Abhidhamma Lectures 07 - Buddhism, Philosophy, and Khmer Literature


Buddhism, Philosophy, and Khmer Literature

The teachings of the Buddha are aimed solely at liberating sentient beings from suffering. The Basic Teachings of Buddha which are core to Buddhism are: The Three Universal Truths; The Four Noble Truths; and The Noble Eightfold Path.

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Sunday, June 16, 2019

Abhidhamma Lectures 07

Tape# 34
Chapter 7 (A)
Review of the Handout

          Before we go to the seventh chapter I want to explain the handout. Note for R|pa-pavattikKÈma. This chart gives some additional information on when and to which kind of beings the R|pa Kalapas arise and which can be deficient. The first is KÈmavacara Bhumi, those beings in the sensual planes. There are theree kinds of beings–moisture-born, spontaneous-born and womb-born. Moisture-born means those who are born of moisture, like insects. They are called moisture-born. At the moment of PaÔisandhi there arise in them Cakkhu, Sota, GhÈna, Jivha, KÈya, Bhava and Vatthu, so six decads. Cakkhu, Sota, GhÈna and Bhava may be deficient. Sometimes they may not have Cakkhu. Sometimes they may not have Sota and so on. That is at the moment of relinking. Pavatti means through life. In life (that means after relinking) all R|pas except those that are deficient can arise.

          Spontaneous-born means they are vorn as a grownup being. Here three kinds of spontaneous-born beings are mentioned. One is for Devas. At the time of relinking there are all seven decads. Cakkhu, Sota, GhÈna, JivhÈ, KÈya, BhÈva and Vatthu. There is no deficiency for them because they are born of very strong kamma. In life all R|pa arise in them.

          Then there are spontaneous-born beings in ApÈya, the four woeful states. For those who are born in the four woeful states at the moment of PaÔisandhi the seven decads arise. Among them Cakkhu, Sota and BhÈva can be deficient. Sometimes they may take conception without Cakkhu and so on. At Pavatti all R|pas arise except those that are deficient.

          The last spontaneous-born is human beings. It is said that human beings are born spontaneously at the beginning of the world. Because there were no human beings at that time the Brahmas die from their Brahma world and are born as human beings. At that time human beings are born spontaneously. For them Cakkhu, Sota, GhÈna, JivhÈ, KÈya and Vatthu, six decads arise, but not Vatthu. It is said that they have no sex at that time. Only after some time did the sexes arise. At Pavatti, in life, all R|pas except the two BhÈvas can arise.

          Then womb-born beings include human beings, birds and other animals. At PaÔisandhi there are only three decade–KÈya, BhÈva and Vatthu. Sometimes BhÈva is deficient. There are some who are born without gender, without sex. At Pavatti all R|pas arise. Cakkhu, Sota, GhÈna and BhÈva can be deficient. Deficient means when it is time for Cakkhu decad to arise it does not arise and so on. Those are called born-blind, born-deaf and so on. These are for beings in KÈmavacara realm.

          For beings in R|pavacara realm except AsaÒÒasattas (except mindless beings), at PaÔisandhi (at moment of relinking), Cakkhu, Sota, Vatthu decads and JÊvita nonad arise. These four groups arise at Pavatti or during life, those four decads plus six groups born of citta and four groups born of Utu, these also arise. So at Pavatti (4+6+4) 14 groups of matter arise. They are 23 R|pas.

          For the mindless beings of R|pavacara world at PaÔisandhi only Jivita Navaka arises. At PaÔisandhi there is only one nonad–JÊvita Navaka. At Pavatti there is JÊvita Navaka plus SuddhaÔÔhaka (pure octad and LahutÈdekÈdasaka of Utuja KalÈpas. For mindles beings at PaÔisandhi there are only nine kinds of material properties. During life there are 17 material properties. 23 and 17 you can get from the big chart. These are the decads which arise at PaÔisandhi and during life. There are some which can be deficient.

Akusala Sa~gaha

          Now we go to the seventh chapter. With the six chapters we have covered, the author describes all four ultimate realities-Citta, Cetasika, R|pa & NibbÈna. He could finish his book here if he wanted to. But he wanted to give some more information about the ultimate realities he had described  in the previous chapters. So we have three more chapters.

          This chapter is called compendium of categories or Samuccayasa~gaha. This chapter gives us different names for the ultimate realities we have already studied. It is like special names or terminologies  for the ultimate realities. Here at the beginning the author says there are 72 kinds of entities–Citta taken as one, Cetasikas as 52, and R|pa taken as 18 because the first 18 are the real R|pas. The others are not real R|pas. They are not the object of VipassanÈ meditation. Here as the categories of VipassanÈ meditation they are excluded. The first 18 of the 28 material properties are taken here. Then the last one is NibbÈna. So there are altogether 72 kinds of entities that have their own characteristic and that are capable of becoming the object of VipassanÈ meditation. When you practice VipassanÈ meditation you do not take the last ten material properties’ as object. Actually the others will be treated here and there. There are the 72 that ate prominent and so they will be treated in this chapter.


          The first group is the Œsavas. Look at the chart and you will see Œsava. There are four Œsavas. What are the Œsavas? In the manual it is tranlated as taints, four taints. Sometimes the word Œsava is translated as cankers. Some also translate it as flux. The name Œsava originally was the word for intoxicatng drink, fermented drink. When you want to make an intoxicating drink, you have to ferment it. You have to make it for a long time. So the Œsavas are like intoxicating drinks, meaning that they have long been with us. They have been with us for a very long time, from an unknown beginning. And they will be with us until we reach Arahantship or Buddhahood. The Œsavas have been with us all this time and therefore are something like fermented. The Œsavas (Lobha, DiÔÔhi & Moha) are always with us. Here the meaning is those that are like fermented drinks.

          The other meaning is flowing, flowing out. If you have a sore, you may have discharges like blood or pus from the sore. In the’ same way Lobha, DiÔÔhi and Moha flow out of the six doors. When we see something with attachment that means lobha is flowing out of the eye door. When we hear something and we like it or dislike if, lobha or Dosa is flowing out of the ear door. They are like discharges from sores. So they are called Œsavas.

          Also they are called Œsavas because by way of realms they arise up to the highest realm. They arise even in NevasaÒÒÈ-nasaÒÒÈyatana, fourth Ar|pavacara realm. By way of Dhamma they can take as object up to Gotrabhu. What is the object of Lobha? Do you remember the third chapter? All mundane Cittas, Cetasikas and R|pa. Lobha can take all mundane Cittas, Cetasikas and R|pa as object. That means it can even take Gotrabhu and Vodana as object. Vodana is the Citta that precedes the second, third and fourth Magga. By way of realm it flows up to the highest realm. By way of Dhamma it flows up to Gotrabhu. So it is called Œsava.

          There are four Œsavas mentioned here. In the Suttas usually three Œsavas are mentioned, but we must take it to mean the four Œsavas mentioned here. We can translate them as cankers, fluxed, oozing. So it is better to call them Œsava so we do not misunderstand.

          There are four Œsavas mentioned here. The first one is KamŒsava. The second one is BhavŒsava. The third one is DitthŒsava. The fourth one is AvijjŒsava.

          KamŒsava is the taint of sensual desire. It is actually Lobha. The attachment of sensual desire or attavhment to objects of the senses is called KamŒsava.

          Then there is BhavŒsava. You know Bhava–existence, continued existence.So attachment to continued existence is called BhavŒsava.

          DitthŒsava–DiÔÔhi and Œsava–this is the Œsava of wrong view. Wrong view itself is Œsava.

          The last one is AvijjŒsava. Altogether there are four Œsavas–KamŒsava, BhavŒsava, DitthŒsava and AvijjŒsava, the taint of sensual desire, the taint of attachment to existence, the taint of wrong views and the taint of ignorance.

          There are what is called R|pabhava and Ar|pabhava. Attachment to R|pabhava and Ar|pabhava are included in BhavŒsava. Also attachment to jhÈnas is included in BhavŒsava. Also attachment that accompanies eternity view is called BhavŒsava. BhavŒsava has many identifications. But in reality it is Lobha–attachment to R|pa and Ar|pa existence, attachment to JhÈnas and attachment which accompanies wrong view that takes things to be permanent.

          With each of these we must identify the paramattha Dhammas. KamŒsava is what? Lobha. BhavŒsava is also Lobha. DitthŒsava is DiÔÔhi and AvijjŒsava is Moha. Although there are four Œsavas, according to ultimate reality or in essence there are only Œsavas or three Dhammas called Œsava. They are Lobha, DiÔÔhi and Moha.

          In the chart the number 3 put just in front of the columns means that the ultimate realities are three. The ultimate realities which are called Œsavas are three. By looking at the circles you know that Moha Lobha and DiÔÔhi are Œsavas. For the individual ones you look at the squares. The circles show the Cetasikas or ultimate realities that they represent.


          The next group is the Oghas. There are four oghas. Ogha is translated as flood. Again Lobja, DiÔÔhi and Moha are called floods or Oghas because they overwhelm beings. Also they can take beings with them down to the four woeful states or they can make beings sink down to the four woeful states. Therefore they are called ogha. When there is flood it takes everything with it and makes things sink or drown. In the same way Lobha, DiÔÔhi and Moha when they arise can take beings down to four woeful states. So they are called ogha. There are four oghas. So the flood can be very devastating.

          A few years ago there were floods in other states in this country. Even a whole house was taken by the flood and floated down. And also there were floods in California. So it is easy to see how dangerous these floods are. Lobha, DiÔÔhi and Moha are more dangerous than these floods.

          How many Oghas are there? Four–KÈmogha, Bhavogha, DiÔÔhogha and Avijjogha. Their identifications are the same. KÈmogha is Lobha. Bhavogha is Loba. DiÔÔhogha is DiÔÔhi. And Avijjogha is Moha. There are four Oghas, but in reality there are only three. They are Moha, Lobha and DiÔÔhi.


          The next group is tee Yogas. Please do not confuse this with the Yoga which is popular now. There are different meanings. How is Yoga translated? It is translated as bond. There are four bonds–the bond of sensual desire, the bond of attachment to existence, the bond of wrong view and the bond of ignorance. They are the same as the Œsavas. They are called bonds because they are called bonds because they attach beings to Samsara. They don’t let beings get out of SaÑsara. So long as they are

Student: They tie beings to Samsara.
Sayadaw: Tying is Gantha. We will come to ganthas also. Sometimes the translators translate Ganthas as knots. It is translated as knots here. You know when you put the ox to the cart–you yoke. So Yoga is yoking beings to Samsara. These three yoke us to Samsara. So long as there are these three one cannot get out of Samsara. So long as the bullock is yoked it cannot get away. It must go on and on.Similarly we must go on and on so long as we have these Yogas. They are four in number–KÈmayoga, Bhavayoga, DiÔÔhiyoga and AvijjÈyoga. They mean the same thing–attachment to objects of sense, attachment to existence, wrong view, and ignorance. KÈmayoga in reality is Lobha. Bhavayoga is Lobha. DiÔÔhiyoga is DiÔÔhi. AvijjÈyoga is Moha. In reality there are three Yogas. They are Lobha, DiÔÔhi and Moha.

          It is important to know these terms because they will be used in the Suttas. You will find the use of these words in the Suttas. When you read the Suttas, you may come across the word Yoga, Ogha and so on. So it is important to understand them. For example Ogha  by itself you don’t know what it means. You may find the word Ogha  or flood and you may be wondering what is a flood. When you understand according to this manual, then you understand it clearly. Ogha means Lobha, DiÔÔhi and Moha here. So it is important to understand these terms.


          The next group is Gantha. Gantha is translated here as knots, tyings. They tie beings to Samsara. Also it is explained here that they tie Nama KÈya to R|pa KÈya. They tie beings to SaÑsÈra. Here in the name Gantha the KÈya is added. So there is AbhijjhÈ-KÈya-gantha. KÈya is added. It is explained in the note. “Here the term ‘body’ (KÈya) applies to both the mental and physical body in the sense of an aggregation. “Here KÈya does not mean physical KÈya. Actually it is a group or aggregation.

          AbhijjhÈ-KÈyagantha means the bodily knot of covetousness. Now here we must understand this to be different from covetousness we meet in the fifth chapter. In the fifth chapter among the ten courses of unwholesome action there is covetousness. You know there are three kinds of Kamma–KÈya Kamma (bodily Kamma), VacÊ Kamma (verbal Kamma), and Mano Kamma (mental Kamma). Among the three Mano Kamma the first one is AbhijjhÈ. There AbhijjhÈ means covetousness for other person’s belongings. You want the other person’s belongings to be your belongings. You want the other person’s property to be your property. It is called visama Lobha., unjust Lobha or something like that. But here any Lobha is called AbhijjhÈ, not only the AbhijjhÈ mentioned in the fifth chapter, but any attachment is called AbhijjhÈ KÈya-gantha.

          The next one is ByÈpÈda KÈya-gantha, the bodily knot of illwill.ByÈpÈda means Dosa. That is why in reality it is Dosa. Here you must also understand it is Dosa in many forms.

          The third one is SÊlabbata-parÈmÈsa KÈya-gantha, the bodily knot of adherence to rites and ceremonies. SÊla is one word and Vata–it comes from vata, another word. When these words are compounded the word becomes silsbbata. SÊla means habit. Vata means practice. ParÈmÈsa means understanding wrongly. So the wrong understanding of SÊla and Vata is called SÊlabbata-parÈmÈsa KÈya-gantha. That means the wrong understanding that SÊla and vata can lead us to the purification of mind and lead us to end all suffering. Here we must understand SÊla and Vata because the English translations of adherence to rites and ceremonies is not so satisfactory. It is explained in the commentaries that SÊla here means the habit of cattle, the habit of dogs and so on. Vata means the same thing. What it really means here if you believe that if you behave in the way cows behave, if you live like cows live, if you eat like cows and so on, then you will get freedom from mental defilements, you will get out of Samsara. If you believe like that it is SÊlabbata-parÈmÈsa. The same is true if you behave like a dog, eat like a dog, sleep like a dog and so on. If you believe that practice will’ lead you to purification of mind and so on, then you have this SÊlabbata-parÈmÈsa. We must understand in the way I have explained here following explanation given in the commentary. Because if we just say rites and ceremonies we will have many questions. Bowing down to the Buddha, Chanting, sharing merit and so on  are some sort of rites and ceremonies. Here SÊla and Vata do not mean these. SÊla here means the habit of cattle, dogs, animals and others.

          I think you remember about two men who went to the Buddha and asked about this practice of the cow and the practice of the dog. They asked if it was true that would gain purification and so on. The Buddha said if you practice to the full the practice of a cow, you will become a cow. If you practice to the full the habit of a dog, you will become a dog. If you do not practice to the full, you will go to hell or something like that. Such belief that it can lead to NibbÈna, that it can lead to purification of mind is called SÊlabbata-parÈmÈsa.

          If we extend this to include some other things, we may say that Dana alone will lead you to enlightenment or SÊla alone will lead you to enlightenment, it is also SÊlabbata-parÈmÈsa. Dana alone cannot lead you directly to enlightenment. SÊla alone cannot lead you directly to enlightenment. You have to practice Bhavana; you have to practice VipassanÈ to reach those states. If you believe just by chanting or just by giving, just by making donation, just by listening to the Dhamma and so on, you can get enlightenment, then you have this SÊlabbata-parÈmÈsa, although you do not believe in  the practice of cows and dogsand so on. This is a wrong view. And so it is actually DiÔÔhi.

          The last one is IdaÑsaccÈbhinivesa KÈya-gantha, a long word. Sacca means truth. Abhinivesa means wrong view. So it is a dogmatic view that this alone is true. This only is true and others are false–if you take it that way then you have this Gantha, this knot–the bodily knot that this alone is the truth.

          There is a question. We believe Buddhism to be true and others  to be not true. What about that? It is explained in some Burmese books that it should be understood with regard to wrong view. You have one wrong view and you believe this alone is true and others are false, then you fall into this knot. You are a Buddhist. Then you say Buddhism alone is true and others are false. That is not falling into this knot. That is how they explain. This is a difficult question.

          So there are these four Ganthas or knots. Abhijjha KÈyagantha, since it is attachment, is Lobha. ByÈpÈda KÈya-gantha is Dosa, illwill. SÊlabbata-parÈmÈsa KÈya-gantha is wrong view. IdaÑsaccÈbhinivesa KÈya-gantha is also wrong view. So there are four Ganthas. In reality, in ultimate reality there are only three. They are Lobha, DiÔÔhi and Dosa.


          Then there is UpÈdÈna. Ypu are familiar with this word. UpÈdÈna is clinging or grasping. ‘Upa’ means firmly. ‘Œdana’ means taking. So UpÈdÈna means taking firmly. UpÈdÈna is compared to a snake swallowing a mouse or something. Once it has taken the mouse in its mouth it will not let it go again. In the same way when Lobha reaches the stage of UpÈdÈna, You cannot give it up. This firm, Strong attachment or strongly taking the object is called UpÈdÈna.

          The first one is KamupÈdÈna. It can be explained as KÈma which’ is UpÈdÈna or UpÈdÈna of KÈma. It can be taken in two ways. KÈma here means sensual desire. The desire itself is clinging, clinging as desire, or it is clinging to sense objects. The meaning is the same.

          DitthupÈdÈna–DiÔÔhi and UpÈdÈna–it is DiÔÔhi which is UpÈdÈna. When you have a wrong view, you take it firmly. DiÔÔhi is an UpÈdÈna. Or you may say the previous DiÔÔhi is a condition for a later DiÔÔhi. In that case you can explain it as UpÈdÈna of DiÔÔhi, grasping of Wrong view or grasping the wrong view.

          The third one is the same as the third Gantha. SÊlabbatupÈdÈna when you take firmly these practices of cows and dogs and so on leads to freedom from mental defilements, then you have this SÊlabbatupÈdÈna.

          The fourth one is AttavÈdupÈdÈna. AttavÈdupÈdÈna means clinging to a doctrine of self. Atta means Atta. Vada means saying or opinion. So it is opinion of Atta, saying that there is Atta. Clinging to that opinion of Atta or doctrine of Atta  is AttavÈdupÈdÈna.

          With regard to this last one, AttavÈdupÈdÈna there is mention of SakKÈyadiÔÔhi in the manual. On page 267 about the middle of the page “Clinging to a doctrine of self is the adoption of personality view (SakKÈyadiÔÔhi).” I want you to be familiar with this word SakKÈyadiÔÔhi. SakkÈya means existing KÈya. And DiÔÔhi means wrong view. So it is wrong view about existing KÈya. It is wrong view about Atta.

          “The identification of any of the five aggregates as a self or the accessories of a self”–so one may say R|pa is Atta. Or you may say R|pa is a property of Atta. That means one is taking the five aggregates as a self or as accessories to a self. This SakkÈyadiÔÔhi is mentioned in the Suttas as well as in the Abhidhamma. Here in the book it says the Suttas mention twenty types of personality view. But actually it is not only in the Suttas but in Abhidhamma iteself that twenty types of SakKÈyaDiÔÔhi are mentioned.

          “These are obtained by considering each of the five aggregates in four ways: ‘One regards materiality as self.’”One regards R|pa as self. That is one form of wrong view. “ Or self as possessing materiality.” When you see a flame and think that the flame and the color are identical, you fall into something like taking R|pa as Atta. The flame is one thing and the color is another. They are two different things. But we think the flame is the color and the color is the flame. In the same way when we take R|pa to be self then this becomes a wrong view. Then self as possessing materiality–the commentary gives the analogy of a tree and its shadow. The shadow is the possession of a tree. In the same way R|pa has Atta. They take R|pa as something. They think that this R|pa possesses something which is called Atta. The third one is material as in self. That means there is a self in matter, a self ion R|pa. The analogy is a flower and the smell. The scent is in the flower. The smell is in the flower. The flower is one thing. The smell is another thing. They take that R|pa is in the self. It is something like taking smell to be in the flower. The fourth one is self as in materiality, the other way round. Here the analogy is a gem and a casket. There is a gem in the casket. Atta is in R|pa.

          If you know these four kinds of wrong view with regard to R|pa, you will understand the others with regard to VedanÈ, SaÒÒÈ, Sa~khÈra and ViÒÒÈÓa. Let us go back. The first one is what? R|pa is self. If we take R|pa as self, this is the first form of wrong view. If we take it that R|pa possesses self, R|pa has self, this is the second kind of wrong view. If we take R|pa in self–so there is R|pa in the self–that is the third kind. If we take it that there is self in R|pa, this is the fourth kind of wrong  view. The view of Atta can have different aspects–R|pa is Atta; R|pa has Atta: R|pa in Atta; and there is Atta in R|pa. The same for vedanÈ–VedanÈ is Atta; Atta has VedanÈ; there is VedanÈ in Atta; there is Atta in VedanÈ. There are altogether twenty kinds of SakKÈyaDiÔÔhi. You will find mention  of SakkÈyadiÔÔhi in your readings. They are always mentioned as twenty SakkÈyadiÔÔhi. Here the author in the manual gives the reference M 44. That means Majjhima NikÈya 44th Sutta. Then there is Roman numeral I and 300. That means the first volume, page 300. That may refer to pali text, not the translation. But if you want the translation, go to the 44th Sutta or you will find it in the Dhammasa~gaÓÊ.

          The clinging to sense pleasures and so on–that is the identification. KamupÈdÈna is clinging to sensual things or sensual desire. It is Lobha. DiÔÔhupÈdÈna is DiÔÔhi, wrong view. SÊlabbatupÈdÈna is wrong view. AttavÈdupÈdÈna is also wrong view. Although there are four UpÈdÈnas, there are only two in reality. They are Lobha and DiÔÔhi.


          Now we come to NÊvaraÓa, hindrances. There are six NÊvaraÓa here. You are familiar with only five. NÊvaraÓa means hindrances or obstacles. “They obstruct the way to a heavenly rebirth and to the attainment of NibbÈna. “Not only that, they are obstructions to obtaining JhÈnas also. They are obstacles to JhÈnas. They are obstacles to NibbÈna. They are obstacles to rebirth in heavenly realms. They are called NÊvaraÓa. Sometimes the commentaries explain it with the word enveloping or overwhelming.

          There are six NÊvaraÓas mentioned in this manual. The first NÊvaraÓa is KÈmacchanda NÊvaraÓa. KÈmacchanda NÊvaraÓa means sensual desire or objects of senses. The second is ByÈpÈda NÊvaraÓa. That is illwill, the obstruction of illwill, the hindrance of illwill. Any kind of Dosa is called ByÈpÈda. The third is Thina Middha. They are two different and separate mental states. They are here joined as one or they are mentioned as one NÊvaraÓa. The next is Uddhacca Kukkucca NÊvaraÓa. Uddhacca is one Cetasika and Kukkucca is another Cetasika. They are taken to be one hindrance here. The fifth one is VicikicchÈ NÊvaraÓa. The sixth one is AvijjÈ NÊvaraÓa.

          You know KÈmacchanda. KÈmacchanda is Lobha, attachment, attachment to anything. ByÈpÈda is illwill. So anger, hate, depression and even fear are called ByÈpÈda. Thina and Middha ( sloth and torpor ) are two different things. Uddhacca and Kukkucca ( restlessness and remorse ) are two different things. VicikicchÈ is doubt. AvijjÈ is ignorance.

          In reality or according to ultimate reality there are not six. There are eight Cetasikas that are called NÊvaraÓa. What are the eight? Moha, Uddhacca, Lobha, Dosa, Kukkucca, Thina, Middha and VicikicchÈ. These are the eight Dhammas or eight Cetasikas that are called NÊvaraÓa. Although there are eight when describing the NÊvaraÓas it is always mentioned as six.

          Thina and Middha are mentioned together. Uddhacca and Kukkucca are mentioned together. Why? It is explained in the manual. Please go to page 268. “Altogether eight Cetasikas are included among the hindrances. In the cases, however, a pair of mental factors is counted as a single hindrance. “ Thina and Middha is counted as one, hindrance. Uddhacca and Kukkucca are counted as one hindrance.

          “The Abhidhamma commentaries explain that sloth and torpor, and restlessness and worry, are joined into compounds because of the similarities in their respective functions, conditions and antidotes.” These three things you must remember–function, condition and antidote or opposite. Because these two each have similar functions, similar conditions and similar antidotes or opposites they are taken as one hindrance although in fact they are two.

          “Sloth and torpor both have the function of engendering mental sluggishness.” Their function is to produce laziness, mental sluggishness. Both of them have this function. They have the some function. “They are conditioned by laziness and drowsiness.” They are caused by laziness and drowsiness. They have the same or similar conditions or causes. “They are countered by arousing energy.” That means vÊriya is their opposite. So long as you have VÊriya you will not have Thina and Middha. Once you let VÊriya go, Thina and Middha may come in. Thina and Middha have similar functions, similar conditions and similar opposites. So they are taken to be one mental hindrance although in  reality they are two separate mental factors.

          The situation is similar with Uddhacca and Kukkucca, “Restlessness and worry (Uddhacca and Kukkucca) share the function of engendering disquietude. “They make us disquiet when we have Uddhacca and Kukkucca in our minds. Uddhacca is one Cetasika. Kukkucca is another Cetasika. Uddhacca arises with all twelve Akussala Cittas. Kukkucca arises with only two. They are different Cetasikas. They accompany different Cittas. But these two have the function of engendering disquietude. That means when they arise in our minds, our minds are not quiet. “They are conditioned by disturbing thoughts.” That means there are thoughts about loss of wealth, thoughts about loss of relatives and so on. When we think about those thoughts we are aggitated. They are conditioned by such disturbing thoughts. “They are countered by the development of calm (Samatha).” The opposite of Uddhacca and Kukkucca is the practice of Samatha, the practice of meditation, the practice of concentration. Since these two also have similar functions, similar conditions or causes and similar opposites, they are taken as one mental hindrance in this list. They are always mentioned together–Thina and Middha and Uddhacca and Kukkucca. You all know that Thina is one Cetasika. Middha is another Cetasika. Uddhacca is another and Kukkucca is yet another Cetasika. If we take each one and identify with Cetasikas, we have eight NÊvaraÓas, eight mental hindrances and not six.

          We are familiar with five mental hindrances, not six. In the manual it is said that the first five hindrances are the mahor obstacles to the attainment or JhÈnas. The sixth hindrance is the major obstacle to the arising of wisdom. AvijjÈ is the major hindrance to the arising of knowledge or wisdom. The others are major obstacles to the arising. of JhÈnas. So long as a person cannot get free from these first five mental hindrances, he cannot hope to get JhÈna. It is a prerequisite for the attainment of JhÈna that he be free from these mental hindrances beginning with KÈmacchanda. In the description of first JhÈna you find the words “Viviccivakamehi vivicca akusalehi dhammehi”–secluded from sensual desires or secluded from the objects of sense desire and secluded from unwholesome mental states a person attains first JhÈna and so on. Not the total eradication, but the abandonment the temporary abandonment of these five hindrances is a condition for the attainment of JhÈna. When a person gets more and more concentration, these five hindrances tend to disappear. They will not arise in his mind so long as he has good concentration. When themental hindrances are subdued, the mind becomes clear, quiet and still. Only then can the penetration into the nature of things, only then can the understanding of the arising and falling of phenomena arise. It is important that these five hindrances are pushed back or at least subdued in order to attain any results in order to attain any stages in the practice of meditation. AvijjÈ is always with us because it is an Anusaya. So we may not be able to get rid of AvijjÈ. But if we can get rid of these first five mental hindrances we are sure to get concentration and we are sure to get JhÈna. But does not mean we don’t need to get rid of them if we want to practice VipassanÈ meditation. In VipassanÈ meditation also they have to be subdued. Otherwise we will not get momentary concentration.

          KÈmacchanda is Lobha. ByÈpÈda is Dosa. Thina and Middha are Thina and Middha. Uddhacca and Kukkucca are Uddhacca are Kukkucca. VicikicchÈ is VicikicchÈ. And AvijjÈ is Moha.


          The next group is Anusaya, latent dispositions. Sometimes they are called latent tendencies.”The literal meaning of the word ‘Anusaya’ is to lie along with, to be along with the mental process to which they belong, rising to the surface as obsessions whenever they meet with suitable conditions. “They will arise when there are conditions for them. If there are no conditions for them, they will not arise. They are said to be dormant. They are said to be latent I n our minds.

          There are three levels of mental defilements latent level, surface level surface level and transgression level. There are three levels. The first level, latent level–Anusaya is the most difficult to get rid of. Even though we do not have Lobha right now, we will get Lobha some time later. Always there is the liability, the possibility that we will get Lobha and Dosa and so on. At the moment we are free from them. That is what is called Anusava. They are lying dormant in our minds. They are waiting for a chance to come up. They are waiting for a chance, an opportunity for the right conditions. When there are suitable conditions, When we do not have Yoniso ManasikÈra, they will arise.

          There is a question about Anusaya. Do they belong to the past, present or future? There are two opinions. The teachers are not in agreement. Some teachers say that the Anusaya belong to the future. They are the mental defilements which will arise when there are conditions. Other teachers say “no”. They can be said to be past, present and future. Although they do not come to existence–“come to existence” means arising, presence and dissolution. When we say they come to existence we mean they go through these three stages. Anusaya are mentioned as not being in existence. But they are somewhere under the surface. They do not reach the three stages of existence. When they reach the three stages of existence, they are no longer called Anusaya. They become Kilesas.

          For example let us say Lobha Anusaya is in me now. When I really have attachment to something that Lobha Anusaya becomes a Kilesa. At the moment of when you are doing good or when you are doing meritorious deeds, the Akusalas are Anusaya. When they arise in your mind, they are called Kilesas.

          Actually not only these seven or six, but every kilesa is latent. But only these seven are called Anusaya because they are the most prominent. That means they have strength. They have power. That means they have power to arise when there are conditions. It is because they are strong that they can arise when there are conditions. So only these seven are called Anusaya.

          When we say Magga eradicates mental defilements, it is these Anusaya that it eradicates and not Kilesas actually. Because when there is Kileesa in our mind there is no Magga. Kilesa is an Akusala Citta. What Magga eradicates is not the Kilesas in the state of existence, but the Kilesas which are latent. That which Magga eradicates is Anusaya. In speaking sometimes we say Magga eradicates Kilesas. What it eradicates is Anusaya, not Kilesas.

          There are seven Anusaya. The first one is KÈmarÈga Anusaya, the latent disposition to sensual lust. The second is BhavarÈga Anusaya, the attachment to existence. The third is PaÔigha Anusaya. Do you remember the word ‘PaÔigha’? Where? Among the Akusala Cittas. PaÔigha Sampayutta. Patigha means Dosa. The fourth one is MÈna Anusaya, pride or conceit, Number five is DiÔÔhi Anusaya, wrong view. Number six is VicikicchÈ Anusaya, doubt. And number seven is AvijjÈ, ignorance. These seven are called Anusaya.

          In reality there are six Anusaya because KÈmarÈga Anusaya and BhavarÈga Anusayas are Lobha. Attachment to sensual pleasures or sensual things and attachment to existence are Lobha. There are only six Anusaya. They are Lobha, Moha, DiÔÔhi, MÈna, Dosa and VicikicchÈ.


          The next group is SaÑyojanaa, fetters or ropes. They are called fetters or ropes because they bind us to this round of rebirth. They will not let us go, so they are called SaÑyojanaas. SaÑyojanaa is always compared to a rope.,

          There are two sets of SaÑyojanaas mentioned here. One is according to Suttanta method. The other one is according to Abhidhamma method. It is explained in the manual that the first set of ten fetters is mentioned both in Sutta PiÔaka and in the Abhidhamma PiÔaka. The second set appears only in the Abhidhamma PiÔaka. The second set is called SaÑyojanaas according to Abhidhamma.The first set is called SaÑyojanaas according to Sutta.

          Number one is KÈmarÈga SaÑyojanaa. You already know KÈmarÈga. R|parÈga SaÑyojanaa is attachment to R|pa Bhava. Ar|parÈga SaÑyojanaa is attachment to Ar|pa Bhava. PaÔigha SaÑyojanaa is illwill. MÈna SaÑyojanaa is conceit. DiÔÔhi SaÑyojanaa is wrong view. SÊlabbata-parÈmÈsa SaÑyojanaa is wrong view. VicikicchÈ SaÑyojanaa is VicikicchÈ. Uddhacca SaÑyojanaa is Uddhacca. And AvijjÈ SaÑyojanaa is Moha. Although there are ten SaÑyojanas mentioned here according to Suttanta method, there are only seven in reality. They are Moha, Uddhacca, Lobha, DiÔÔhi, MÈna, Dosa and VicikicchÈ.

          The second set is found only in Abhidhamma. Number one is KÈmarÈga SaÑyojanaa, the same. Number two is BhavarÈga SaÑyojana. Number two and three of the first set are both included in number two of the second set. Number three is PaÔigha SaÑyojanaa–Dosa. Number four is MÈna SaÑyojanaa, conceit. Number five is DiÔÔhi SaÑyojanaa, wrong view. Number six is SÊlabbata-parÈmÈsa SaÑyojanaa, wrong view. Number seven is VicikicchÈ SaÑyojanaa, doubt. Number eight is IssÈ SaÑyojanaa. Number  nine is Macchariya SaÑyojanaa. They (8 & 9) are IssÈ and Macchariya Cetasikas resectively. Number ten is AvijjÈ SaÑyojanaa. The first and the second are Lobha. The third is Dosa. The fourth is MÈna. The fifth and the sixth are DiÔÔhi, wrong view. The seventh is VicikicchÈ. The eighth is IssÈ. The ninth is Macchariya. And the tenth is Moha. There are eight according to ultimate reality. They are Moha, Lobha, DiÔÔhi, MÈna, Dosa, IssÈ, Macchariya and VicikicchÈ.

          Now let us go to the summary. “By way of entity, (that means in reality) the taints, floods, bonds and knots are threefold.”

Student: What about Kilesas?
Sayadaw: I’m sorry I left that out.


There are ten Kilesas. Why are they called Kikesas? They are called defilements because they make our minds dirty. Also the word ‘Kilesa’ has another meaning-affliction. It torments our mind so it is called Kikesa. So there are two meanings for the word Kilesa. They defile the mind so they are called Kilesa. They torment the mind so they are called Kilesa. Torment is the usual explanation of  Kilesa in the commentaries.

          There are ten Kilesas. The first one is Lobha. You know Lobha. The second one is Dosa. The third one is Moha. The fourth one is MÈna. The fifth one is DiÔÔhi. The sixth one is VicikicchÈ. The seventh one is Thina. The eighth is Uddhacca. The ninth is Ahirika, shamelessness. And the tenth is Anottappa, fearlessness. These ten are called Kilesas. We are very familiar with this word ‘Kilesa’ or its English translation ‘mental defilement’. There are ten kilesas. Lobha is Lobha. Dosa is Dosa. And there are Moha, MÈna, DiÔÔhi, VicikicchÈ, Thina, Uddhacca, Ahirika and Anottappa. There are ten Kilesas and in reality there are also ten.

          I left that out in the chart. You will have to make the chart again.

          Now the summary: “By way of entity the taints, floods, bonds and knots are threefold.” That means according to Cetasikas, according to ultimate reality there are only three taints (Œsavas), three Oghas, three Yogas and three Ganthas. They are Lobha, DiÔÔhi and Moha.

          “There are two kinds of clinging.” That means there are two Cetasikas–Lobha and DiÔÔhi.

          “And eight hindrances.”–Each one of them–Thina and Middha and Uddhacca and Kukkucca taken separately.

          “The latent dispositions are only six.” There are only six Anusaya.

          “And the fetters can be understood as nine.” You mix two methods together. When you mix two methods together, you get nine. You can look at the chart. The first is seven. The second is eight. But if you shuffle these two and take only what has not been taken yet, you will get nine SaÑyojanaas–Moha, Uddhacca, Lobha, DiÔÔhi, MÈna, Dosa, IssÈ, Macchariya and VicikicchÈ.

          “The defilements are ten.” They are plain.

          “Thus the compendium of evil is stated as ninefold.”

          In the chart in the manual if you look at it, you know how many names a particular Cetasika gets. The first one you see is greed, Lobha. Lobha has many names, nine names. They are Œsava, Ogha, Yoga, Gantha, UpÈdÈna, NÊvaraÓa, Anusaya, SaÑyojanaa and Kilesa. Wrong view, DiÔÔhi, has how many names? Eight names, all except  NÊvaraÓa. Then delusion, Moha has how many names? Seven names, all except Gentha and UpÈdÈna. Dosa has how many names? Five names. What are they? Gantha. NÊvaraÓa, Anusaya, SaÑyojanaa and Kilesa. VicikicchÈ, doubt has four names–NÊvaraÓa, Anusaya, SaÑyojanaa and Kilesa. MÈna has only three names. What? Anusaya, SaÑyojanaa and Kilesa. Restlessness, Uddhacca has how many names? Three–hindrance, SaÑyojanaa and Kilesa. And worry, Kukkucca has only one name–hindrance. Ahiriks, shamelessness has only one name–Kilesa. Anottappa, fearlessness has only one name–Kilesa. IssÈ has one name–SaÑyojanaa, fetter. Macchariya has one name–SaÑyojanaa. Worry and then Thina (torpor), Ahirika, Anottappa, IssÈ and Macchariya have only one name. The others have more than one name. In this section greed gets nine names. Wrong view gets eight names and so on. If you remember all this you can easily identify them and find out. With regard to greed we don’t have to think of anything. It is in all the categories. What about doubt? Is it an Œsava? No. Ogha? No. Yoga? No. Gantha? No. UpÈdÈna? No. Hindrance, NÊvaraÓa? Yes. SaÑyojanaa? Yes Kilesa? Yes.

          This is the section on Akusala, unwholesome states. It is good to know these terms. If you read books on Buddhism you will understand clearly what is meant.

Sadhu! Sadhu! Sadhu!

Tape# 35


Chapter 7 (B)

Mixed Categories

          Today we come to Missaka Sa~gaha, the compendium of mixed categories. The categories treated in this section are of mixed nature. They are not Akusala only. They are not those that lead to enlightenment only. They are not all emyakata among them.


          The first of the categories is Hetu or roots. You are already familiar with roots. There are said to be six roots-three Akusala roots and three Kusala and AbyÈkata roots. The first Lobha, the second Dosa and the third Moha are Akusala roots. Fourth, fifth and sixth, Alobha, Adosa and Amoha are Kusala and AbyÈkata. These six Cetasikas serve as roots for the concomitant Cittas and Cetasikas. They are called roots, like roots of a tree. Lobha is identified as Lobha; Dosa as Dosa, Moha as Moha, Alobha as Alobha, Adosa as Adosa, and Amoha as Amoha. So there is no difficulty in indentifying these Hetus.


          The next category is of JhÈna~ga. You are already familiar with many of the Cetasikas in this section. But here we must understand JhÈna differently. When we see the word ‘JhÈna’, we always understand it to mean R|pÈvacara and Ar|pÈvacara JhÈnas. But here in the mixed category it has to be understood as something which looks at the object closely. It is not only what we here understand as JhÈna but also some other Dhammas, some other Cetasikas which can be called JhÈna. The definition of the work ‘JhÈna’ is to look closely, to contemplate closely, and also to burn the mental hindrances. Here JhÈna should be understood as the Cetasikas which look closely at the object. In the guide it says of close contemplation, but contemplation may mean something like meditation. Here we do not necessarily mean meditation like contemplation but just watching,  just looking.

          We are familiar with five JhÈna~gas, five factors of JhÈna. They are initial application, sustained application, joy, EkaggatÈ (one pointedness of mind) and then VedanÈ. Sukha and UpekkhÈ. Here there are seven JhÈna~gas. First is Vitakka. You know Vitakka. Then there is VicÈra. Vitakka is initial application. VicÈra is sustained application. Then there is PÊti (joy). EkaggatÈ is EkaggatÈ. Then there is Somanassa which is feeling (VedanÈ). Domanassa is feeling (vedanÈ). UpekkhÈ here also is feeling (VedanÈ). According to this section Domanassa is also a JhÈna~ga not because it looks at the object closely.

          Identification is not difficult. Vitakka is Vitakka. VicÈra is VicÈra. PÊti is PÊti. EkaggatÈ is EkaggatÈ. Somanassa is VedanÈ (feeling). Domanassa is VedanÈ. And UpekkhÈ is VedanÈ. So it is easy.


          The next category is Magga~ga, factors of Magga. Here also we should understand Magga differently. The usual meaning of Magga in Magga~ga is the path that leads to NibbÈna. But here Magga means something that leads to some place, some realm, some existence. You will find among the factors Akusala Cetasikas also.

          The first factor is SammÈdiÔÔhi. SammÈdiÔÔhi is identified with Amoha or PaÒÒÈ.
SammÈsa~kappa is identified with Vitakka. SammÈsa~kappa (right thought) means thoughts of renunciation, thoughts of non-killing and thoughts of non-cruelty. The second one is the opposite of thoughts to kill. If we want someont to die, such a thought is called ByÈpÈda Vitakka. The third one is the opposite of VihiÑsa Vitakka, the thought of cruelty. SammÈsa~kappa is thoughts of renunciation, thoughts of non-killing, thoughts of non-cruelty. These three are all identified with the Cetasika, initial application.

          Number three is SammÈvÈcÈ, right speech. That means the abstention from the four wrong kinds of speech.

          Number four is SammÈkammanta, right action. It is the abstention from the three wrong deeds.

          Number five is SammÈ-Èjiva, right livelihood. It is the abstention from four verbal misconducts and three bodily misconducts which are one’s livelihood.

          Number six is SammÈvÈyama, right effort. That is the Cetasika VÊriya.

          Numver seven is SammÈsati, right mindfulness. It is identified with Sati.

          Number eight is SammÈsamÈdhi. Right concentration is identified with EkaggatÈ, one-pointedness of mind. These eight are the usual ones we meet in many places.

          Now come the four which are not SammÈ but MicchÈ. Among the four the first one is MicchÈdiÔÔhi, wrong view. It is identified with DiÔÔhi Cetasika among the Akusala Cetasikas.

          The second of the four is MicchÈsa~kappa. MicchÈsa~kappa is the opposite of SammÈsa~kappa–so thoughts of senusal desire, thoughts of kolling, thoughts of cruelty. They are all identified with the Cetasika Vitakka.

          The third among the four is MicchÈvÈyÈma, wrong effort. That is VÊriya Cetasika accompanying the Akusala Cittas.

          The fourth among the four is MicchÈsamÈdhi. It is identified with EkaggatÈ, wrong EkaggatÈ. When your mind is concentrated on some wrong activity or some wrong act, it is called MicchÈsamÈdhi. It may be exemplified by someone fishing. When a person is fishing, his concentration is on killing the fish. He has some kind of SamÈdhi, but it is MicchÈsamÈdhi, a wrong kind of concentration.

          These are the twelve Magga~gas or twelve factors of path. Here path means that which leads to attainment of NibbÈna as well as the path that leads to other rebirths or existences.

          Among them is SammÈdiÔÔhi. There are different kinds of SammÈdiÔÔhi. How many do you remember? There is KammasakatÈsammÈdiÔÔhi. That is understanding of the law of Kamma. It is understanding that beings have Kamma as their own property. That is called KammasakatÈsammÈdiÔÔhi.

          Then there is VipassanÈ SammÈdiÔÔhi. It is seeing phenomena as impermanent, suffering and so soul.

          Then there is Magga SammÈdiÔÔhi. It is SammÈdiÔÔhi accompanying Magga Citta. And there is Phala SammÈdiÔÔhi accompanying Phala.
          Then there is PaccavekkhaÓÈsammÈdiÔÔhi, that accompanying the reviewing consciousness that follows the attainment of enlightenment.

          Sometimes JhÈna SammÈdiÔÔhi is also mentioned. So there are different kinds of SammÈdiÔÔhi.

          SammÈdiÔÔhi can be mundane as well as supramundane. KammasakatÈsammÈ­diÔÔhi and VipassanÈ SammÈdiÔÔhi are mundane. Magga SammÈdiÔÔhi and Phala SammÈdiÔÔhi are supramundane. PaccavekkhaÓÈsammÈdiÔÔhi and JhÈna SammÈdiÔÔhi are again mundane.

          Now although there are eight good factors of path, there are only four factors of path that are bad–MicchÈdiÔÔhi, MicchÈsa~kappa, MicchÈvÈyÈma, MicchÈsamÈdhi. There are no MicchÈvÈcÈ, MicchÈkammanta, MicchÈ-ŒjÊva, MicchÈsati. In some Suttas, in some discourses they are mentioned. But they are not separate mental factors, sepatate Cetasikas. That is why they are not mentioned in Abhidhamma.

          I think I told you about MicchÈsati one time. I don’t know whether you remember that. There is nothing that is MicchÈsati actually. Sati is a Sobhana Cetasika. As a Sobhana Cetasika it arises together with Kusala Cittas, some VipÈka Cittas and Kiriya Cittas. It never accompanies Akusala Cittas. According to reality there is no MicchÈsati. In some Suttas Buddha mentioned MicchÈsati, MicchÈdiÔÔhi and so on. So the commentaries explain that there is no such thing as MicchÈsati actually, but when you remember something you did wrong in the pst, then it is said to be MicchÈsati. Actually that is SaÒÒÈ associated with Akusala Cittas and their concomitants.

          There may be MicchÈvÈcÈ, MicchÈkammanta and MicchÈ ŒjÊva. These also are not separate Cetasikas. So they are not mentioned here. When you tell lies, there actually is MicchÈvÈcÈ, but it is not a separate Cetasika. It is just an Akusala Citta and the Cetasikas accompanying it. It is not mentioned among the factors of Magga here. There are only four bad factors of Maggas in this section.


          The next category is of the 22 Indriya. The word ‘Indriya’ is translated as the word ‘faculty’ in English. The literral meaning of Indriya is governing or having authority. These that are called Indriyas exercise their authority in their respective fields, in their respective domains. For example the eye sensitivity, eye sensitivity is called an Indriya becaues it exercises authority over seeing. When the eye sensitivity is strong, then seeing is also strong. When the eye sensitivity is weak, the seeing is weak. The eye sensitivity controls the quality of seeing. In the same way ear sensitivity controls the quality of hearing and so on. They are called Indriyas. In their respective domains they are bosses. In the domain of seeing eye sensitivity is the boss. In the domain of hearing ear sensitivity is the boss and so on.

          There are 22 Indriyas. The first one is Cakkhu Indriya. It is identified with Cakkhu PasÈda among the 28 R|pas. Number two is Sota Indriya, ear faculty. It is identified with Sota PasÈda, ear-sensitivity. Number three is GhÈna Indriya, nose faculty. It is identified with GhÈna PasÈda, nose-faculty. Number four JivhÈ Indriya is identified with JivhÈ PasÈda, tongue-faculty. Number five is KÈya Indriya, faculty of KÈya. The faculty of body is identified with KÈya PasÈda, body-sensitivity. Then number six is Itthi Indriya. It is identified with ItthibhÈva. Femininity faculty is identified with feminity R|pa. Number seven is Purisa Indriya, masculinity faculty is identified with PumbhÈva among the 28 R|pas. Then number eight is JÊvitindriya, life faculty. Jivitindriya is identified with two of the Paramattha Dhammas. One is NÈma JÊvitindriya and two is R|pa JÊvitindriya. Jivitindriya is identified with the Manindriya. Mano means mind. It is mind faculty or Citta facuty, so it is identified with Cittas.

          Number 10, 11,12,13 & 14–they are feeling Indriyas. The first is Sukha Indriya. It is identified with Sukha VedanÈ. Number 11 Dukkha Indriya is identified with Dukkha VedanÈ. Number 12 Somanassa Indriya is identified with Somanassa VedanÈ. Number 13 Domanassa Indriya is identified with Domanassa VedanÈ. And number 14 UpekkhÈ Indriya is identified with UpkkhÈ VedanÈ. Actually these five are identified with just one Cetasika which is VedanÈ.

          Then number 15 SaddhÈ Indriya is identified with the Cetasika SaddhÈ, the faculty of faith. VÊriya Indriya, the energy faculty or the effort faculty is identified with VÊriya. Number 17 Sati Indriya is identified with Sati, mindfulness. SamÈdhi Indriya, concentration is identified with one-pointedness or EkaggatÈ. Number 19 is PaÒÒÈ Indriya, wisdom faculty. It is identified with Amoha.

          Then number 20 is a long name–AnaÒÒÈtaÒÒassÈmÊtindriya. Sometimes names can be very long like NevesaÒÒanÈsaÒÒÈyatana. AnaÒÒÈtaÒÒassÈmÊtindriya–let us divide the words. AnaÒÒÈtaÑ, that is one word. ©assÈmi is another word. Iti is another word. Indriya is another word. These words combine to become one compound. You have to know PÈÄi to join these four words into one compound. AnÒÒÈtaÑ means not known, not known before. ©assÈmi means I will know. Iti means thus thinking, something like that. Indriya is Indriya. The literal meaning of AnaÒÒÈtaÒÒassÈmÊtindriya is the faculty of him who practices with the thought ‘I will know what has not been known by me before’. You don’t get this from the translation of the manual. Please note it carefully,  “the faculty of him who practices with the thought ‘I will know what has not been known by you before’ ”. You try to know, you try to see what you have not seen before. As a result of that practice you get the first stage of enlightenment. The konwledge or wisdom at the first stage of enlightenment or that accompanies SotÈpatti Magga is called AnaÒÒÈtaÒÒassÈmÊtindriya. Later on the maunal itself will show the identification.

          The next one is AÒÒindriya. AÒÒÈ means knowing within the limit. That means this faculty knows within the limit of what has been known before, what has been known by the first path. Actually all four types of path consiousness know the four noble truths. The PaÒÒÈ which accompanies SotÈpatti Phala Citta and so on is called AÒÒÈ because it knows within the limit of those already know by the first path. Therefore AÒÒindriya means the faculty which knows within the limit of those known by the first path. It will be identified with PaÒÒÈ or Amoha accompanying SotÈpatti Phala Citta up through Arahatta Magga Citta.

          The last one is AÒÒatÈvidriya. AÒÒatÈvÊ means one who has fully known. That means an Arahant. The Indriya of AÒÒÈtÈvÊ is called AÒÒÈtÈvindriya, the faculty of one who has fully known the four noble truths. This is identified with PaÒÒÈ accompanying the Arahatta Phala Citta.

          These three cover the PaÒÒÈ which accompanies the eight Lokuttara Cittas. Actually these are all identified with the Cetasika Amoha. The first PaÒÒindriya is Amoha. The second AnaÒÒÈtaÒÒassÈmÊtindriya is Amoha. AÒÒindriya is Amoha. AÒÒatÈvindriya is Amoha. The first one is PaÒÒindriya is a general faculty, the knowing faculty. The other three are actually the different fuctions of that Amoha. The first functions at SotÈpatti Magga. The second functions at the moment of Arahatta Phala. So they are separated into three different Indriyas. PaÒÒindriya, the first one, may be both mundane and supramundane. The other three beginnig with number 20 are supramundane only.


          The next category is Bala. Bala means strength or power. There are nine powers, nine Centasicas that are called powers. The first one is SaddhÈ Bala. It is identified with the Cetasika SaddhÈ, faith, the power of faith. The second is VÊriya Bala, the powe or effort or energy, the power of VÊriya. It is identified with the Cetasiks VÊriya. Number three is Sati Bala, mindfulness power. It is identified with Sati, mindfulness. Number four is SamÈdhi Bala. Concentration power is identified with EkaggatÈ. Number five, PaÒÒÈ Bala is identified with Amoha Cetasika. Number six HirÊ Bala, the power of shame is identified with HirÊ. Ottappa Bala is identified with Ottappa. Number eight Ahirika Bala is identified with the Cetasika Ahirika. Number nine Anotapa Bala is identified with the Cetasika Anottapa.

          Why are they called Bala or power? There are two reasons why they are called Bala. One reason is that they cannot be shaken by their opposites. When there is SaddhÈ, strong faith, cannot be shaken by non-faith. When there is strong VÊriya, it cannor be shaken by non-faith. When there is strong VÊriya, it cannot be shaken by laziness. But if your VÊriya is not strong, if your VÊriya does not reach the stage of Bala, then laziness may win. You will lose. When it reaches the stage of Bala, then laziness may win. You will lose. When it reaches the stage of Bala, then laziness may win. You will lose. When it reaches the stage of Bala or power or strength, it cannot be shaken by its opposite laziness. So one reason for them being called power is that they cannot be shaken by their opposites. Another reason they are called Bala is that they strengthen their cocomitants. They are strong in the concomitants.

          Among the Balas some are good, almost all of them are good. Number eight and nine are Akusala. It is said in the books that Akusala cannot eradicate Kusala, but Kusala can eradicate Akusala. Magga is Kusala. Magga can eradicate Akusala. But no Akusala can eradicate Kusala. We are fortunate. Otherwise we would not get Kusala.

          Number eight and nine are called power not because they cannot be shaken by their opposites. They can be shaken by their opposites because they are Akusala. So they can be eradicated by Kusala. They are called power because they are strong in their concomitants. They strengthen their concomitants. They may be strong by themselves, but when they meet with strong Kusala states, they cannot stand. They will lose. The first seven are called power for both reasons. They cannot be shaken by their opposites. Also they strengthen their concomitants. The last two are called power only because they strengthen their concomitants and not because they are Votshaken by their opposites.


          The next group is the Adhipati, predominance. There are four Adhipatis. Adhipati means laws or orerlord, a person who has absolute power. “The predomintes are factors which domiate the Cittas to which they belong in undertaking and accomplishing difficult or important tasks”. That is the explanation in the guide. Actually these are the factors that dominate not only Cittas but dominate the concomitant states, the conascent states. For example the first Kusala Citta has 38 Cetasikas. Among them there are Chada, VÊriya and Amoha or PaÒÒÈ and the Citta itself. When Citta is an Adhipti, then it dominates over all the Cetasikas. When Chada is an Adhipati, then it dominates over the Citta and all the other Cetasikas. When VÊriya is an Adhipati, it dominates over Citta and the other 37 Cetasikas. When PaÒÒÈ predominates, it dominates over Citta and the other 37 Cetasikas. The Adhipati dominate not only Citta but also the concomitant or conascent states.
          They also exercise authority. Therefore we should understand the difference between Indriya and Adhipati. Adhipati is an overlord. It exercises supreme control over the concomitants. The Idriyas are not like that. Indriyas exercise control in their own domain but not over others. Adhipati is compared to a king who has absolute power over everything. The Indriyas are compared to the ministers who have authority in their own offices but do not have authority over other ministers. That is the difference. Since Adhipati is the overlord exercising absulute power, there can be only one Adhipati at a time. If there are two they cannot be compatible because they would have to share authority. There can only be one Adhipati at a time while there can be many faculties at the same time.

          For example the first Kusala Citta has 38 Cetasikas. Among the Cetasikas there is SaddhÈ, VÊriya, Sati, SamÈdhi and PaÒÒÈ. When the first Kusala Citta arises it is accompanied by 38 Cetasikas. Among these 38 Cetasikas faith and others exercise authority over their own domain, over their own function. That means faith exercises authority over the function of faith. SaddhÈ is the boss. But in being mindful it is not the boss. Sati is the boss over that function. If Citta is an Adhipati at that time, then Citta has authority over all of them. That is the difference between Adhipati and Indriya. Adhipati is just one and exercises absolute authority over all. Indriyas are those that exercise authority in their own domain.

          There are four Adhipatis. The first is Chanda Adhipati. Here Chanda means the Cetasika Chanda not Lobha. Sometimes Lobha is described as Chanda like  in the word “KÈmachanda”. But here chanda just means the Chanda Cetasika, the will to do, the desire to do. Sometimes Chanda can be and Adhipati or predominate. When Chanda is predominate, then all other concomitants have to follow it. When Chada is predominate, then you can accomplish things.

          The Chanda of the Bodhisatta Sumedha was so great that if someone would say, “If you can Walk over a field of glowing embers from this side of the world to the other side of the world, then you will become a Buddha”, then he would walk on those glowing embers. Such was Sumedha’s Chada at that time. Sometimes Chanda can be predominate. When Chanda is predominate, you can accomplish things.

          The same is true for VÊriya Adhipati, the second one. VÊriya can be predominate. You have so much energy, you have so much effort that you are successful in your undertakings.

          Number three is Citta Adhipati. Citta can be predominate. When Citta is predominate, you can accomplisj things.
          Number four is VimaÑsÈ Adhipati, Investigation predominance. Actually investigation means not just investigating but understanding after investigation. Therefore it is identified with Amoha or PaÒÒÈ.

          There are four Adhipatis. Sometimes Chanda is Adhipati; sometimes VÊriya, somethimes Citta, sometimes VimaÑsÈ is Adhipati.


          The next group is ÈhÈra, food. Here ÈhÈra does not mean food but condition or cause. Number one is KabalÊkÈrÈhÈra. It is edible food, actually the nutriment that is in the food we eat. This KabalÊkÈrÈhÈra or nuttiment brings about the eight R|pas born of ÈhÈra. That is why it is called ÈhÈra. The word “ÈhÈra” means bringing. That means bring about, bring about effects. So KabalÊkÈrÈhÈra is called ÈhÈra because it brings about the pure octad caused by nutriment.

          The second is Phassa. Phassa is called ÈhÈra because it brings about what? Remember dependent origination. It brings about Bhava. Only when there is Phassa can there be VedanÈ. Only after contact is there VedanÈ. Actually Phassa and VedanÈ arise at the same time but there must be Phassa in order for the VedanÈ to arise. So Phassa brings VedanÈ. So it is called ÈhÈra.

          Number three is ManosaÒcetanÈ. That means just CetanÈ, mental volition. There is CetanÈ among the Cetasikas. What does CetanÈ bring?

Student: VipÈka.
Sayadaw: In the book it says PaÔisandhi. Kusala CetanÈ and Akusala CetanÈ bring about rebirth.

          Then number four is ViÒÒÈÓa. ViÒÒÈÓa brings about–again Paticca Samuppada–Nama-R|pa. ViÒÒÈÓa is called ÈhÈra because it brings about Nama-R|pa. If there is no ViÒÒÈÓa, there is no Nama-R|pa. Nama-R|pa is said to be conditioned by, to be brought by ViÒÒÈÓa. ViÒÒÈÓa is called ÈhÈra.

          KabalÊkÈrÈhÈra is identified with the R|pa ÈhÈra. Phassa is identified with Phassa. ManosaÒcetanÈ is identified with CetanÈ. ViÒÒÈÓa is identified with Citta.

          In the guide it says “According to the Suttanta method of explantation, edible food as nutriment sustains the physical body”. So it brings about a sustained mode of being. “Contact sustains feeling; mental volition is Kamma and Kamma generates rebirth; and consciousness sustains the compound of mind-and body”. This is according to Suttanta mehtod.

          “According to the Abhidhamma method, edible food sustains the material phenomena of fourfold origination in the body, and the other three nutriments sustain all their conascent mental and material pheomena”. In order to understand this we must understand PaÔÔhÈna. When we say the word “ÈhÈra”, we understand in two ways. ÈhÈra means condition or cause which sustains something or which brings about something. ÈhÈra in PaÔÔhÈna is different. For example, ManosaÒcetanÈ–CetanÈ brings about rebirth. But in PaÔÔhÈna they are not said to be related by ÈhÈra condition. They are related by way of Kamma condition, not ÈhÈra condition. But according to Suttanta we say that CetanÈ is the ÈhÈra of PaÔisandhi. That means CetanÈ is the cause, is the condition of PaÔisandhi. In PaÔÔhÈna their relation is not by way of nurition but by way of Kamma condition. So according to the Suttanta method there is one explanation. So according to Abhidhanna method there is another explantation.

          “Whereas edible food, as matter is indeterminate”–the Pali word is AbyÈkata. VipÈka Cittas, Kiriya Cittas, R|pa and NibbÈna are called AbyÈkata. So the first one, KabalÊkÈrÈhÈra is AbyÈkata. Phassa can be Kusala, Akusala or AbyÈkata. CetanÈ and ViÒÒÈÓa also can be Kusala, Akusala or AbyÈkata.

          Now ‘Clarifications’ on page 275–I’ve already explained that. “Herein, among the faculties it is explained that the faculty “I will know the unknown” is the knowledge of the path of stream-entry. “So the AnaÒÒÈtaÒÒassÈmÊtindriya should be identified with Amoha accompanying the path of stream entry or SotÈpatti Magga.

          “The faculty of one who knowledge (That is Annindriya.) is the six intermediate kinds of supramundane knowledge”. These three are PaÒÒÈ associated with the eight Lokittara Cittas. PaÒÒÈ associated with the first Lokuttara Citta is Anannatannassami­tindriya. PaÒÒÈ accompanying the last Lokuttara Citta is Annatavindriya. PaÒÒÈ accompanying the middle six beginning with SotÈpatti Phala through Arahatta Magga is called AÒÒidriya. AnaÒÒÈtaÒÒassÈmÊtindriya must be identified with PaÒÒÈ accompying SotÈpatti Magga. AÒÒindriya must be identified with PaÒÒÈ accompnying SotÈpatti Phala, SakadÈgÈmi Magga, SakadÈgÈmi Phala, AnÈgÈmi Magga, AnÈgÈmi Phala and Arahatta Magga Cittas. AÒÒatÈvindriya should be identified with PaÒÒÈ accompanying the Arahatta Phala Citta. Clarification here just means identification.

          Now I’m not happy here with the translation “final knowledge”. I don’t know why he translated it as “final knowledge”. The work “AÒÒÈ” in the word “AÒÒindriya”–that word is the combination of the preposition “Œ” and “©È”, the root “©È”. The root “©È” means to know, knowing. The preposition “Œ” here means a limit. So “AÒÒÈ” means knowing within the limit of SotÈpatti Magga, knowing within the limit of what has been seen by SotÈpatti Magga. So that is not the final knowledge. Final knowledge would be Arahatta Phala ©ÈÓa. Or we may say Arahatta Magga may be called final knowledge but not SotÈpatti Phala, SakadÈgÈmi Magga and so on. The translation “final knowledge” may not be so correct.

          Now come some complications and difficulties. The JhÈna factors are not found in the fivefold sense consciousness. That means in DvipaÒcaviÒÒÈÓa Cittas–DvipaÒcaviÒÒÈÓa Cittas are ten altogether. What are they? Two seeing consciousnesses, two hearing, two smelling, two tasting and two touching consciousnesses. In these ten Cittas there are no JhÈna factors. That means they do not acquire the status of JhÈna factors. Although they mar be present with these conscious nesses, they are not called JhÈnas. How many Cetasikas arise with seeing consciousness?

Student: Seven.
Sayadaw: The first seven. Among the first seven. Let us count the first seven. They are Phassa, Manasikara. Is Phassa a JhÈna factors? No. Is VedanÈ a JhÈna factor? Generally speaking yes. VedanÈ is among the JhÈna factors. But VedanÈ here with seeing consciousness is not called a JhÈna~ga. Because the ten sense Cittas are so weak they just have contact with the sense object closely. Although VedanÈ is concomitant with the seeing consciousness, that VedanÈ is not called a JhÈna~ga. VedanÈ will be called a JhÈna~ga when it accompanies the other types of consciousness.

          Also with seeing consciousness there is EkaggatÈ. Generally speaking EkaggatÈ is also one of the JhÈna~gas. But when it accompanies seeing consciousness, it is not called JhÈna~ga. It has no status of JhÈna. Although it is EkaggatÈ, one-pointedness, it is very very weak. We have to understand that although these Cetasikas are called JhÈna~gas, when they arise with these Cittas they are not considered JhÈna~gas. Although the Cetasikas which are ordinarily JhÈna~ga factors are found in the DvipaÒcaviÒÒÈÓa Cittas, they are not reckoned as JhÈna factors here. With the fivefold sense consiousness there arise EkaggatÈ and VedanÈ. Both EkaggatÈ and VedanÈ are not called JhÈna~ga when they accompany fivefold sense consciousness.

          The power of those types of consciousness that are without VÊriya–now you have to go back to the second chapter. How many tpyes of consciousness are not accompanied by VÊriya? There are 16 of them. What are they? Ten DvipaÒcaviÒÒÈÓa, two SampaÔicchana, three SantÊraÓas and PaÒcadvÈrÈvajjana. These 16 Cittas are not accompanied by VÊriya. In those Cittas we cannot have powers or Balas. Let us take seeing consciousness as an example. In seeing consciousness there is EkaggatÈ. EkaggatÈ is among the powers. EkaggatÈ is not called power when it accompanies seeing consciousness, hearing consciousness and so on. EkaggatÈ accompanies SampaÔicchana, but when it accompanies SampaÔicchana, it is not called power. When it accompanies SantÊraÓa it is not called power. When it accompanies PaÒcadvÈrÈvajjana, it is not called power.

          In the Ahetuka Cittas there are no Magga~gas. Let us take SampaÔicchana Cittas first. You cannot get Magga~gas in Ahetuka Cittas. Vitakka does not accompany ten sense Cittas. When it accompanies SampaÔicchana Citta, it is not called a Magga~ga. The same is true when it accompanies SantÊraÓa, PaÒcadvÈrÈvajjana, ManodvÈrÈvajjana and HasituppÈda. They are all Ahetuka Cittas. In Ahetuka Cittas there are no Magga~gas.

          In the consciousness accompained by doubt–here comes VicikicchÈ–one-pointedness does not attain to the stature of path factor, a faculty or power. In the VicikicchÈ Citta EkaggatÈ is not Magga~ga, not Indriya, not Bala. EkaggatÈ accompanies VicikicchÈ Citta because EkaggatÈ accompanies every type of consciousness. When it accompanies VicikicchÈ Citta, it is not called a Bala. Also it is not called a Magga~ga and also it is not called an Indriya.

          If you remember this, then you will know which attain the stature of Magga~ga, JhÈna~ga and Bala. Let us go back. JhÈna~gas are not found in DvipaÒcaviÒÒÈÓa. There are no Balas in those wihtout no Magga~ga, Bala and Indriya in VicikicchÈ Citta.

          The chart gives you the details. Please look at the chart. EkaggatÈ and VedanÈ are not JhÈna~ga in DvipaÒcaviÒÒÈÓa. Let us say KÈya ViÒÒÈÓa. There are two KÈya ViÒÒÈÓas, one the result of Kusala and the other the result of Akusala. The one which is the result of Akusala is accompanied by what feeling? Dukkha. Dukkha accompanying KÈya ViÒÒÈÓa which is result of Akusala is not a JhÈna~ga. The same is true for Sukha VedanÈ, Sukha accompanying the body consciousness is not a JhÈna~ga. VedanÈ accompanying the seeing, hearing, smelling and tasting caonsciousness is  not a JhÈna~ga. So EkaggatÈ and VedanÈ in DvipaÒcaviÒÒÈÓa are not JhÈna~gas. EkaggatÈ is not Bala in DvipaÒcaviÒÒÈÓa, SampaÔicchana, SantÊraÓa, PaÒcadvÈrÈvajjana and VicikicchÈ. Vitakka is not Magga~ga in Sampaticchana, Santirana, PancadvÈravajjana, ManodvÈravajjana and Hasituppada because they are Ahetuka Cittas. EkaggatÈ is not Maggana in 18 Ahetuka Cittas and VicikicchÈ Citta. EkaggatÈ again is not Indriya in VicikicchÈ Citta.

          Two Mohamula Cittas and Hasituppada-now how many Javanas are there? 55 Javanas. How many Javanas are accompanied by only one Hetu? Two Mohamula Cittas. How many are not accompanied by any Hetu? One, Hasituppada. Two Mohamula Cittas and Hasituppada Citta, these three do not attain to the stage of Adhipati because Mohamula Cittas are just wavering Cittas, VicikicchÈ and Uddhacca, and do not have this strong ability to exercise authority over others. Hasituppada Citta has no roots, so it cannot attain to the stage of Adhipati. The two Mohamula Cittas and Hasituppada are not Adhipati.

          When we take Citta Adhipati generally we would mean all Cittas, but actually not all Cittas are Citta Adhipati. Only one predominance obtains at a time according to the circumstances and only in Javana with two or three roots. Only in Javanas do not reach the stage of Adhipati. The VÊriya accompanying two Mohamula Cittas and Hasituppada are not Adhipati. Chanda dose not accompan the two Mohamula Cittas and Ahetuka Cittas. There is no question of Chanda here. Vimamsa means Amoha. Amoha dose not accompany these Cittas. There is no problem with it. Although we may ordinarily think that all Cittas may be Adhipati, only the Javanas accompanied by two roots or three roots and the Cetasikas along with them are Adhipati. When we say Citta Adhipati, we mean the Javanas accompanied by two roots or three roots. The two Mohamula Cittas Hasituppada are not roots or three roots. The two Mohamula Cittas and Hasituppada are not Citta Adhipati. VÊriya which accompanies these Cittas is not Adhipati. There can only be one Adhipati at a time. There may be one Adhipati at all. If there is Adhipati at all, there is only one, but that one may not be there when none of these four exercise full authority over concomitants. Adhipati can only be obtained when it is strong enough to be Adhipati and only when it accompanies Javanas of two roots or three roots. We should remember this. This will be useful when we go to PaÔÔhÈna. When you come to the eighth chapter and study about Adhipati condition, ÈhÈra condition, JhÈna condition, Magga condition and so on, we have to remember this.

          Let us look at the chart now, Missaka-sa~gaha (11). There are seven categories here. They are Hetu, JhÈna~gas, Magga~gas, Jndriya, Bala, Adhipati and ŒhÈra. We must find out how many names a particular Cetasika has in this section.

          We begin with PaÒÒÈ because it has the most of the greatest number of names. PaÒÒÈ has five names in this section. What are these five? PaÒÒÈ means Amoha. It is Hetu. It is not a JhÈna~ga. It is Magga~ga. It is Indriya, Bala and Adhipati. Concerning Hetu what is its name? Amoha. Among the Magga~gas what is its name? SammÈdiÔÔhi. Among the Indriya? Four Indriya–PaÒÒindriya and then three others. Among the Bala? PaÒÒÈ Bala. Among the Adhipati? Vimamsa Adhipati, investigation Adhipati.

          VÊriya has four names. They are Magga~ga, Indriya, Bala and Adhipati. What are the names? Magga~ga is what? SammÈvÈyÈma. Indriya? VÊriya Indriya. Bala? VÊriya Bala. Adhipati? VÊriya Adhipati.

          EkaggatÈ has four names–JhÈna~ga, Magga~ga, Indriya and Bala. When it is JhÈna~ga, what is it called? EkaggatÈ. Magga~ga? SammÈsamÈdhi. Indriya? SamÈdhin­driya. Bala SamÈdhi Bala.

          Sati has three names–Magga~ga, Indriya and Bala. What is Magga~ga? SammÈsati. What is Indriya? Sati Indriya. Bala? Sati Bala.

          Citta has three names–Indriya, Adhipati and ŒhÈra. When it is Indriya, what is it called? Manindriya, mind faculty. And Adhipati? Citta Adhipati. And ŒhÈra? ViÒÒÈÓa ÈhÈra.

          VedanÈ has two names–JhÈna~ga and Indriya. If it is JhÈna~ga what are the names? Somanassa, Domanassa, UpekkhÈ, Sukha and Dukkha. Indriya? There are five Indriya–Somandassa, Domanassa, UpekkhÈ, Sukha and Dukkha.

          Then SaddhÈ has how many names? It has two names–Indriya and Bala, SaddhÈ Indriya and SaddhÈ Bala.

          Vitakka has two names, JhÈna~ga and Magga~ga. When it is JhÈna~ga, it is Vitakka. When it is Magga~ga, it is SammÈsa~kappa.

          The others have only one name. Lobha is Hetu. Dosa, Moha, Alobha, Adosa are all Hetus. Vicara is what? JhÈna~ga. PÊti is what? JhÈna~ga. SammÈvÈcÈ? Magga~ga. SammÈkammanta, SammÈ ŒjÊva? Magga~gas. DiÔÔhi? Magga~ga. Hiri? One name only, Hiri Bala. Ottappa? Bala. Ahirika? Bala. Anottappa? Bala. Chanda? One name only, Adhipati. Phassa? ŒhÈra. CetanÈ? ŒhÈra. NÈma JÊvita? Indriya. Cakkhu PasÈda, eye- sensitivity? Indriya. KÈya PasÈda? Indriya. Cakkhu PasÈda, eye-sensitivity? Indriya. Sota PasÈda? Indriya. GhÈna PasÈda? Indriya. Jivha PasÈda? Indriya. KÈya PasÈda? R|pa JÊvita? Indriya. ŒhÈra? ŒhÈra.

          Those that have the name Hetu are six. They are Lobha, Dosa, Moha, Alobha, Adosa and Amoha. Those that have the name JhÈna~ga are only five. They are EkaggatÈ, VedanÈ, Vitakka, VicÈra and PÊti. Those that have the name Magga~ga are nine Cetasikas–PaÒÒÈ, VÊriya, EkaggatÈ, Sita, Vitakka, SammÈvÈcÈ, SammÈkammanta, SammÈ ŒjÊva and DiÔÔhi. Indriyas–there are 16–EkaggatÈ, Sati, Citta, VedanÈ, SaddhÈ, two JÊvitas, Cakkhu, Sota, GhÈna, JivhÈ, KÈya, ItthibhÈva, pumbhÈva, and PaÒÒÈ. And Bala there are nine–PaÒÒÈ or Amoha, VÊriya, EkaggatÈ, Sati, SaddhÈ, Hiri, Ottappa, Ahirika, Anottappa. There are only four Adhipati–VÊriya, Citta, Chanda and PaÒÒÈ. ŒhÈra, there are only four–Citta, Phassa, CetanÈ and ŒhÈra. ŒhÈra, there are only four–Citta, Phassa, CetanÈ and ŒhÈra. That is according to Paramattha Dhamma. When we just identify Paramattha Dhammas, there are six Hetus, five that have name JhÈna~gas and so on. You go down this way. If you want to know how many names PaÒÒÈ has in this section, you go across.

          That is the end of this section. At the end of this section there is a summary. “By way of entity (That means by way of Paramattha Dhammas.) the JhÈna factors are fivefold. “That has been covered by this chart.

Sadhu! Sadhu! Sadhu!

Tape# 36

Chapter 7 (C)                                                    


Bodhipakkhiya Sa~gaha

          Today’s section is on Bodhipakkhiya Dhammas. Most of the things taught in this section are familiar to you. They are mindfulness, supreme effort and so on. This section is called Bodhipakkhiya Sa~gaha, the compendium of the requisites of enlightement. Now the Pali word ‘Bodhipakkhiya’ is made up of three parts–‘Bodhi’, ‘Pakkha’ and ‘iya’. Bodhi here means enlightenment. Pakkha means side. So Bodhipakkha means the site of enlightenment. Iya means to belong to or to be included in. So Bodhipakkhiya means those that belong to the site of enlightenment. So it is the states that are on the site of enlightenment, the states that are included in the site of enlightenment. Actually these are the ones that lead to enlightenment. There are altogether 37 of these states divided into different groups like SatipaÔÔhÈna and so on. Mostly the Bodhipakkhiya are called factors of enlightenment or the requisites of enlightenment. There is another work in this section Bojjha~ga which will be translated as factors of enlightenment. These are the ones that lead to the attainment of enlightenment. Bodhi here means enlightenment or the four path knowledges.


          The first of the groups is SatipaÔÔhÈna. You are already familiar with SatipaÔÔhÈna. There are four SatipaÔÔhÈnas. In the word ’SatipaÔÔhÈna’ there is the word ‘Sati’ and the word ‘PaÔÔhÈna’. PaÔÔhÈna means to stand firmly, to be established firmly. So SatipaÔÔhÈna means Sati which is established firmly or which stands firmly.

          There are four SatipaÔÔhÈnas. The first one is KÈyÈnupassanÈ SatipaÔÔhÈna. In the word ‘KÈyÈnupassanÈ’ there are two words ‘KÈya’ and ‘AnupassanÈ’. KÈya here means the body as we usually know it and also the body of breathing in and breathing out. AnupassanÈ means repeatedly seeing. That means contemplating. So KÈyÈnupassanÈ is contemplation on the KÈya, contemplation on the body. The body here means both the physical body and the body of breathing in and breathing out or the whole of breathing in and breathing out.

          The next one is VedanÈnupassanÈ, contemplation on feelings. There is no difficulty in understanding this feeling contemplation. There are how many kinds feelings?  Three or five. There is contemplation on pleasant feeling, unpleasant feeling, neutral feeling, pleasant feeling connected with body, unpleasant feeling connected with body. Contemplation on any one of these feelings is called VedanÈnupassanÈ.

          The third one is CittanupassanÈ, contemplation on Citta, different types of consciousness. I hope you are familiar with the discourse on the foundations of mindfulness. CittanupassanÈ is described there as khowing Citta accompanied by attachment as Citta accompanied by attachment and so on.

          The last one is DhammÈnupassanÈ. Here the word ‘Dhamma’ is difficult to translate. In this manual it is translated as mental objects. I prefer to call them Dhamma objects. I’ve explained it to you many times.

          In the commentary to this manual Dhama is said to mean SaÒÒÈ and Sa~khÈra. If you look at the four foundations, the four SatipaÔÔhÈnas, the first one deals with R|pa. The second one deals with VedanÈ. The third one deals with ViÒÒÈÓa. Two aggregates are remaining. So Dhamma means these two aggregates–SaÒÒÈ and Sa~khÈra. Contemplation on SaÒÒÈ, contemplation on other objects is called DhammÈnupassanÈ, contemplation on Dhamma objects. But if you remember the discourse on the foundations of mindfulness, you know that DhammÈnupassanÈ includes more than SaÒÒÈ and Sa~khÈra. In DhammÈnupassanÈ section how many do you remember? NÊvaraÓas (hindrances), aggregates of clinging, bases, elements, Four Noble Truths. All these are included in Dhamma. They are not SaÒÒÈ and Sa~khÈra only. R|pa is alsao included in  Dhamma. The four Noble Truths are included in Dhamma. Contemplation on any one of these states is called DhammÈnupassanÈ. There are ofur SatipaÔÔhÈnas. In essence, in reality, the four SatipaÔÔhÈnas are identical with Sati, mindfulness. We will find this mindfulness as the seventh factor of the Noble Eightfold Path. There are eight factors in the Noble Eightfold Path and the seventh is SammÈsati. There it is called SammÈsati and here it is called SatipaÔÔhÈna. These are the four contemplations or the four setting up of mindfulness, the four foundations of mindfulness. In the note it is said, “the four foundations of mindfulness form a complete system of meditative practice for the development of mindfulness and insight.” It is a complete system of mindfulness, of meditative practice. You all know that you can read about mindfulness in detail in that discourse on the foundations of mindfulness.        


          The next group is SammappadhÈna, supreme effort. Here we have SammÈ and PadhÈna. SammÈ means in the right way. PadhÈna means making effort. Making effort in the right way is called SammappadhÈna. Here it is translated as supreme effort.
The names of these SammappadhÈnas are long. The first is UppannÈnaÑ pÈpakanam pahÈnÈya vÈyÈmo. VÈyÈmo means effort, VÊriya. VÈyÈma and VÊriya are synonymous. PahÈnÈya means to discard or to remove. PÈpakÈnaÑ means of evil states. UppannÈnaÑ means that have arisen. So the effort to remove or abandon evil states that have arisen. That means the abandonment of Akusala you did in the past. Making effort to abandon Akusala you did in the past is called SammappadhÈna, UppannÈnaÑ pahÈnÈya vÈyÈmo.

          How can one get rid of past Akusala? It is already done.What is meant here is that you not feel guilty about that Akusala you did in the past. If you feel guilty about that you will increase your Akusala. Even if I feel regret for the Akusala,what has been done cannot be undone. It’s already done. It will bring me more Akusala if I am regretful about that Akusala in the past. So not paying attention to it or just forgetting it and trying to do some Kusala is called this first SammappadhÈna. What are we to do about Akusala  in the past. Forget it. Try to forget it. Instead do Kusala.

          The second one is AnuppannÈnaÑ pÈpakÈnaÑ anuppÈdÈya vÈyÈmo. AnuppÈdÈya means for not arising. PÈpakÈnaÑ means of evil states. AnuppaÈnaÑ means for those that have not arisen. It is an effort for the non-arising of evil states that have not arisen. Here that have not arisen means that have not arisen right at this moment, that have not arisen in your mind. Also it is Akusala that has not arisen in  you with regard to some particular object. When we see some desirable object which we have not seen before, we may have attachment to that object. That kind of Akusala is called AnuppannÈ Akusala. Here ‘Akusala that has not arisen’ means Akusala that is not in our mind right now and also Akusala that has not arisen in our mind regarding some object. The effort to prevent the arising of unarisen evil states is one SammappadhÈna. We try to prevent Akusala from arising by practice of Kusala by the practice of the ten Kusala Kamma taught in the fifth chapter or by practice of Samatha and VipassanÈ.

          The third one is AnuppannÈnaÑ kusalÈnaÑ uppÈdÈya vÈyÈmo, the effort for the arising of wholesome states that have not yet arisen. So it is Kusala which has not arisen in our minds before like Samatha meditation, VipassanÈ meditation and Magga. There are those that have not arisen in our minds before. For their arising you make an effort and that effort is SammappadhÈna. When you practice meditation you are having this SammappadhÈna. You are trying to make Kusala arise that has not arisen in your mind before.
          Number four is UppannÈnaÑ kusalÈnaÑ bhiyyobhÈvÈya vÈyÈmo. That is the effort to augment wholesome arisen states. That means for the growth, for the development of wholesome states. Suppose you are practicing meditation and have some VipassanÈ Kusala. You try to practice more VipassanÈ. That effort is called SammappadhÈna. You have experienced this VipassanÈ, wholesome state and you try to make it happen again and again . That is the effort for the growth of the wholesome states that have arisen.

          There are four efforts here–two regarding Akusala and two regarding Kusala. Regarding Akusala, it is the effort to abandon Akusala which has been done and the effort for non-arising of Akusala that has not yet arisen. With regard to Kusala it is the effort for the arising Kusala which has hot yet arisen and the effort for the growth of Kusala which has arisen.

          Although there are four SammappadhÈnas there is only one Paramattha Dhamma, one ultimate reality. That is VÊriya, VÊriya is only one. Here since there are four functions of it, we take it to be of four kinds, four making efforts, four supreme efforts. In reality, in ultimate reality all these four are just one mental factor which is VÊriya.

          Let us go back to SatipaÔÔhÈna. Why are there four SatipaÔÔhÈnas? Actually these four SatipaÔÔhÈnas are just one Cetasika Sati. One Cetasika Sati is said to be four SatipaÔÔhÈnas because there are four kinds of objects–body (KÈya) , feeling (VedanÈ), conciousness (Citta) and Dhamma objects.

          There are four kinds of understanding of them. We must understand KÈya as not beautiful. Understand means we must see through practice. We must understand VedanÈ we must see it as Dukkha. With regard to Citta we must see it as impermanent. If you pay attention to your thoughts–one thought coming in and then going away, another coming and going–you see every thought there is a new consciousness or new thought. What people take to be one continuous mind actually is not one continuous mind. It is made up of small very brief moments of consciousness arising and disappearing,  arising and disappearing. With regard to Citta we must understand it to be impermanent.

          With regard to Dhamma we must understand it to be Anatta, no soul. They are just Dhamma rolling on and on all by themselves. There is no authority that makes them act in this way or that way. They just happen that way according to their own intrinsic nature. This understanding we get through the practice of SatipaÔÔhÈna. Since there are four kinds of seeing, there are four kinds of SatipaÔÔhÈnas.

          Also the four SatipaÔÔhÈnas abandon four kinds of wrong view. Let us call them distortions. With regard to KÈya we think that KÈya is beautiful. People are now trying to be beautiful by doing exercise and so on. But according to the teachings of the Buddha it is not beautiful. So if you practice SatipaÔÔhÈna meditation and really get into this, you will come to see that this KÈya is not beautiful. It is make up of head hairs, body hairs, nails, teeth, skin and so on. So it abandons the notion of beauty with regard to KÈya.

          With regard to VedanÈ it abandons the notion of Sukha. When we have pleasant sensation, we are glad and we think it is Sukha. But actually we must see Dukkha even in Sukha VedanÈ. Sukha VedanÈ is not permanent. It comes and goes. When it goes, we are sorry. And so we need to see that it is Dukkha and abandon the notion of Sukha with regard to VedanÈ.

          With regard to Citta we need to abandon the notion of permanency. If we don’t practice meditation and if we don’t think about the Dhamma, we will think that our minds are permanent or at least that it lasts for some time. I think I have the same mind as I had a year ago or five years age. With regard to Citta we tend to take it to be permanent. As I said before when you practice Cittanupassana, you see that Citta is not one solid thing. It is made up of small moments of consciousness and so it is Anicca.

          With regard to Dhammas we often see them as Atta. We think we can have authority over them. We think they are substantial. But when we practice Dhammanupassana meditation, we come to see that both these mental and physical phenomena just arise and disappear, arise and disappear. You are like a spectator watching them from a distance. You see them coming and going, coming and going by themselves. There is nobody who regulates them. Since there are four kinds of abandoning,  there are four SatipaÔÔhÈnas. Although Sati is only one, it becomes four because there are four objects, there are four kinds of understanding and there are four wrong views to get rid of. That is why there are said to be four SatipaÔÔhÈnas and not just one.

          Now SammappadhÈna is also just one, but it has four functions the function of abandoning evil states that have arisen, preventing the arising of evil states that have not yet arisen; the third function is the effort to arouse wholesome states that have not yet arisen and the last one is making much of wholesome states that have already arisen. Because there are four functions, SammappadhÈna although it is only one, the Cetasika VÊriya, it is said to be four.


          The next group is IddhipÈda. IddhipÈda, how is it translated?  Accomplishment, means to accomplishment. Iddhi means accomplishment. PÈda means cause, way or means. PÈda really means foot. You stand on your feet. If you have no feet, you cannot stand. Here also if there are no IddhipÈda, there can be no Iddhi. That is why it is called IddhipÈda, the foot of accomplishment. That means the cause of accomplishment or the means to accomplishmennt.

          There are four IddhipÈdas. The first is ChandiddhipÈda–Chanda which is IddhipÈda, or IddhipÈda which is Chanda. You all know Chanda. It is desire or will to do. Chanda is one of the factors or one of the means of accomplishment. When you have a strong Chanda, you can achieve many things.

          The second is VÊriyiddhipÈda. It is VÊriya as a means to accomplishment.

          The third one CittiddhipÈda. It is Citta as a means to accomplishment.

          And the fourth is VimaÑsiddhipÈda. VimaÑsÈ means PaÒÒÈ. It is PaÒÒÈ as a means to accomplishment.

          In the notes, “These are identical to the four predominants.” In the second section there are Adhipatis. The four IddhipÈdas and the four Adhipatis are identical. “These are identical with four predominates. However, whilw those states become predominants (Adhipati) on any occasion when they are instrumental in accomplishing a goal, they become IddhipÈdas only when they are applied to achieving the goal of the Buddha’s teaching. The expression ‘IddhipÈda’ extends to both mundane and supra­mundane states”. So both mundane and supramundane states can be called IddhipÈda. Actually both mundane and supramundane Chanda, VÊriya, Citta and Amoha are called IddhipÈda. Here Iddhi does not mean miracle. It is just accomplishment, accomplish­ment of JhÈna, accomplishment of Magga, accomplishment of Phala.

          ChandiddhipÈda is the Cetasika Chanda. VÊriyiddhipÈda is the Cetasika VÊriya. CittiddhipÈda is the 89 or 121 Cittas. VimaÑsiddhipÈda is the Cetasika amoha.


          The next group is Indriya. They are not new to you. These Indriyas are among the 22 Indriyas taught in the second section in the Missaka (mixed) category. There 22 are mentioned and here only five are mentioned. These five are conducive to the attainment of enlightenment.

          The first one is Saddhindriya. Indriya means to have authority. But it is translated as faulty. Saddhindriya is faith or confidence. Viriyindriya is effort or energy. Satindriya is mindfulness. SamÈdhindriya is EkaggatÈ. PaÒÒindriya is Amoha.

          In the note it says, “The faculties and powers comprise the same five factors, though different functions are attached to the two categories. The faulties are factors which exercise control in their respective domains”. They are not like Adhipati. There is only one Adhipati while there are many faculties. So they  exercise control in their respective domains. “The powers are these same factors considered as being unshakable by their opposites.”

          “Thus the five faculties exercise control in the respective spheres of resolution (That is for SaddhÈ.), exertion (That is for VÊriya.) awareness (That is for Sati.), non-distraction (That  is for SamÈdhi.) and discernment (That is for PaÒÒÈ.). “They exercise authority in these spheres. They exercise control in these spheres. SaddhÈ in not just faith. There is an element of resolution or decision in SaddhÈ. You decide something is to be the object of SaddhÈ and then you have faith in it. There is an element of decision in SaddhÈ. So here it says,”exercise control in the respective spheres of resolution.” Then there is VÊriya (exertion), Sati (awareness), SamÈdhi (non-distraction) and PaÒÒÈ (discernment or understanding).


          “The five powers are these same states considered as unwavering and as incapable of being overcome by their opposites.” This paragraph is for both Indriyas and Balas. The five Balas are these same states “considered as unwavering and as incapable of being overcome by their opposites.” Here they are called Bala because they cannot be overcome by their opposites.

          “In the development of the faculties (This is important.), faith and wisdom are to be balanced.” You have heard this time and again. I have talked about this many times. “Faith and wisdom are to be balanced to avoid the extremes of blind credulity and intellectual’ cleverness.” If you have too much faith, you believe in everything. About two or three days ago there was news about a statue drinking milk. It was shown even on television. Many people went to that place and offered milk to the statue. Later on it was found to be a fraud. If you have too much faith, you will believe that. If you have too much wisdom, if you know too much, you become intellectually clever. You become crafty or maybe something like dishonest. Faith and wisdom have to be balance. “Energy and concentration are to be balanced to  avoid restlessness agitation and sluggish immobility of mind.” If you make too much effort or if concentration and effort are not balanced, and energy or effort is too much, then restlessness comes in or you are agitated. Once this balance is disturbed, you cannot get concentration. If you have too much concentration, then sluggish immobility of mind arises. When your mind becomes calm, steady and still, you tend to become lazy. Excess concentration is conducive to sluggishness of mind. When the mind becomes sluggish, you begin to lose the object because you become sleepy and want to go to sleep. Energy and concentration are also to be balanced. I think during meditation the balancing of energy of concentration is more important than the balancing of faith and wisdom. You already have enough faith and you are trying to get wisdom. Energy and concentration must be balanced. Sometimes the Yogis make the mistake of making too much effort or making too much concentration. Both too much energy and too much concentration are bad. If anyone of them is in excess,  the balance is disturbed and your meditation is not good. Faith and wisdom are to be balanced. Energy and concentration are to be balanced.

          What about Sati? “But strong mindfulness is always necessary.” There is no excess of mindfulness. “For mindfulness oversees the development of the other faculties and ensures that they are kept in balance.” When there is mindfulness, mindfulness takes care that each  of these faculties does its own function properly. It sees to it that they do not function too much or that they function too little. Mindfulness is like a regulating factor. Only when there is mindfulness can all these be kept in balance. There is no such thing as an excess of mindfulness. There is no such thing as too much mindfulness. That is why mindfulness is compared to salt. Salt is in every dish. It is also compared to the Prime Minister who does everything. Mindfulness has to be developed. There cannot be too much mindfulness. When these five faculties are well-balanced, then your meditation is good. If one of them acts strangely, if one of them is overacting or underacting, then you lose the balance or equilibrium and you cannot meditate. These five are those that lead to or that are conducive to the attainment of enlightenment.

          Then Balas–they are called powers or strengths because they cannot be shaken by their opposites. They are strong enough to withstand the onslaught of not having faith, laziness, heedlessness and so on. Therefore they are called Balas.

          We met nine Balas in the second section. Here only five of them are taken because they are the ones that are conducive to the attainment of enlightenment.


          The next group is the Bojjha~gas. They are all familiar states. There are seven Bojjha~gas. The word ‘Bojjha~ga’ is a combination of two words–‘Bodhi’ and ‘A~ga’. Bodhi is explained as meaning one who knows or one who has enlightenment and also a group of mental states that helps one get enlightenment or that are instrumental in achieving enlightenment. So they are called factors of enlightenment because A~ga means constituents or parts.
          As you know there are seven factors of enlightenment. The first one is Satisambojjha~ga. The individual factors are called Sambojjha~gas. The prefix ‘Sam’ is added there. So we have Satisambojjha~ga,  Dhammavicayasambojjha~ga and so on. Bojjha~ga and Sambojjha~ga actually are the same. The prefix may be for the intensification of the root. For practical purposes Bojjha~ga and Sambojjha~ga are the same. The first one is Satisambojjha~ga. It means Sati which is a factor of enlightenment or actually which is a factor that leads to enlightenment. The first one has already been mentioned as the four foundations of mindfulness and here it is mentioned as a factor of enlightenment. Again it will be mentioned as a factor of path. The  second one is Dhammavicayasambojjha~ga. Here Dhamma means what?  Dhamma means Dhamma. These Sambojjha~gas are explained in the commentary as those that accompany VipassanÈ. Sati and others that arise during VipassanÈ are called Sambojjha~ga. Dhamma here means what?  It must be the object of VipassanÈ. What are the objects of VipassanÈ?  Mundane Citta, Cetasika and R|pa. VipassanÈ does not take supramundane as objects. Why? VipassanÈ tries to see impermanent nature, suffering nature and soulless nature of things. You cannot practice VipassanÈ on NibbÈna. Dhamma here means five aggregates, five aggregates of clinging. Vicaya is translated as investigation, thinking about it. So it is something like investigation. Here Dhammavicaya means not just investigaion, but understanding, understanding of the five aggregates of clinging. That is Dhammavicaya. Dhammavicaya is described as PaÒÒÈ accompanying VipassanÈ. You practice VipassanÈ and you see things clearly. ‘See’ means you see in your mind matter clearly, mind clearly- mind and matter arising and disappearing. You see that there are only mind and matter arising and disappearing, and that there is nothing more like Atta  and so on. When you see in this way, you are said to have this Dhammavicayasambojjhangs. You are understanding the Dhammas. You are understanding the five aggregates of clinging. Although it is translated as investigation, although the Pali word is Vicaya, here we mean understanding, not just thinking of it, not just investigating it. In the note it says, “Investigation of states is a designation for wisdom (PaÒÒÈ), insight into mental and material phenomena as they really are.”

          The third one is VÊriyasambojjha~ga, effort or energy. It is effort or energy which is not too much or too little because of it is not balanced, if it is too much or too little, it will not serve as Sambojjhangs. It will serve as a cause for agitation, and if it is too little, it will serve as a cause for laziness. VÊriyasambojjha~ga means VÊriya or effort which is strong but is not too much  or too little.

          The next one is PÊtisambojjha~ga, joy or zest. PÊti which arises during the practice of mediation is called PÊtisambojjhangs. It is not the PÊti which arises when you see something you like. It is the PÊti which arises in regard to Dhamma. It is the PÊti which arised during meditation. Many of you have experienced PÊti or PÊtisambojjha~ga during the practice of meditation.

          Then there is Passaddhisambojjha~ga. There are two kinds of Passaddhi-KÈya  Passaddhi and Citta Passaddhi, tranquillty of consciousness and tranquility of mental factors. KÈya Passaddhi means tranquility of Cetasikas. Citta Passaddhi means tranquility of Citta. This tranquility is also Sambojjha~ga when it arises in a person who is practicing VipassanÈ meditation. Passaddhi means both tranquility of consciousness and the mental body.

          Then there is SamÈdhisambojjha~ga, concentration Sambojjha~ga. When you practice VipassanÈ and your mind goes into the object, stays on the object, then you experience SamÈdhisambojjha~ga. When you experience real SamÈdhisambojjha~ga, there are no mental hindrances. All mental hindrances are subdued. Your mind is just on the object. It is not distracted to other objects. The mind hits the object again and again.

          The last one is UpekkhÈsambojjha~ga. I have told you whenever you find the word ‘UpekkhÈ’ to be careful. It may mean VedanÈ UpekkhÈ or neutrality UpekkhÈ. Here UpekkhÈ means mental neutrality, equanimity, Tatramajjhattata. It is one of the universal beautiful Cetasikas, not neutral feeling. Here UpekkhÈ does not mean indifferent or neutral feeling. It means mental neutrality, equanimity. It can be translated as equanimity, but we must understand it to mean mental neutrality, not falling to this side or that side, being in the mikkle. Tatramajjhattata means to stand in the middle.

          “The three factors of investigation, energy and zest ar4e opposed to mental sluggishness.” These three, Dhammavicaya, VÊriya and PÊti are opposed to mental sluggishness. They are conducive to agitation. When you have strong understanding, your mind is very active. When you have a lot of effort, there is also a lot of activity. When you experience PÊti, you are like jumping. So they are  opposed to mental sluggishness and they are conducive to agitation.

          “The three factors of tranquility, concentration and equanimity counteract mental excitation.” They are opposed to mental excitation. They are conducive to sluggishness. If you let them arise without mindfulness, one group will take you to agitation and the other group will take you to sluggishness. So you need Sati there. Put Sati and it will control all of them and put them in their respective places and will see to it that they function  properly in their respective area. Mindfulness assumes that the two groups occur in balance, neither exceeding the other.” That is why Sati is always desired, Sati is always needed. Without Sati these mental factors would go wild. One will take you to sluggishness. The other will take you to agitation or mental excitation. You have to put in Sati to control them. Sati is very important.

          These are the seven factors of enlightenment. The identification is easy. Satisambojjha~ga is Sati. Dhammavicayasambojjha~ga is Amoha or PaÒÒÈ. VÊriyasambojjha~ga is VÊriya. PÊtisambojjha~ga is PÊti. Passaddhisambojjha~ga is two Passaddhis. SamÈdhisambojjha~ga is EkaggatÈ. UpekkhÈsambojjha~ga is Tatra­majjhattatÈ. Only the last one you have to be careful about. It is notUpekkhÈ VedanÈ. It is TatramajjhattatÈ.


          The next group is Magga~ga, factors of path. Magga means path. In the second section Magga just means a path, a path to any destination. But here Magga means path to NibbÈna. These are the constituents, the components, the parts of this path. That is why they are called Magga~ga. Magga means path. Anga means part, constituent or maybe member. So they are called path factors.

          These eight path factors are all familiar to you. SammÈdiÔÔhi is the first one, right understanding. SammÈdiÔÔhi is the same as Dhammavicaya among the Sambojjha~gas. It is understanding the Four Noble Truths, understanding the law of Kamma and understanding the Anicca, Dukkha and Anatta nature of mind and matter. All this is called SammÈdiÔÔhi.

          Then the second one is SammÈsa~kappa. SammÈsa~kappa is translated in the manual as right intention. We usually translate it as right thought. Whether it is right thought or right intention, actually it is the mental factor Vitakka. Vitakka is called SammÈsa~kappa here. Its function is to take the consciousness to the object. But in the MahasatipaÔÔhÈna Sutta and in many places it is explained as thoughts of renunciation, thoughts of goodwill and thoughts of harmlessness. That means thoughts of not killing and thoughts of not being cruel to other beings. Actually it is Vitakka, initial application directed towards these things.

          The next is SammÈvaca, right speech. That is abstention from four kinds of wrong speech.

          Next is SammÈkammanta, right action. That is abstention from three kinds of wrong doing.

          SammÈ Œjiva, right livelihood is abstention from four kinds of wrong speech and three kinds of wrong doing which are one’s livelihood.

          SammÈvÈyÈma is right effort. It is VÊriya. There can be wrong effort. Here it is right effort only. Wrong effort will accompany Akusala Cittas.

          SamÈsati is next. It is Sati again.

          The last one is SammÈsamÈdhi. It is EkaggatÈ  or concentration.

          SammÈdiÔÔhi is Amoha. SammÈsa~khappa is Vitakka. SammÈvÈcÈ, SammÈkammanta and SammÈ ŒjÊva are the same Cetasikas. SammÈvÈyÈma is identified with VÊriya. SammÈsati is Sati. SammÈsamÈdhi is EkaggatÈ.

          In the notes, “Path factors 3-5 are identical with  the three abstinences (three Virati). Right effort is the same as the four supreme efforts (SammappadhÈna). Right mindfulness is the same as the four foundations of mindfulness (SatipaÔÔhÈna). Right concentration is defined in terms of the four JhÈnas of the Suttanta system.” If you have read the MahasatipaÔÔhÈna Sutta, you understand this. In the MahasatipaÔÔhÈna Sutta in the section on DhammaÈupassanÈ the definition of these eight factors is given. When the buddha gave the definition of SammÈsamÈdhi, the Buddha described the four JhÈnas according to the fourfold method. Strictly according to that definition SammÈsamÈdhi means JhÈna SamÈdhi. But before you reach JhÈna SamÈdhi, you reach neighborhood SamÈdhi. Before JhÈna SamÈdhi there has to be some kind of SamÈdhi. They also can be called SammÈsamÈdhi.

          These eight factors are grouped into three– SÊla group, SamÈdhi group and PaÒÒÈ group. Number one and two belong to PaÒÒÈ group. Number three, four and five belong to SÊla group. Number six, seven and eight belong to SamÈdhi group. Number six and seven are conducive to number eight. That is why they are grouped together. If you make no effort, you cannot get concentration. So Sati and VÊriya are conducive to or are helpers of SamÈdhi. That is why they are grouped as SamÈdhi or they are said to belong to SamÈdhi group. VÊriya is not SamÈdhi. Sati is not Samashi actually. But they are included in the group of SamÈdhi because they help SamÈdhi to arise.

          Then there is SammÈdiÔÔhi and SammÈsankappa. SammÈdiÔÔhi is alright. Why is SammÈsankappa included in the PaÒÒÈ group? Again Vitakka is not PaÒÒÈ. Vitakka is Vitakka. It is included in the PaÒÒÈ group because if Vitakka does not take the mind to the object, there can be no PaÒÒÈ. Vitakka is beneficial to PaÒÒÈ. It takes the mind not only to PaÒÒÈ but to other Cittas and Cetasikas as well. If Vitakka does not take the Citta and Cetasikas to the object, there can be no understanding of the object. That is why SammÈsa~kappa or Vitakka is included in the group of PaÒÒÈ.

          These three groups form the three steps of practice to be taken up by a follower of the teachings of the Buddha. One practices SÊla; then one practices SamÈdhi; and then one practices PaÒÒÈ. When you are practicing VipassanÈ meditation, how many of them are in your mind?  All eight?  No. Strictly speaking no. You are not refraining from telling lies. You are not refraining from killing. Refraining means you have an occasion to tell a lie and you don’t lie. You have an occasion to kill and you don’t kill. SammÈkammanta and SammÈvaca will arise in your mind. Sitting in meditation you are not refraining from all three. These three actually do not arise during the practice of meditation. When you say, “PaÓÈtipÈtÈ veramaÓi sikkhÈpadaÑ samÈdiyÈmi” and so on, they are said to be present. Although they are not present in the practicioner of VipassanÈ at the time of practice, they are said to be accomplished. You take precepts before you practice VipassanÈ. These five without the Viratis are called KÈraka Magga~ga. KÈraka means worker. They are the ones who are really doing the job. You make effort. You apply Sati, mindfulness. Then there is concentration. And then there is understanding, SammÈdiÔÔhi. All these happen because there is SammÈsa~kappa, because Vitakka takes them to the object. At every moment of good VipassanÈ meditation these five are working together. So these five are called Karaka Magga~ga, worker Magga~gas. The others–I don’t know what name to give to them. They are supposed to be already accomplished. Actually they do not arise during the moments of VipassanÈ. These three do arise together at the moment of Magga. When you gain enlightenment, at the moment of Magga and also at the moment of Phala they arise together. Only then or only when you really refrain from killing and so on, do they arise. But when you are practicing VipassanÈ meditation, there are no Viratis in your mind.

          These are the eight Magga~gas, eight factors of path. That means the constituents of path. Since they are called constituents of path strictly speaking they arise with Magga Citta. What about the Magga~gas we just talked about during VipassanÈ mediation?  Can they be called Magga~gas?  Strictly speaking they are not Magga~ga when we practice VipassanÈ. But they are called PubbabhÈgamagga~ga or Lokiya Magga~ga, mundane Magga~ga. The real Magga~gas are supramundane Maggamgas. They are the eight that accompany Magga Citta. The five that accompany VipassanÈ Cittas are also called Magga~ga. Those that are preliminary to the real Msgganga can also be called Magga~ga. We have to understand that there are two kinds of Magga~ga–mundane Magga~ga and supramundane Magga~ga. We practice mundane Magga~ga in order to get supramundane Magga~ga. We cannot practice supramundane Magga~ga. Actually supramundane Magga~ga is the result of the practice of mundane Magga~ga.

          Let’s go to the last verse. “All these occur in the supramundane except at times intention (Vitakka) and zest (PÊti). “All these occur in the supramundane, all these eight factors arise with Magga Citta and Phala Citta. “Except at times” that means sometimes Vitakka and PÊti do not. That means with second JhÈna Lokuttara Vitakka does not arise. Also with third, fourth and fifth Lokuttara Cittas Vitakka does not arise. PÊti does not arise with fourth and fifth JhÈna Lokuttara Cittas. That is why it says at times intention and zest do not arise. Vitakka and PÊti arise with some Lokuttara Cittas but not with all Lokuttara Cittas.

          “In the mundane, too, they occur in the course of the sixfold purification, according to circumstances.” We will study the sixfold purification in the ninth chapter in the section on VipassanÈ meditation. In that section seven stages of purity are mentioned. The last stage of purity is Magga. The first six stages of purity are VipassanÈ. Actually the first in not VipassanÈ but the purification of SÊla. “They occur in the course of sixfold purification”–that means in the course of the practice of VipassanÈ these Magga~gas will arise in the mundane Cittas. When you practice meditation the VipassanÈ Cittas are all mundane Cittas. In the mundane they occur in the course of the sixfold purification according to circumstances. SammÈvÈcÈ, SammÈkammanta and SammÈ ŒjÊva are not present in the minds of Yogis who are practicing VipassanÈ meditation. In the Lokuttara Cittas they all arise. In the Lokiya Cittas in the course of the sixfold purification they will arise according to circumstances.

          Let us go to the sheet. Actually you will have to draw the diagram. Here we have SatipaÔÔhÈna, SammÈppadhÈna, IddhipÈda, Indriya, Bala, Bojjha~ga, Magga~ga. On the left VÊriya Sati and so on are given. In this chart only 14 states are treated. That means we take Citta as one. 14 states are treated in this section.

          The first factor is VÊriya which has the greatest number of names. So we put it first. It has nine names. VÊriya functions as nine categories here. It is SammappadhÈna which are taken as four. It is IddhipÈda, VÊriyiddhipÈda. It is indriya, VÊriyindriya. It is Magga~ga, SammÈvÈyÈma. There are five plus four, nine.

          There are eight for Sati. There are SatipaÔÔhÈna four. As Indriya it is satindriya. Bala–it is Sati Bala. As Bojjha~ga it is Satisambojjha~ga. And as Magga~ga it is Sammasati. So four plus four is eight.

          Amoha or PaÒÒÈ–there are five. It is IddhipÈda–VimaÑsÈ. It is Indriya, Pannindriya. It is Bala, PaÒÒÈ Bala. It is Bojjha~ga, Dhammavicayasambojjha~ga. And it is Magga~ga, SammÈdiÔÔhi.

          EkaggatÈ has how many names?  Four. It is Indriya. What Indriya?  SamÈdhindriya. It is Bala, SamÈdhi Bala. It is Bojjha~ga, SamÈdhisambojjha~ga. And it is Magga~ga, SammÈsamÈdhi. So there are four.

          Then there is SaddhÈ. There is Indriya, Saddhindriya. There is Bala, SaddhÈ Bala. There are only two.

          The remaining have only one name. Vitakka is SammÈsa~kappa. Passadhi is Bojjha~ga, Passaddhisambojjha~ga. PÊti again is PÊtisambojjha~ga. TatramajjhattatÈ is UpekkhÈsambojjha~ga. Chanda is IddhipÈda. Citta is IddhipÈda. SammÈvÈcÈ, SammÈkammanta and SammÈ ŒjÊva each one is a Magga~ga.

          Vitakka and others have only one name each. VÊriya has the greatest number  of names. It has nine names. Sati has eight names. PaÒÒÈ has five. SamÈdhi or EkaggatÈ has four. SaddhÈ has two. 14 states are treated in this section. Each state is included in a certain number of categories. Under the supreme efforts there is the number four. It shows the totals nine, eight and so on.

          This section deals only with those states that are conducive to enlightenment or conducive to Bodhi. They are called Bodhipakkhiya. There are 37 Bodhipakkhiya Dhammas. Please be familiar with these 37. If you read the commentaries, you will find them mentioned again and again. Can you tell me just the headings of these states?  SatipaÔÔhÈna (four foundations of mindfulness), supreme efforts, means to accomplishment, faculties, powers, factors of enlightenment factors of path. I want you to be familiar with SatipaÔÔhÈna,  SammappadhÈna, IddhipÈda, Indriya, Bala, Bojjha~ga, Magga~ga. So there are 37 Bodhipakkhiya Dhammas.

Sadhu!  Sadhu!  Sadhu!

Tape# 37

Chapter 7 (D)


Review of Bodhipakkhiya Sa~gaha

          Before we go to the section on all embracing categories, we will go back to the section on Bodhipakkhiya. The last stanza, the last verse of that section is on page 283. “All these occur in the supramundane, except at times intention and zest. In the mundane, too, they occur in the course of the sixfold purification, according to circumstances”. This verse shows where we find these factors or these members of enlightenment or those that lead to enlightnment. All these occur in the supramundane. SatipaÔÔhÈna, SammappadhÈna and so on–they arise with supramundane on Lokuttara types pf consciousness, except at times intention and zest. That means Vitakka and PÊti. They may not arise with every type of supramundane consciousness. For example Vitakka does not arise with second JhÈna suprmundane consciousness and so on. PÊti does not arise with third JhÈna supramundane consciousness and so on.

          “In the mundane (in Lokiya Cittas) they occur in the couse of the sixfold purification, according to circumstances”. Sixfold purification refers to the kinds of purification that will be treated in the ninth chapter in the section on VipassanÈ meditation. When a person practices VipassanÈ meditation, he begins with purification of SÊla, and then purification of mind, and then purification of SÊla, and then prification of mind, and then purification of views and son on. There are altogether seven kinds of purification. The last purification belongs to supramundane. In the mundane they occur in the course of the sixfold purification. When you refine your SÊla, when you take precepts–abstain from bodily misconduct and so on–these Bodhipakkhuya Dhammas can be found in your mind. When you practice meditation and reach the second purification, the third purification and so on, then the SatipaÔÔhÈna and so on can be found in these Cittas. The Bodhipakkhiya Dhammas can be found in KÈmÈvacara Kusala, KÈmÈvacara Kiriya, and then R|pÈvacara and Ar|pÈvacara Kusala and Kiriya, and Lokuttara Cittas. You will study the sevenfold purification in the ninth chaper.

Sabba Sa~gaha

          Now let us go to the next section Sabba Sa~gaha, compendium on the whole. Sabba means all or whole.Here it means categories which include all Paramattha Dhammas or all 72 Dhammas mentioned at the beginning of this chapter.


          First is the category of five aggragates. You already know the five aggragates. There is the aggregate of matter, the aggregate of feeling, aggragate of perception, aggregate of mental formations and aggregate of  percention, aggregate of mental fromations and aggregate of consciousness or in  Pali R|pa Khandha, VedanÈ Khandha, SaÒÒÈ Khandha, and ViÒÒÈÓa Khandha. The word ‘Khandha’ means a group, a mass, an aggregate or a heap. But the aggregate or the group or the mass is not the real group of matter and so on. It is the group that we form in our minds that we take them to be groups. Because one particle of matter is called R|pa Khandha–not the group of R|pas, but just one R|pa is called R|pa Khandha. Here group does not mean physical group. It  does not mean a group of ten material or thirty material properties. Because each one of them is called Khandha or aggregate. In order to be included in the aggregate they must have some division. Whenever Buddha described R|pa and so on, he described whatever kind of materiality there is whether past, future, present, internal or external, gross or subtle, inferior or superior, far or near. This is called the material aggregate.

          That one material property can be past, present or future. It can be internal or external. It can be grpoo or subtle. It can be inferior or superior. It can be far or near. When a state has that kind of division, it can be called a Khandha or aggragate. One particle of matter can belong to past, present or future. We take these three as a group in our minds and then all that one particular material property aggregate. Aggregate, group or mass here does not mean group of different kinds of material properties, just the different divisions of one material property. The same is true for fellings and so on. That particular material property may belong to our bodies or belong to outside things. So when we see a Ruap, we group these two as one and call that aggragate. If a state has division into past, future and present, we can call that an aggragate, or of that state has a division into internal and external we can call that state an aggregate; or if it has a division into gross and subtle, we can form an aggragate in  our mind. If that material property or whatever it is can be divided into inferior and superir, we can take these two as a whole and call it an aggregate. If it is divided into far and near, we can take these two as an aggregate. When we say aggregate, we do not mean the physical group of R|pa, VedanÈ and so on. Because each one of these R|pa, VedanÈ and so on can be called an aggregate.

          The first one is Ruapa Khanha, the aggregate of R|pa. The aggregate of R|pa in reality is the 28 material properties. Each one of these 28 material properties is called an aggregate.

          The second is VedanÈ Khandha, feeling can be interna or external. Feeling can be gross or subtle and so on. So even one feelingis called an aggreagte.

          The third is SaÒÒÈ Khandha, perception aggregate. You know SaÒÒÈ. SaÒÒÈ is something that makes a mark of the object. One SaÒÒÈ here is called aggregate of SaÒÒÈ because SaÒÒÈ can be past, future, present and so on.

          The fourth is Sa~khÈra Khandha. Sa~khÈra Khandha is comprised of fifty Cetasikas eccept VedanÈ and SaÒÒÈ. Among the fifty Cetasikas there is CetanÈ. Now you know the Cetasaika CetanÈ. And you know that CetanÈ is Kamma. In prolonging suffering in SaÑsÈra CetanÈ is an active factor. CetanÈ urges us to do something. Therefore we acquire Kamma and so on. CetanÈ is predominant among the other Cetasikas. All these fifty Cetasikas are collectively called Sa~khÈra Khandha. Sa~khÈra means CetanÈ. Aggregate of Sa~khÈra means aggregate headed by CetanÈ or aggregate that has cetanÈ at its head. Therefore Sa~khÈra Khandha means the remaining fifty Cetasikas. Phassa is also included in Sa~khÈra Khandha. VedanÈ and SaÒÒÈ are not included. CetanÈ is included in Sa~khÈra Khandha. EkaggatÈ and so on are included in Sa~khÈra Khandha. The remaining fifty Cetasikas are called Sa~khÈra Khandha.

          Here also one Cetasika is called Sa~khÈra Khandha. For example CetanÈ is called Sa~khÈra Khandha. Phassa is called Sa~khÈra Khandha. Each one of them can be divided into past, future, present and so on.

          The fifth is ViÒÒÈÓa Khandha, the aggregate of consciousness. It is comprised of 89 or 121 Cittas.

          R|pa Khandha means 28 R|pas according to Paramattha Dhamma, ultimate reality. VedanÈ Khandha means VedanÈ. SaÒÒÈ Khandha means SaÒÒÈ. Sa~khÈra Khandha means fifty Cetasikas. ViÒÒÈÓa Khandha means 89 or 121 Cittas.

          Although it is called Sabba Sa~gaha (the compendium of states comprising all), Khandhas do not include NibbÈna. NibbÈna is out of aggregates. We do not call NibbÈna an aggregate. NibbÈna has no division into past, present, future, internal, external and so on. The author will explain it later on in this section.


          The next group is UpÈdÈnakkhandha. You know UpÈdÈna. How many UpÈdÈnas are there? Four UpÈdÈnas. Can you name them? KamupÈdÈna, DiÔÔhupÈdÈna, SÊlabbatupÈdÈna and AttavÈdupÈdÈna. There are four UpÈdÈnas, four clingings. In reality there are only two–Lobha and DiÔÔhi. UpÈdÈnakkhandha means aggregate of cling. Aggregate of clinging means aggregates that are the objects of clinging. We must understand that. It is not the aggregates belonging to clinging but the aggregates that are the objects of clinging.

          In the note on page 286 about the middle of the paragraph, “Here, all components of the five aggregates that enter into the range of the four types of clinging are called aggregates of clinging.” It is a little difficult to understand. All components of the five aggregates that are objects of clinging are called aggregates of clinging. That is straight meaning.

          We should understand the difference between Khandha and UpÈdÈnakkhandha. UpÈdÈnakkhandha means aggregates that are the object of clinging. Go back to the third chapter. Clinging consists of Lobha and DiÔÔhi. What is the object of Lobha or Akusala?  Mundane states. What is the object of DiÔÔhi?  The same, mundane states.
          RupupÈdÈnakkhandha means 28 R|pas. There is no difference between Khandha and UpÈdÈnakkhandha. It is just 28 R|pas. These 28 R|pas are the object of clinging. That means we can be attached to these 28 R|pas. We can have wrong view about these 28 R|pas. So they are called in this category RupupÈdÈnakkhandha, aggregate of R|pa which is the object of clinging.

          The next one is VedanupÈdÈnakkhandha. This is VedanÈ. Here VedanupÈdÈna­kkhandha means VedanÈ concomitant with mundane Cittas, Lokiya Cittas. VedanupÈdÈnakkhandha does not include VedanÈ concomitant with Lokuttara Cittas.

          The same is true for SaÒÒÈ, SaÒÒupÈdÈnakkhandha, aggregate of clinging of perception. Here not all perception is meant, but perception that accompanies Lokiya Cittas.

          The fourth one is Sa~khÈr|padanakkhandha, aggregate of clinging of Sa~khÈra. This is the remaining fifty Cetasikas. Again these Cetasikas are concomitant with mudane Cittas.

          On the side of Paramattha Dhamma 28 R|pa, VedanÈ, SaÒÒÈ- all these are given as the same as the Khandhas. Although they are the same here, you must understand that with regard to UpÈdÈnakkhandha they must be the object of clinging. They must accompany or they must be Lokiya Cittas.

          But with regard to R|pa there is no R|pa which is not the object of clinging. There is no difference here. R|pa is always Lokiya. If you go back to the sixth chapter, R|pa is described as Lokiya–the second section of the sixth chapter. Since R|pa is always Lokiya,  there is no difference in Paramattha Dhamma between R|pakkhandha r|pupÈdÈnakkhandha.

          Why are there two groups–Khandha and UpÈdÈnakkhandha?  Khandha seems to be general. When we say Khandha we mean everything that there is, everything that has the same characteristic. When we say R|pakkhandha we mean all the material properties that have the characteristic of change. When we say RupUpÈdÈnakkhandha, we mean the same thing because there is no difference.

          When we say VedanÈkkhandha, we mean all VedanÈ, VedanÈ accompanying all 121 kinds of consciousness. When we say VedanupÈdÈnakkhandha, we mean only VedanÈ that accompanies 81 Lokiya Cittas. This is the way it goes.

          What is the difference?  Why are there two groups? As I said before the first group seems to be general. But the second group is for the purpose of VipassanÈ. When you practice VipassanÈ meditation, you take UpÈdÈnakkhandha as an object, not Khandha in general as object. In other words when you practice VipassanÈ you take only mundane Cittas, Cetasikas and R|pa as object. You do not take Lokuttara Cittas  or NibbÈna as object simply because you have not attained it. You have not seen it yet. To show the soil of VipassanÈ the Buddha taught UpÈdÈnakkhandha. Also to show all the states that have the same characteristic he taught the doctrine of Khandha and UpÈdÈnakkhandha. With regard to R|pakkhandha and RuppupÈdÈnakkhandha there is no difference. But with regard to the second, third, fourth and fifth of each group there is difference. UpÈdÈnakkhandha means aggregates that are the objects of clinging or in other words mundane aggregates.

          It is important to understand this. When we talk about VipassanÈ,  we say, what VipassanÈ? What do we observe when we practice VipassanÈ? The answer according to the books is you observe or you are to be mindful of the five aggregates of clinging. If you dwell on, if you keep your mind on the five aggregates of clinging, you are doing VipassanÈ. But if you keep your mind on PaÒÒÈtti like when you practice Kasina meditation, you are not doing VipassanÈ meditation. In that case you are doing Samatha meditation. VipassanÈ meditation takes UpÈdÈnakkhandhas as object. It must be the object of clinging. In other words it must be something which we can be attached to or which we can have wrong view about.

          “The four mental aggregates of the supramundane plane are not aggregates of clinging because they entirely transcend the range of clinging.” They go beyond the range of clinging. That is they cannot become the objects of greed or wrong view. That is why Lokuttara Cittas and Cetasikas going along with Lokuttata Cittas are not included in UpÈdÈnakkhandha.

The next group is Èyatana. Œyatana means a base, a house, a place. These are said to be the house of consciousness. Consciousness depends on them to arise. They are like the house of consciousness.

          There are altogether twelve bases, twelve Èyatanas. Six are called internal and six are called external. Number one is CakkhÈyatana. That means Cakkhu Œyatana, eye base. Eye base is what according to Paramattha Dhamma, according to ultimate reality?  Ckkhu PasÈda, eye sensitivity. Eye sensitivity is called eye base.

          Number two is SotÈyatana, ear base. Its Paramattha Dhamma is GhÈna PasÈda, nose-sensitivity.

          Number four is JivhÈyatana. Its Paramattha Dhamma is JivhÈ PasÈda, tongue- sensitivity.

          Number five is KÈyÈyatana, body base. Its ultimate reality is KÈya PasÈda, body-sensitivity.

          Then number six is ManÈyatana, mind base. ManÈyatana means all Cittas. These six are all internal bases.

          Now we come to external bases. The first is R|pÈyatana. R|pa means visible object. SaddÈyatana means sound base. It is sound. GandhÈyatana means smell base. It is smell. RasÈyatana means taste base. It is taste. And PhoÔÔhabbÈyatana–we know PhoÔÔhabba is the  combination of three essential elements. Those three are earth element, fire element and air element. There is no water element.

          Number twelve is DhammÈyatana, Dhamma base. Dhamma base consists of 52 cetasikas, Sukhumar|pa–how many Sukhumar|pas are there?  There are 16 subtle R|pas. And there is also NibbÈna. So 52 plus 16 plus one is 69. These 69 Paramattha Dhammas are called DhammÈyatana.

          Depending on number one (CakkhÈyatana) and number seven  (R|pÈyatana) what arises?  Eye consciousness. The same is true for number two and number eight–here ear-consciousness arises. The same is true for the others in a similar manner.

          On page 290, the translation of the first paragraph, “Herein, 69 states comprising 52 mental factors, 16 kinds of subtle matter, and NibbÈna, are regarded as the Dhamma object base and the Dhamma object element. The mind base itself is divided into the seven elements of consciousness.” That means all types of consciousness. We found seven types of consciousness somewhere. I think we found it in the third chapter Vatthu Sa~gaha. Do you remember that?  Cakkhu ViÒÒÈÓa, Sota ViÒÒÈÓa, GhÈna ViÒÒÈÓa, JivhÈ ViÒÒÈÓa, KÈya ViÒÒÈÓa, Mano DhÈtu and Mano­viÒÒÈÓa DhÈtu. ManÈyatana will be divided into these seven ViÒÒÈÓa. So we will get 18 elements.

          Now go down further on page 190. “Owing to the difference between doors and objects, there are twelve sense bases.” Sense bases are twelve because there is a division into doors and objects. CakkhÈyatana is eye door. SotÈyatana is ear door. GhÈnÈyatana is nose door. JivhÈyatana is tongue door. KÈyÈyatana is body door. ManÈyatana is mind door.

          Here there are two explanations. One is mind means Citta. In order for one Citta to arise another Citta must disappear. For example in order for Cakkhu ViÒÒÈÓa to arise PancadvÈravajjana must disappear. In order for Sampaticchana to arise Cakkhu ViÒÒÈÓa must disappear. In that sense every type of consciousness is a DvÈra for the other type of consciousness that follows it. In that sense all types of consciousness is a DvÈra for the other type of consciousness that follows it. In that sense all types of consciousness that follows it. In that sense all types of consciousness can be called mind door–only in that sense, not strictly speaking. All of us know that strictly speaking ManodvÈra means Bhavanga. You see now that all chapters are involved. That is why I repeatedly told you to be very familiar with the chapters we have studied. Here ManÈyatana means ManodvÈra. And ManodvÈra here is to be taken in the sense that every type of consciousness is a door for another consciousness to arise. That is why they can be called ManodvÈra.

          Another explanation is that Bhava~ga is ManodvÈra. Although we call it ManÈyatana here, we must understand it to be Bhava~ga, only Bhava~ga. When we take Bhava~ga, then we can take other Cittas as well because they are the same with regard to being Cittas. So in that case every Citta is called ManodvÈra. But strictly speaking according to the second explanation ManodvÈra means Bhava~ga. Strictly speaking ManÈyatana means all cittas. But when we explain why there are twelve Œyatanas we say because there are objects, because there are doors, that is why there are Œyatanas. When we go through these substitution DvÈra for Èyatana when we reach ManÈyatana, we meet with difficulty. We have problem there. ManÈyatana means every citta which is a door for every other citta to arise. Or it is really the Bhava~ga. But here as Bhava~ga and other Cittas are the same as Cittas we take them all.

          Let us go further. R|pÈyatana is R|parammaÓa. SaddÈyatana is SaddarammaÓa. GandhÈyatana is GandharammaÓa. RasÈyatana is RasÈrammaÓa. PhotthabbÈyatana is PhotthabbÈrammaÓa. DhammÈyatana–is it DhammÈrammaÓa? Go back to the third chapter. DhammÈrammaÓa consists of what?  PasÈda R|pas, Sukhuma R|pas, Cittas, Cetasikas, NibbÈna and PaÒÒÈtti. These six kinds of objects are called DhammÈrammaÓa in the third chapter. Here DhammÈyatana does not mean all of them. DhammÈyatana means only Cetasikas, Sukhumar|pas and NibbÈna. What are not included in DhammÈyatana?  Cittas and PasÈdas. They are not included in DhammÈyatana. The five PasÈdas are respectively CakkhÈyatana, SotÈyatana and so on. Cittas are ManÈyatana. They are not included in DhammÈyatana. We must understand this clearly. DhammÈyatana and DhammÈrammaÓa are not the same. Some belong to both DhammÈyatana and DhammÈrammaÓa. But not five PasÈdas and Citta. And ManÈyatana and ManodvÈra are not the same. There are twelve bases.


          Now let us look at the 18 elements. The first five are DvÈras. From 6-10 are ArammaÓas. From 11-18 are ViÒÒÈÓas. Number 18 does not include ViÒÒÈÓas.

          According to Paramattha Dhamma, Cakkhu DhÈtu means Cakkhu PasÈda. Sota DhÈtu means Sota PasÈda. GhÈna DhÈtu  means GhÈna PasÈda. JivhÈ DhÈtu means JivhÈ PasÈda. KÈya DhÈtu means KÈya PasÈda. Then R|pa DhÈtu means  . . .   gandha. Rasa DhÈtu means Rasa. PhoÔÔhabba DhÈtu means PathavÊ, Tejo and VÈyo (earth, fire and air). Now we come to ViÒÒÈÓas. Cakkhu ViÒÒÈÓa DhÈtu–that means two Cakkhu ViÒÒÈÓa,  two eye-consciousnesses. Sota ViÒÒÈÓa DhÈtu means Sota ViÒÒÈÓa two. GhÈna ViÒÒÈÓa DhÈtu means GhÈna ViÒÒÈÓa two. JivhÈ ViÒÒÈÓa DhÈtu means jivhÈ viÒÒÈÓa two. KÈya viÒÒÈÓa DhÈtu means KÈya ViÒÒÈÓa two. ManodhÈtu means PaÒcadvÈrÈvajjana and SampaÔicchana two. ManoviÒÒÈÓadhÈtu means the remaining 76 Cittas. The ten DvipaÒcaviÒÒÈÓa and ManodhÈtu are excluded. The remaining 76 Cittas are Mano­viÒÒÈÓa­­dhÈtu. Then the last one is DhammadhÈtu. DhammadhÈtu and DhammÈyatana are the same. So it is comprised of Cetasikas, Sukhumar|pa and NibbÈna.

          Why are there 18 DhÈtus?  The explanation is given at the bottom of page 190. “In accordance with doors, objects and their corresponding consciousness arise the 18 elements.” The elements are 18 in accordance with doors, objects and their corresponding consciousness.

          So we can see whether we can combine them. Cakkhu DhÈtu, R|pa DhÈtu and Cakkhu ViÒÒÈÓa DhÈtu–number one, number six and number eleven are one group. Sota DhÈtu, Sadda DhÈtu and Sota ViÒÒÈÓa Shatu is another group. GhÈna DhÈtu, Ghandha DhÈtu and GhÈna ViÒÒÈÓa DhÈtu is a group. JivhÈ DhÈtu, Rasa DhÈtu and JivhÈ ViÒÒÈÓa DhÈtu is a group. KÈya DhÈtu, PhoÔÔhabba DhÈtu and KÈya ViÒÒÈÓa DhÈtu is a group. ManodhÈtu and ManoviÒÒÈÓadhÈtu do not correspond because they take more objects than the other consciousnesses. Because there are doors, objects and their corresponding consciousness DhÈtus are 18 in number.

Ariya Saccas

          Now we come to the Four Noble Truths or Ariya Sacca. You all know the Four Noble Truths–Dukkha Ariya Sacca, Dukkha Samudaya Ariya Sacca,  Dukkha Nirodha Ariya Sacca and dukkha Nirodha GÈminÊ PaÔipadÈ Ariya Sacca. Sacca means truth. Something that is true is called Sacca. It need not be high. It need not be lofty. It need bot be wholesome. Whether wholesome or unwholesome, whether high or low, what is true is called truth. That is why Lobha is also called the truth. In the teachings of the Buddha truth does not necessarily mean high lofty wholesome states. Whether they are wholesome or unwholesome, high or low, if they are true as they are described, then they are called truths.

          In the explanation in the manual, “The Four Noble Truths are the fundamental teaching of the Buddha, discovered by him on the night of his Enlightenment.” These Four Noble Truths were discovered by the Buddha while he was sitting under the Bodhi Tree practicing VipassanÈ meditation. When he practiced VipassanÈ, he realized these Four Noble Truths. These Four Noble Truths were discovered by him for the first time since the disappearance of the previous Buddha Kassapa.

          “And expounded by him repeatedly during his long ministry.” Buddha taught the Four Noble Truths again and again during the 45 years of his ministry.

          “These Four Truths are called Noble (Ariya) because they are penetrated by the Noble Ones.” Why are they called Noble truths? What are the reasons given? The first reason given is that they are called Ariya (Noble) because they are penetrated by the Noble Ones. They are understood by the Noble Ones. That is why they are called Noble Truths. According to this explanation Noble Truth means Truth penetrated by Noble Ones.

          Another explanation is “because they are the Truths taught by the supreme Noble One.” Here Ariya means Ariya of Ariyas, the best of Ariyas, the Buddha. They were taught by the Ariya of Ariyas. The Best of the Noble Ones. That is why they are called Noble Truths. According to this explanation Noble Truth means Truth taught by the Noblest of the Nobles.

          Another explanation is “because their discovery leads to the state of a Noble One.” That means discovery of them or realization of them makes you become a Noble Person. That is why they are called Noble Truths. They are Truths that will make you a Noble One or that makes you a Noble One.

          Now the last explanation–“because they are the real, unalterable, unreceptive Truths about existence.” That means they are the real truth the true truth. They are the real truth–that is why they are called Noble Truths.

          Now you understand why they are called Noble Truths. Four explanations are given. The first is what?  The Truths penetrated by Noble Ones. The second?  The Truths taught by the Noblest of the Nobles. Number Three?  Truths that make you become a Noble One. When you realize the Four Noble Truths, you become a Noble Person, you become an Ariya. And the fourth is the real Truth, the unalterable Truth, the undeceptive truth. It is not deceptive and it is real, so it is called Noble Truth. And according to Buddhism there are Four Noble Truths–four Truths and not one Truth.

          The first of them is called Dukkha Ariya Sacca, the Noble Truth of Suffering. “The Noble Truth of Suffering is expounded as twelvefold.” If you remember the MahasatiPaÔÔhÈna Sutta, you understand easily. Buddha described the First Noble Truth as comprising twelve things. The first is birth. Birth is suffering. Aging, getting old is suffering. Death is suffering. Sorrow is suffering. Lamentation, grief and despair are suffering. Association with the unpleasant, the unwanted is suffering. Separation from the pleasant, separation from those whom you love is suffering. Not to get what one wants is suffering. And the five aggregates of clinging are suffering. This is the Buddha’s explanation of the Noble Truth of Suffering.

          Here “to not get what what  one wants” how is it explained in the MahasatiPaÔÔhÈna Sutta? Do you remember? You want to win at Lotto, but you don’t–does it mean that? “ Not to get what one wants is suffering”–what is that? You don’t want to get old, but you get old. You don’t want to get sick. You don’t want to die, but you die. That is suffering. It is not that you want something and don’t get it, although that may be included in suffering. Buddha’s explanation is not that.

          The five aggregates of clinging are suffering. The five aggregates of clinging themselves are suffering. That is why we must be honest in describing the Noble Truth of Suffering. Sometimes people want to soften the meaning of the word so it will be acceptable to many people. They say “subject to suffering” or something like that. It is not subject to suffering, but it is itself suffering. We must understand this whether we like it or not. When the Buddha said the five aggregates of clinging are suffering, he says they are suffering, not that they are subject to suffering, then suffering is one thing and the five aggregates would be another. But here what Buddha meant is that the aggregates themselves are suffering because they are oppressed by arising and disappearing.

          You must understand the real meaning of Dukkha. What is the meaning of dukkha?  Being oppressed by arising and disappearing. This is the characteristic of Dukkha. This is the mark of Dukkha. If you want to know whether something is Dukkha or not, you must try to find out if it is oppressed by arising and disappearing. That is very important. Only when you see Dukkha in that way, do you really see Dukkha. Otherwise your understanding of Dukkha is not deep enough.

          You hit yourself and there is pain or Dukkha. You may say, “Oh, it is Dukkha.” That is very superficial understanding of Dukkha. Here the five aggregates of clinging are Dukkha means that they themselves are Dukkha because they are oppressed by arising and disappearing. Being oppressed by arising and disappearing is the mark of Dukkha.

          “Concisely, the Noble Truth of Suffering comprises all phenomena of the three mundane planes of existence except craving.” Actually craving is also Dukkha. The name Samudaya is given to it. We do not include it in Dukkha. But according to that criteria craving is also Dukkha because it arises and disappears. So it is oppressed by arising disappearing. So it is Dukkha. But it is singled out as one separate Truth because it is the predominate cause for the prolongation of existence in the Samsara.

          The Noble Truth of the Origin of Suffering, Dukkha Samudaya–Samudaya means cause or origin. So Dukkha Samudaya means origin of Dukkha. So it is the Noble Truth of the Origin of Dukkha. “It is a single factor, namely craving (TaÓhÈ), which is identical with the Cetasika of greed (Lobha). So the second Noble Truth is Lobha.

          “Craving, however, has three aspects: craving for sense pleasures (KÈmataÓhÈ), craving for continued existence (BhavataÓhÈ) and craving for annihilation (VibhavataÓhÈ).” In the Dhammacakkappavattana Sutta or in the MahasatipaÔÔhÈna Sutta this explanation is given. The second Noble Truth is just TaÓhÈ or Lobha. It has three aspects: craving for sense pleasures and so on. The second and third are almost always misunderstood by people. Craving for continued existence (BhavataÓhÈ) and craving for annihilation (VibhavataÓhÈ)–I’m feeling a little uncomfortable to use “for”. Do you crave for annihilation? Craving for existence is alright. Craving for annihilation, craving for death–in the Visuddhi Magga and in other commentaries it is explained that Bhava here is the eternalist view. The eternalist view is that things are permanent. BhavataÓhÈ means TaÓhÈ accompanied by or accompanying wrong view that things are permanent. That TaÓhÈ is called BhavataÓhÈ. According to that explanation it is not craving for continued existence but craving which is concomitant with the wrong view that takes things to be permanent, that takes beings to be permanent. That is BhavataÓhÈ.

          VibhavataÓhÈ–Vibhava is the opposite of Bhava, so nonexistence or annihilation. VibhavataÓhÈ means the TaÓhÈ accompanying view that everything dies and there is no more. It is called annihilation. Once a being dies he is finished. There is no more rebirth for him. That kind of view is called annihilationist view. The craving which accompanies that view is called VibhavataÓhÈ.

          BhavataÓhÈ is TaÓhÈ that is concomitant with wrong view that takes things and beings to be permanent. VibhavataÓhÈ is craving which is concomitant with the wrong view that beings are annihilated at death. It is a little different than the translation given here. These are the three TaÓhÈs. KÈmataÓhÈ is easy to understand. It is craving for sense pleasures or craving for objects of sense. Whether it is KÈmataÓhÈ, BhavataÓhÈ or VibhavataÓhÈ according to Paramattha Dhamma it is Lobha.

          The third Noble Truth is Dukkha Nirodha Ariya Sacca, the Noble Truth of the Cessation (Nirodha means cessation, disappearance of suffering). It is NibbÈna which is to be realized by the eradication of craving. Realization of NibbÈna and eradication of craving occur at the same time.

          The fourth Noble Truth is a long name–Dukkha Nirodha GÈminÊ PaÔipadÈ Ariya Sacca, the Noble Truth of the Practice. PatipadÈ means the practice or the way. GÈminÊ means which goes to or by which people go to. Nirodha is cessation of Dukkha. So it is usually translated as the way leading to the cessation of suffering. That is the eight factors of the Noble Path. The collection of these eight factors of path is called Dukkha Nirodha GÈminÊ Patipada. There is a shorter name for this–Magga Sacca or Middle Way. Magga Sacca, Middle Way or Dukkha Nirodha GÈminÊ Patipada are all the same.

          Dukkha Sacca is comprised of Lokiya Cittas, Cetasikas going along with them and 28 R|pas. Oh, wait a minute. We have to except Lobha from the Cetasikas. Dukkha Ariya Sacca means Lokiya Cittas, the Cetasikas except Lobha and 28 R|pas. The second Ariya Dacca is the Noble Eightfold Path or the Eight Factors of Path- SammÈdiÔÔhi, SammÈsa~kappa and so on.

          With regard to Dukkha Ariya Sacca all the Cetasikas are included except Lobha. As I said before Lobha could be included in Dukkha Sacca also, but since it is designated as a separate Truth, it is not included in dukkha Sacca. The same is true for the eight factors of path.

          There are some notes. “As NibbÈna lacks differentiation (such as past, present, future), it is  excluded from the category of aggregates.” NibbÈna is not included in the aggregates because it has no division is not past, present, future, internal, external and so on. Only when something has such divisions can it be called an aggregate. NibbÈna cannot be said to be past present or future. So it cannot be called an aggregate. NibbÈna is always external, not internal. So it has no division as internal and external. Therefore it cannot be called an aggregate
and so on.

          Now there is a question. Why are VedanÈ and SaÒÒÈ called separate aggregates?  Why are they not included in Sa~khÈrakkhandha, and then there would be only three aggregates?  It is said that Buddha’s teachings are for becoming dispassionate towards SaÑsara, towards SaÑsara, towards existence. VedanÈ and SaÒÒÈ are important factors that prolong the existence in Samsata. That is why these two are picked out from the other Cetasikas and made into separate aggregates. VedanÈ is one aggregate and SaÒÒÈ is one aggregate. VedanÈ is what experiences or what enjoys the object. In order for VedanÈ to enjoy or to fully experience the object, it needs some flavor or something. That flavor or that spice is supplied by SaÒÒÈ. That means most of the time we have distorted SaÒÒÈ. We take things to be permanent. We take things to beautiful. Because of that SaÒÒÈ we are attached to objects,  we are attached to life and so on. We are attached to life and so on because we fully experience these objects and so on. VedanÈ fully experiences the object. In order for VedanÈ to fully experience the object, SaÒÒÈ puts in the flavor of the objects. If we really know things to be impermanent,  we will not be attached to them. We will not experience them with relish. We are deceived by SaÒÒÈ to perceive things as beautiful. We like this thing. We like that thing. Since these two are important factors in prolonging the Samsara, in prolonging the existence in Samsara, they are found in separate aggregates. So there is SaÒÒÈ aggregate and VedanÈ aggregate. SaÒÒÈ can be compared to putting spice in dishes. In order for a dish to be more palatable more tasteful spices are added. So when there is spice, when there is SaÒÒÈ, we think something is good although it is not. SaÒÒÈ flavors the dish and VedanÈ thoroughly enjoys it. When VedanÈ enjoys it, then TaÓhÈ arises. When there is VedanÈ,  there is TaÓhÈ. And when there is TaÓhÈ, there is UpÈdÈna (clinging). When there is UpÈdÈna, there is Bhava which Kamma. So the existence in Samsara goes on and on . These two are improtant factors in prolonging the Samsara. So they are called separate aggregates.

          There are some mental states, some Cittas and Cetasikas that do not belomg to any of these Four Noble Truths. “Apart form the eight Cetasikas corresponding to the eight Path Factors the other constituents of the supramundane Path consciousness – the Citta itself and associated Cetasikas–are not strictly speaking part of the Eightfold Path.” They do not belong to the Eightfold Path. “And thus are not comprehended”–that means comprehended by or included in the Four Noble Truths.

          “The four fruits as well are excluded from the framework of the Four Noble Truths.” There are some Cittas and Cetasikas that cannot be included in any of these Four Noble Truths. They are called outside the Truth.

          What are they?  Mental states associated with the Path. Now think of Path consciousness. How many Cetasikas are there with it?  With First Path consciousness? 36. Among the 36 there are eight factors of Path. Those eight factors of Path are the real Fourth Noble Truth. Then there is the Magga Citta and 28 Cetasolas. The Citta and those 28 Cetasikas are not Magga Sacca. The Fourth Noble Truth is the eight Path factors, Magga Citta and the other Cetasikas are not called the fourth Noble Truth. And they cannot be put into any other Truth. They are called Truth-freed, out of the Four Noble Truths. There are altogether 29 if we take Magga Citta as one.

          Then there is Phala Citta with let us say 36 Cetasikas. Here both Phala Citta and all 36 Cetasikas cannot be included in any of the Four Noble Truths. They are also outside the Four Noble Truths.

          Let us go back. Magga Citta and the Cetasikas going along with it except the eight factors of Path are called free of Truth, out of Truth. Phala Citta and all 36 Cetasikas going along with it is called Truth-free. They do not belong to any of the Four Noble Truths. That is strictly speaking.

          But there are statements which say there is nothing which is outside the Four Noble Truths. To accord with those statements we will have to find some ways to put them into the Four Noble Truths. The eight Path factors that arise with Phala Citta can be included in Magga Sacca the Fourth Noble Truth because they are the same as those that arise with Magga Citta. They can be put into Fourth Noble Truth. The other Cetasikas and Magga Citta and Phala Citta as well can be included in the First Noble Truth because they have arising and disappearing. They are oppressed by arising and disappearing which is the characteristic of Dukkha. So they are Sa~khÈra Dukkha. Saaaankhara Dukkha means those that have arising and disappearing. In that way we can include all the Cittas andCetasikas in the Four Noble Truths. SammÈDiÔÔhi, SammÈsankappa and so on that arise with Phala Cittas can be included in Magga Sacca, the Fourth Noble Truth. The Magga Cittas, Phala Cittas and Cetasikas other than eight path factors can be included in First Noble Truth, Dukkha Sacca. Why?  Because they have the characteristic of Dukkha. That is they are oppressed by arising and disappearing. Everything is included in the Four Noble Truths. Strictly speaking 29 (taking Citta as one and Cetasikas as 28) and then 37 (taking Citta as one and 36 Cetasikas) they are said to be out of Truth.

          “Apart from the eight Cetasikas corresponding to the eight Path factors, the other constituents of the supramundane Path consciousness the Citta it self and the associated Cetasikas–are not strictly speaking part of the Eighfold Path.” They do not belong to the Fourth ariya Sacca. “And thus are not comprehended by the Four Noble Truths.” So they are not included in the Fourth Noble Truths. “The four fruits as well are excluded from the framework of the Four Noble Truths.” That is strictly speaking, but we can find some ways to include everything in the Four Noble Truths following the statement that there is nothing outside the Four Noble Truths.

          We come to the end of the seventh chapter. The seventh chapter is also an important chapter. It is not so difficult as other chapters. It gives us new terms, new categories, new divisions and also the last one is important if you want to study MÈtikÈ of Dhammasa~gaÓÊ as night lessons as we studied in Burma. The MÈtikÈ is the matrix of Dhammasa~gaÓÊ. We will find out in MÈtikÈ which Dhammas are  represented by Kusala Dhamma, Akusala Dhamma and so on. Then we must understand to which aggregates, bases, elements and Truth they belong to. If you wish to study Dhammasa~gaÓÊ as night lessons you must be very familiar not only with this section, but with the whole of Abhidhammatthasa~gaha. So this chapter gives us further information about the ultimate realities.

          The next chapter will be on cause and effect. It covers two of the most important doctrines of the Buddha–Dependent Origination and the Causal Relations.

Sadhu!  Sadhu!  Sadhu!

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