara realms. Why? Because when they get Arupavacara Jhanas, the lower Jhanas disappear. Since the lower Jhanas disappear they don't get the lower Jhanas once they get to the Arupavacara realm. They cannot practice lower Jhanas there. Since they do not get lower Jhanas there, they are not reborn in lower Brahma worlds. If they are reborn they are born in the same realm or in the upper realms.

          And also not only that, they can be reborn in the Kamavacara plane with Tihetuka Patisandhi. After death in Arupavacara what Patisandhi can follow. We will come to that later when we read the chart. So four Arupavacara Patisandhis and then four Kamavacara Patisandhis accompanied by three roots.

          Why cannot they be reborn in Rupavacara ? It may be difficult to understand. It means that they lost Jhanas there. As a result of the Jhana they got as human beings or as Devas, they are reborn in Arupavacara realm. In the Arupavacara realm they lost their Jhanas. Since they lost their Jhanas, they could not be reborn inthe Brahma realm, for those who lose Jhanas there. So they come back to Kamavacara realm. When they come back to Kamavacara realm their rebirth is one of the three rooted Kamavacara rebirths, one of the Tihetuka Cittas. Why not Dvihetuka, one of the two roots ? In the explanation it is said if they fall away from their Jhana attainmentthat means if they lose Jhana therethey are reborn in the sensuous plane by the power of their access concentration. This access concentration is not in the Arupavacara realm. access concentration here does not mean in the Arupavacara realm because if there is access concentration there, then there is always Jhana. But they lose Jhana there. They fall away from Jhana there. the access concentration mentioned here belongs to a previous life. So when they get Jhana as a human being let us say, in the process of Jhana you have Parikamma, Upacara, Anuloma and Gotrabhu. They are called acciss concen­tration. Before that also what they get is also called access concentration. As a result of those access concentration moments or as a result of Kamma, they are reborn in the Kamavacara realm with three root Patisandhi, not two roots. This is because the access concentration which they achieved in previovs lives was strong. Access concentration is very strong. Because of the power of their access concentration in their previous lives, that is before they are reborn as Arupavacara. Brahmas, they are reborn with three roots, not two roots and not without roots. So one may be also reborn in the sensuous plane with three root rebirth consciousness.

          "When one passes away from the fine-material sphere (from the Arupavacara realm) , one is not reborn without roots." A Brahma cannot be reborn as a human being or as a Deva with two roots. Also a Brahma cannot be reborn with no roots. So a Brahma cannot be directly reborn as an animal.

          There is a story in the Dhammapada where when the Buddha saw a pig he smiled. Ananda asked why he smiled. The Buddha said, "That was once a Brahma." That does not mean she was reborn directly as a pig from Brahma world, but indirectly. That means maybe first she was reborn as a human being and then later reborn as a pig. So a Brahma may not be reborn directly from Arupavacara into human world as a two root or no root being. And a Brahma cannot be directly reborn in the four woeful states.

          "When one passes away from the fine-material sphere, one is not reborn without roots. After passing away from a three-rooted existence in the sevsuous plane," - that is Kamavacara, so after Kamavacara Cuti with three roots "one may be reborn anywhere." That is the power of human beings. A human being can be reborn in the fourth Arupavacara plane, the highest plane or in the lowest hell, that is Avici. A human being with three root rebirth consciousness can be reborn anywhere in the 31 planes of existence. He can go up to the top of the planes or he can go down to the bottom of the planes. " After passing away from A three-rooted existence in the sensuous plane, one may be reborn anywhere."

          "The rest (i. e. those who pass away with two roots and no roots) are reborn only in the sense-sphere realms." Who are those who pass away with two roots ? Some human beings and some Devas. Who are those that pass away with no roots ? Those of the four woeful states. They are reborn only in sense-sphere realms. They are reborn only in Kamavacara worlds. They can be reborn with Patisandhi of either two or three roots in Kamavacara only.

          So this is a brief statement. It doesn't mention the difference of Patisandhis for those who are Puthujjanas and for those who are Ariyas or who are enlightened. We have to find out for Puthujjanas and for those who have gained enlightenment.

          "In the case of Noble Disciples there can be no regression from a superior type of death consciousness to an inferior type of rebirth consciousness." For Noble Disciples there can be no going down. "There can be no regression from a superior type of death consciousness to an inferior type of rebirth consciousness." So when they are reborn their rebirth consciousness will be three root Patisandhi.

          "All Noble Disciples pass away with a three-rooted death consciousness, since without three roots it is impossible to have attained the path and fruit." All those Noble Persons or all those who have gained enlightenment die with three-rooted death consciousness.

"Noble Disciples still in training"that means Sotapannas, Sakadagamis and Anagamis"re-arise either in the same plane or in a superior plane." What do you think of that? Can you agree with that ? Yes ? What about Sakadagamis? A Sakadagami dies here and then is reborn as a Deva and then he comes back to Manussa Loka, I mean as a human being. That is why he is called a Sakadagami, a once-returner. But if you take rebirth as a human being and rebirth as a Deva as the same, it may be OK. Actually this sentence applies to Brahmas only. Brahmas are not reborn in a lower plane.

          We must be careful. When it says plane it is one thing. When it says rebirth consciousness it is another. They acquire the same kind of rebirth conscious­ness or a superior one. This is for Noble Disciples. They acquire either the same type of rebirth consciousness or a superior one.

          ''Of course, those who have reached the path and fruit of Arahantship do not take rebirth in any plane after death.'' There is a saying in the commentaries and in other treatises that in the scheme of 31 planes of existence there are three planes that are called Settha Bhavaexcellent planes. There are three excellent planes among the 31 planes of existence. They are Vehapphala, Akanittha and Nevassanna-nasannayatana. So these three are called excellent realms or excellent planes. It is said that a Noble Person born there will not be reborn in another plane. For example a Noble Person who is reborn in Vehapphala will not be reborn in another plane. If he is going to be reborn he will be reborn in that same plane. He will definitely become an Arahant and attain Parinibbana. Also a Noble Disciple who is reborn in the top most realm will not be reborn. So they are called three excellent planes or three excellent existences.
          In the five abodes of pure beings, the Suddhavasa, they will not be reborn again in their respective realms. They will be reborn in higher planes.

          There is one thing mentioned in the Sammohavinodani and that is that Sotapannas and Sakadagamis when they are reborn in Rupavacara plane, they will not come back here to the Kamavacara plane. They will attain Parinibbana there in the Rupavacara plane. So although Sotapannas have seven rebirths and Sakadagamis let us say have one or two rebirths, If they are reborn in the Rupavacara plane they will not come back here. A Sotapanna who is reborn in Rupavacara and maybe will go up, up,up. He will not come down to Kamavacara plane. They are termed Jhana Anagamis. They do not come back here by the power of Jhana. They are not real, true Anagamis, but they are called Jhana Anagamis.

          Now let us go to the chart. It is very detailed. Cut is followed by Patisandhisthe first few pages are for Puthujjanas, worldings. A Puthujjana who dies from the fourth plane itself and also he can be reborn in human world and six Deva worlds. So a person who dies from fourth Arupavacara plane cannot be reborn as a Rupavacara Brahma. He will be reborn in fourth Arupavacara plane or if he loses Jhana then he will be reborn in the Kamavacara plane, Kama Sugati, human beings through Paranimmita-vasavatti, number 5-11. The chart shows ' persent Bhumi ' - that means in this life, and Patisandhi Citta is in the new life or next life.

          Now third Arupavacaraa person who dies from third Arupavacara plane dies with a third Arupavacara Cuti itta. He can be reborn in thierd and fourth Arupavacara realms. Also if he loses Jhana he can be reborn in the Kama Sugati, 5-11. The Patisandhi Citta will be third Arupavacara Vipaka, fourth Arupavacara Bipaka nd Kamavacara Bipaka accompanied by there roots.

          A person dying from second Arupavacara realm, he dies with second Arupavacara Vipaka as Cuti Citta. He can be reborn with the second, third and fourth Arupavacara Vipaka as Patisandhi Citta or he may be reborn in Kamavacara Sugati with three root Kamavacara Vipaka as Patisandhi.

          Now first Arupavacaraa person dying from first Arupavacara plane dies with first Arupavacara Vipaka. He may be reborn with all four Arupavacara Vipakas because he can be reborn in the same realm or in the upper realms. He can be reborn in all four Arupavacaraa realms or he may be reborn in the Kama Sugati. The Patisandhi Cittas are first through fourth Arupavacara Vipakas and Kamavacara Vipaka four accompanied by three roots.

          Realms 23-27 do not apply. In the books they are omitted. I wanted to put in all 31 planes, but these planes do not apply here. Only Anagamis are reborn in these realms. There are no Puthujjanas. Now we are talking about Puthujjanas so they do not apply here.

          Number 22 Asanna-satta, mindless beings - they have no Cuti Citta. Their Cuti is matter only. They can be reborn in Kama Sugati. Their Patisandhi Cittaa may be either two root or three root Kamavacara Vipaka. They will not be reborn with no root Kamavacara Vipaka because of the power of their Jhana. They are not reborn in the four woeful states and they are not reborn as human beings with rootless Patisandhi.

          Now Vehapphalawhen Brahmas die from Vehapphala they die with fifth Rupavacara Vipaka as Cuti Citta. They can be reborn in all realms except the four states. If they remain Puthujjanas they cannot be reborn in five pure abodes as they must be Anagamis to realize rebirth in those realms. They may as Puthujjanas develop Jhanas and attain rebirth as Arupavacara Brahmas or develop fifth Jhana in a special way and attain rebirth as Asanna-satta.

          The beings of Subhakinha die with fourth Rupavacara Vipaka. The same here. They cannot be reborn in 23-27. They can be reborn in planes 5-22 and planes 28-31. Appamana Subha is the same. All these beginning with Brahma-parisajja are the same. These beings can be born in planes 5-22 or planes 28-31. The difference is only the Cuti consciousness. Number 20,19 and 18 have fourth Rupavacara Vipaka as Cuti as consciousness. Number 12, 13 & 14 have first Rupavacara Vipaka as consciousness. The new Bhumi should be 5-22 and 28-31.

          Now Paranmmita-vasavattithis is the highest of the six Deva realms. Those who die with two-root Kamavacara Vipaka, those not accompanied, may be reborn in realms 1-11, all Kamavacara realms. The Patisandhi Cittas may be Santiranas two or Kamavacara Vipaka eight, either two or three root. After three root Kamavacara Vipaka four they can be reborn in all realms because they are three root Kamavacara Cuti. After three root Kamavacara Cutis there are all possibilities.

          The rest down to Catummaharajika are the same. After two root Kamavacara Vipaka the new Bhumi is all Kamavacara Bhumis. And the Patisandhi is Santirana two, two or three root Kamavacara Vipaka eight. After Kamavacara Vipaka four with three roots there are all possibilities.

          With regard to Catummaharajika and human beings dying with Kusala Vipaka Santirana, that is no root Cuti, they may be reborn in 1-11. They may be reborn with Patisandhis that are two Santiranas and eight Kamavacara Vipakas. After two root Kamavacara four there are all possibilities.

          The statement is true generally. The chart that is being described is for Puthujjanas only, so planes 23-27 should be excepted.

          Now the Asura-kaya, that is one of the four woeful states. Their Cuti Citta is Akussala Vipaka Santirana accompanied by Upekkha. They can be reborn in 1-11. Their Patisandhi Citta may be the two Santiranas and the eight Kamavacara Vipakas. The same is true for the other three-Petti-visaya, Tiracchana-yoni and Niraya.

          By consulting this chart we can understand which Patisandhi can follow which Cuti. We can also understand where they can be reborn. A person who is born in hell can be reborn in hell again or in other woeful states, or in human realm or in one of the six Deva realms. A person who is reborn in hell can even go up to Deva realm. This chart is for Puthujjanas.

          Now for Ariyas. The words 'present' and 'now' should be moved (on the chart). It should be 'present Bhumi' and 'new Bhumi', not 'present Cuti Citta' and 'new Patisandhi Citta'.

          An enlightened person who dies from the fourth Arupavacara realm may be reborn again in the fourth Arupavacara realm or he will become an Arahant and not be reborn in any plane. He can be reborn only in fourth Arupavacara realm so his Patisandhi Citta will be fourth Arupavacara Vipaka only.

An Ariya who dies from third Arupavacara plane dies with third Arupavacara Vipaka Cuti Citta. He can be reborn in plane 30 or 31. The Patisandhis there are respectively third and fourth Arupavacara Vipaka Citta.

          An Ariya who dies from second Arupavacara realm with Cuti Citta that is second Arupavacara Vipaka can be reborn in realms 29-31. The Patisandhi Cittas are second, third and fourth Arupavacara Vipaka respectively.

          An Ariya dying from first Arupavacara plane has first Arupavacara Vipaka Citta as Cuti. He can be reborn in realms 28-31. And so the Patisandhi Cittas are first through fourth Arupavacara Vipakas.

          From Akanittha there is no rebirth. A person who dies from Akanittha dies with fifth Rupavacara Vipaka as Cuti. There is no rebirth for him. He becomes an Arahant in that realm.
          A person from Sudassi, his Cuti Citta is fifth Arupavacara Citta. He may be reborn in a higher plane, so #27. The Patisandhi Citta is fifth Arupavacara Vipaka.

          A person from Sudassa, his Cuti Citta is fifth Arupavacara Citta and he can be reborn in two higher planes, #26 or 27. The Patisandhi Citta is fifth Arupavacara Vipaka.

          And Atappaa person dying from Atappa can be reborn in planes 25, 26 & 27. The Cuti Citta and Patisandhi Citta with be fifth Arupavacara Vipaka.

          The person dying from Aviha can be reborn in 24-27. His Patisandhi Citta is fifth Arupavacara Vipaka.

          Asanna-satta does not apply because there are no enlightened persons in that realm.

          An Ariya dying from Vehapphala can be reborn in Vehapphala only because it is one of the excellent planes. It is said that an Ariya who is reborn in Vehapphala, Akanittha and fourth Arupavacara realm are not reborn anywhere. He may be reborn in Vehapphala itself only.

          An Ariya dying from Subhakinha has a Cuti Citta which is fourth Arupavacara Vipaka. He may be reborn in realms 20, 21, 23-31. The Patisandhi Citta would be fourth or fifth Rupavacara Vipaka or the four Arupavacara Vipaka.

          Appamana-subhaan Ariya dying from Appamana-subha can be reborn in Appamana- subha again and also higher planes, so 19-21, 23-31. There is no 22. His Patisandhi would he fourth or fifth Rupavacara Vipaka or one of the four Arupavacara Vipaka.

          A person dying from Paritta-subha has fourth Rupavacara Vipaka as Cuti. He may be reborn Paritta-subha itself and also 19-12 and then 23-31.

          An Ariya dying from Abhassara may have Cuti Citta that is either second or third Rupavacara Vipaka. He can be reborn in realms 17-21, 23-31. The Patisandhi Cittas are second through fifth Rupavacara Vipaka or they may be four Arupavacara Vipaka Cittas.

          Appamanabhaan Ariya dying from Appamanabha dies with the second or third Arupavacara Vipaka. He may be reborn in 16-21 and 23-31. The Patisandhi Cittas are second through fifth Rupavacara Vipaka and four Arupavacara Vipaka.
          An Ariya who dies in Parittabha may have second or third Rupavacara Vipaka as Cuti Citta. He can be reborn in Parittabha again or in the upper realms with the exception of Asanna-satta.

          And Maha-brahmaan Ariya dying from Maha - brahma will die with first Rupavacara Vipaka as Cuti consciousness. He can be reborn in # 14 itself and then upper realms except Asanna-satta. His Patisandhi consciousness is first through fifth Rupavacara Vipaka or Arupavacara Vipaka four.

          Brahma-purohitathose dying from Brahma-purohita can be reborn in # 13 itself and then the upper ones.

          Those dying from Brahma-parisajja again can be reborn in # 12 itself and upper planes, except Asanna-satta. Patisandhi Citta is First through fifth Rupavacara Vipaka or Arupavacara Vipaka four.

          Now Paranimmita-vasavatti, the highest of the Deva realms - since they are Ariyas they die only with three root Kamavacara Vipaka, no two root. They may be reborn from human world, # 5 through # 21 and also 23-31. Their Patisandhi may be three root Kamavacara Vipaka four, Rupavacara Vipaka five and Arupavacara Vipaka four.

          The same is true for the lower Deva worlds down through the Catummaharajika.

          And then human beings, human beings as enlightened persons, so three root Kamavacara Vipaka four is their Cuti Citta. They can be reborn as human beings or other beings in realms 5-21 and 23-31. Their Patisandhi consciousness is Kamavacara Vipaka four, Rupavacara Vipaka five and Arupavacara Vipaka four. The four woeful states do not apply here because these are enlightened persons only.

          These are the Cutis and what Patisandhis may follow. From this chart we may know where a person can be reborn.

          Let us go to page 228, Continuity of Consciousness. This paragraph shows that the flow of consciousness goes on, and on, and on, like the wheel of a car. '' So for those who have thus taken rebirth, from the moment immediately following the cessation of the rebirth-linking (consciousness), that same type of consciousness apprehending that same object flows on uninterruptedly'',that means if the Patisandhi Citta is the first Kamavacara Vipaka then that first Kamavacara Vipaka Citta is repeated taking the same object as the Patisandhi. '' It flows on uninterruptedly like the stream of a river,'like the stream of a river this flows on and on. '' And it does so until the arising of the death consciousness,''so until death the Bhavanga flows.

          ''So long as there is no occurence of a cognitive process.'' Actually Bhavanga does not flow uninterruptedly. When it flows, it flows uninterruptedly, but there are active thought processes arising in between the flows of Bhavanga. Although it says '' it flows uninterruptedly, like the stream of a river'' actually there is interruption. Whenever there is the cognitive process, whenever there is Vithi Cittas Bhavanga flow stops. After the Vithi Cittas have expired the Bhavanga takes up again. In one life we have Bhavangas and we have Vithi Cittas belonging to thought processes - then Bhavanga Cittas, Vithi Cittas, Bhavanga Cittas and so on.

          “Being an essential factor of existence (or life) this consciousness is called the life-continuum.” The Citta which let us say arises uniterruptedly all thought lifethat means there are no cognitive processesthat process is called life-continuum becausee it is an essential factor of existence.That means if it does not arise, existence would have to come to an and. That is why it is called a constituent of life. The Pali word is Bhavanga. 'Bhava' means life and 'Anga’ means a path, constituent path. So it is a constituent of life. That means if it did not arise life would have ended immediately after Patisandhi or something like that. So this is called Bhavanga.

          “At the end of life, having become the death consciousness on the occasion of passing away”,that means functioning as dying, performing the function of dying as death consciousness. Although it has said “having become the death consciousness'' actually Patisandhi Citta does not become death consiousness. Death consciousness is another consciousness but of the same type. It is said here “having become the death consiousness.” That does not mean the Patisandhi Citta becomes the death consiousness. Patisandhi Citta arises and disappears. Then the same type of consciousness arises as Bhavanga all through life. Then at the end when death comes, it arises again. At that time it is not called Patisandhi or Bhavanga but it is called Cuti or death. So it is not that Patisandhi has become the death Citta, but this same type of consiousness arises which now performs the function of dying.

          “Having become the death consciousness on the occasion of passing away, it then ceases.” It arises as death consciousness and then it ceases.

          “Thereafter, the rebirth-linking consciousness and the others continue to occur”then again following death there is rebirth.

          “Revolving in due sequence like the wheel of a cart”it goes on and on, and on. In one life there is Patisandhi Citta, then Bhavangas, Vithi Cittas and Cuti. Immediately following Cuti there is Patisandhi in anotherr life, Bhavangas and Cuti, and then another life and Patisandhi, Bhavangas and Cuti. In this way the wheel of life goes on and on until one becomes a Buddha or an Arahant.

          “This cognitive process, the first in the new life, takes as object the rebirth-linking consciousness; the Javanas consist in sense-sphere Cittas rooted in greed,”immediately following the Patisandhi Citta there are Bhavangas. Immediately following the 16 Bhavanga moments there is one thought process. In that thought process seven Javanas arise. These seven Javanas are always rooted in greed, Lobha. ''they are disassociated from wrong view and unprompted.'' So they are Ditthigatavippayutta Asankharika. It is not mentioned in the original Pali treatise, in the original manual. But it must be so.

“When this process ends, the Bhavanga again arises and perishes, and continues thus whenever there is no intervention of a cognitive process. In this way the stream of consiousness flows on from conception until death, and from death to new birth ‘revolving like the wheel of a cart.’ It goes on and on. This is Samsara.

          “Just as here, so again in the next existence, there arise rebirth-linking consciousness, life continuum, cognitive processes, and death consciousness. Again with rebirth and life- continuum, this stream of consciousness turns round.” That means it goes on and on. This is the same as the paragraph given above.

          The next one is the breaking of Samsara. “The wise, discipining themselves long, understand the impermanence (of life)”the wise understand the impermanence of life so they discipline themselves long which means they meditation for a long time. “They realize the deathless state,”they realize Nibbana. “And completely cutting off the fetters of attachment”when they realize the deathless state they completely cut off the fetters of attachment. That means they completely destroy mental defilements and “attain peace.” Actually in the Pali it says “Samam essanti.” It says will attain peace, that is understanding this round of rebirths or understanding the Nama and Rupa involved in rebirth as impermanent, people will make effort and discipline themselves for a long time and then as a result of their practice of meditation they will realize the deathless state or they will realize Nibbana.

          “And completely cutting off thee fetters of attachment,”at the moment of enlightenment the fetters of attachment, or not only attachment actually, but all mental defilements are completely cut off or eracicated.

          So the fourth and the fifth chapters deal with thought processes, both in life and at death. The fifth chapter also gives us the description of Kammas and the results of Kammas and also the cosmic system taught in Buddhism. It ends with the description of Samsara or the round of rebirth and then ultimately breaking that round of rebirth and realizing the Deathless State which is Nibbana.

          At the end of the next chapter we will know something about Nibbana.

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