Abhidhamma Lectures 06 - Buddhism, Philosophy, and Khmer Literature


Buddhism, Philosophy, and Khmer Literature

The teachings of the Buddha are aimed solely at liberating sentient beings from suffering. The Basic Teachings of Buddha which are core to Buddhism are: The Three Universal Truths; The Four Noble Truths; and The Noble Eightfold Path.

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Sunday, June 16, 2019

Abhidhamma Lectures 06

Tape# 29

Chapter 6 (a)

Enumeration of Matter

 Today we will begin the sixth chapter. Up until now the author has treated the first two ultimate realities, Citta and Cetasikas in different ways. The first chapter deals with Cittas; the second deals with Cetasikas and with combinations of Cittas and Cetasikas. The third chapter deals with different classifications of Cittas. The fourth deals with different thought processes druing life time. The fifth chapter deals with 31 planes of existence, Kamma and then thought process in detail. This chapter deals with the two remaining ultimate realities, R|pa and NibbÈna.

This chapter is called R|pa Sa~gahavibhÈga. That means the chapter on matter. NibbÈna is also treated in this chapter, but it is treated very briefly. So this chapter deals with R|pa or matter.

The first section deals with the enumeration of R|pa or how many R|pas there are. The second section deals with their classification. The Third is about the causes of R|pas. The fourth is about their organization of occurrence. That means when they first arise, when they last arise and how they arise and so on. Then as a conclusion to the chapter the author dealt with the fourth ultimate reality which is NibbÈna.

R|pa defined

The Pali word for matter as you know is R|pa. R|pa is defined as something which becomes deformed, disturbed, knocked about, oppressed or borken when coming into connection with adverse physical conditions such as cold, hunger, thirst, bites of insects etc. The simple meaning of R|pa is something that change, changes with heat, cold and so on.

Buddha himself explained this term in one of his discourses. There he said, “Why do you say material form or why do you say it is R|pa? It is called R|pa because it is deformed, therefore it is called material form and so on. Deformed by what?” That means changed by what. “By cold, by hunger, by heat, by thirst, by mosquitos, wind, sun, creeping things.” So something that changes is called R|pa.

Here you may ask why don't we call Citta and Cetasika R|pa because they change more quickly than R|pa changes. But here change means the evident change, change that is discernible. The change of mental properties, the change of Citta and Cetasikas is not so easily discernible. But the change which is evident, the change which is easy to see. Only matter is called R|pa and not Citta and Cetasikas.

Change here really means the arising of a different continuity of material properties than the previous one. Change here does not mean one R|pa changes into another R|pa. Actually change here means there is a series of material properties at one moment and then in the next moment there is another set of, another continuity of material properties. The arising of the continuity of different material properties is what is meant by change here. Change does not mean that something changes into some other thing. Because if we take it take way we way be supporting the idea that something lasts some time or that something lasts forver. Change here just means the arising of a different set of material properties.

The material properties or R|pa are said to be 28 R|pas, 28 material properties. They are shown on the chart. They are also in the manual, in this book also. Here I give both Pali and English. In the book only English is given and not Pali.

There are 28 material properties. These 28 material properties are divided into different categories or different classes.


First the material properties are divided into two groups or classes. The first is Mahabhuta and the second is Upada R|pa. It is not on the chart. I followed the chart in the book, so I forgot to put that. Mahabhuta and Upadayou can find the word Upadaya in the book on page 235, about the middle of the page. The Pali passage is there “Cattari mahabhutani, catunnan ca mahabhutanam upadaya r|pan.” Depending on that we call it Upada R|pa. There are 24 Upada R|pas. There are four Mahabhutas and 24 Upada R|pas. Mahabhuta is translated as great essential. This is not a literal translation, but I think it is a good translation. Mahabhuta means something that becomes great. They are the basis of all material properties. All other material properties depend upon them to arise and to exist. So they are called Mahabhutas, the great essentials. They are 1. Pathavi Dhatu, earth element 2. Apo Dhatu, water element 3. Tejo Dhatu, fire element 4. Vayo Dhatu, air element. These are the four elements or four great essentials.

PathavÊ DhÈtu
Pathavi Dhatu, earth elementhere earth element does not mean the physical earth, but some quality that is inherent in the earth. What quality do you find in the earth? When you touch the earth, you feel hardness or softness. That handness or softness is what we call Pathavi Dhatu or earth element. This is called Pathavi because it is like the earth. The earth is the basis for trees, mountains and so on to exist. In the same way Pathayi Dhatu is the basis for other dependent material properties. That is why it is called Pathavi Dhatu. It serves as a support or foundation for the coexisting material phenomena. That means other material properties sepecially the Upada R|pas depend upon it to arise. If there were no Mahabhutas then Upada R|pas would not arise. The earth is extended. Therefore some take extension to be the characteristic of Pathavi Dhatu. Although extension is taken as a translation of Pathavi, its characteristic is actually hardness. When we get hardness we also get softness because hardness and softness are relative. In comparison to one thing you call it hard. If you compare it to another thing it becomes not so hard. It becomes soft. So hardness or softness is the characteristic of the earth element.

Abhidhamma teaches that this earth element can be found anywhere. In the water there is earth element. In fire there is also earth element. In the wind there si also earth. In everything, in every material thing we see there is this earth element.

Œpo DhÈtu

The second one is Apo Dhatu, water element. Here also Apo Dhatu does not mean water, but the inherent quality of water and that is fluidity or cohesion. Its characteristic is said to be trickling or oozing. That means dripping or something like that. It is because of Apo Dhatu that things are kept together. If there were no Apo Dhatu we could not have these things. We could not have this book or this pen or whatever because the material properties would not stick to each other if there were no water element. Water element is something that keeps the material properties together.

With regard to Apo Dhatu according to Abhidhamma it cannot be touched. In the book you find, ''the Abhidhamma holds that unlike the other three great essentials, the water element cannot be physically sensed (That means it cannot be touched.) but must be known inferentially from the cohesion of observed matter.'' You see something and the material particles are attached to each other. And so we infer that there must be som kind of cohesion, some kind of Apo Dhatu so that the thing exists as a particular object. Apo Dhatu or water element cannot be touched. When we come to Photthabba R|pa later, we will see that Apo is excluded there.

We must understand Apo Dhatu or water element as distinct from water. You can touch water. Although we can touch water, we do not touch water element. We touch water and say, '' It is cold; it is hot.'' Cold or heat is the third one, Tejo Dhatu. You may feel the hardness or softness of water and that is the earth element. What you feel is not the water element but earth element or fire element. You feel coldness or warmth, or hardness or softness. So Apo Dhatu is untouchable.

Tejo DhÈtu
The next one is Tejo Dhatu, heat element or fire element. Here also heat or cold is relative. Tejo Dhatu does nto mean fire, but the quality that is in fire. That means heat or temperature. Actually temperature is what we call Tejo Dhatu or fire element. Just as hardness and softness are both called Pathavi Dhatu, so also heat and cold are both called Tejo Dhatu.

Yesterday I talked to a woman in Arizona because I am going to Arizona on Thursday. I told her that I had heard that they had a temperature of 120 degrees. So I asked her now it was. She said, ''Oh, it has cooled down.'' I asked what it was now and she said, ''106 degrees.'' So for us 106 degrees is very hot here is San Francisco. For them it has cooled down. Tejo Dhatu is relative. Heat or cold is called Tejo Dhatu.

VÈyo DhÈtu

The last one is Vayo Dhatu, air element. Air element does not mean air, but something that inheres in air, that is said to be the principle of motion and pressure. Its characteristic is distension. When you put some air into a balloon, the balloon becomes extended. That extension or distension is what we call Vayo Dhatu. It has the nature of movement or motion. So when we move something we can say that there is an abundance of Vayo Dhatu. Because of that abundance of Vayo Dhatu we say there is movement. Actually there is no movement at all. Nothing moves. What we call movement is material properties arising at different moments. One set of material properties disappears and another set of material properties arises. But they may arise at a very small distance from the ones that have disappeared. So we are not able to see the arising of material properties. But when we see the material properties arising and disappearing at different places very close to each other we say that there is motion, there is movement.

You can take the movie film as an example. On the frames there are pictures. They are not moving. The picture is not moving. The picture on one frame is just a little bit different from the picture on another frame. If you make a step, then it may take thirty frames to record one step. There will be thirty frames or thirty images on the film. Each frame is just little bit different. When the film is put into the machine and shown on the screen, we think that the picture is moving. Actually the picture does not move.

Vayo Dhatu or air element has the nature of movement. Its characteristic is said to be distension, expanding.

These four great essentials are founded on the earth element, held together by the water element, maintained by the fire element and distended by the air element. So these four elements we find everywhere - extension, cohesion, heat and distension.

Tejo Dhatu is explained as to mature or to ripen. When there is heat things become cooked or things become mature. It is said to ripen other material properties.

Dependent Matter

These four are the basis of all other material properties that follow; all other material properties that depend on these four for their arising are called Upada R|pa. Upada R|pa is translated as derived materials, derived matter. I don't like that translation. They are not derived from the four great essentials. They depend on the four great essentials.

For example this is a house. People live in it. The existence of people living here is supported by this house. The people depend upon this house to live. But people are not the result of this house. People are not derived from this house. But this house is their base, their support. Here also the following material are not derived from the four great essentials, but they depend on these four great esssentials to arise. If there were no four great essentials they could not arise. So they are called Upada R|pa, and I call them dependent matter.

There are 24 of them. They are organized into groups. The first group of them is called Pasada R|pa. They are translated as sensitive phenomena. Pasada really means clear. The material properties that are clear are called Pasada. Clear here means sensitive to sight, sound, smell, taste, and touch. They are called sensitive phenomena or sensitive matter or sensitivity. They are five. You know these five.


Cakkhu Pasada, eye sensitivitythe eye itself, the eyeball itself is not Cakkhu Pasada. Cakkhu Pasada is some material properties that exist in the eyeball, that exist on the retina. Those small particles of matter are what are called eye sensitivity. The eyeball is called composite eye. So there are two kinds of eye-composite eye and sensitive eye. When visible object comes into the avenue of the eye, you know it strikes at the eye. It strikes at the eye means that it strikes on the eye sensitivity, on the matter that is called eye sensitivity. Then the seeing consciousness is produced. When we say eye sensitiviyt, we mean the sensitive particles in the eye or the composite eye. The same is true for other sensitivities. It is called eye sensitivity or Cakkhu Pasada.


The second one is called Sota Pasada, ear sensitivity. Here also the whole ear is not called ear sensitivity. But the sensitive particles that are in the inner ear actually. '' In the commentaries it is explained as to be found inside the ear hole in the place shaped like a finger stall and surrounded by fine brown hairs.'' That's pretty accurate. In the ear there is something like a ring. What is a finger stall? I looked it up in the dictionary and it said it was something like a cover on the finger when you have a wound or a cut on the finger. But actrally the word here is said to mean just a ring. It says finger ornament, so like a ring. In the inner ear you see something like that in medical books. That is what is called Sota Pasada. I would say finger ring rather than finger stall. Finger stall is a difficult word. I had to look in three dictionaries and I only found it in one of them. That is ear sensitivity.


The third one is Ghana Pasada, nose snesitivity. Nose sensitivity is to be found in the nasal orifice, in the nose itself as the substance that registers smell. Bhikkhu Bodhi does not give what it looks like. In the commentary it is given. It says it looks like the hoof of a goat, the foot of a goat. There are two origices and maybe at the end it is something like this. It is where smell is picked up the material properties in that place are called Ghana Pasada, nose sensitivity.


The fourth one is Jivha Pasada, tougue sensitivity. ''Tongue sensitivity is to be found diffused over the tongue, serving to register taste.'' When you know taste, that means the material property of taste has come into contact with the tongue sensitivity. Here also the commentary gives an example as the tip of the petal of the lotus. There are petals OR flower leaves of lotus, so the tip - so maybe a little pointed. Places on the tongue here and there where these sensitive material properties exist is called tongue sensitivity or Jivha Pasada. Modern medical science says there are different places for experiencing different tastes. Sweet is experienced in one place and sour is experienced in another place. They differentiate many things. Those are called tongue sensitivity.


The last one is Kaya Pasada, body sensitivity. Body sensitivity extends all over the organic body. Body sensitivity exists all over the body, on the whole of the body like a liquid that soaks a layer of cotton. Suppose there is cotton and you put some water on it. Then the cotton is soaked with water. That means it covers, it suffuses all the cotton. It serves to register tactile sensation. Whenever we know touch, whenever we experience touch, that means the tangible object has come into contact with the body sensitivity in our bodies.

Body sensitivity extends all over the body except for the tip of the nails, the tip of the hair and dry skin. When the skin becomes dry you do not feel anything there. When the skin becomes dry, you can cut it without getting any pain. Except for those places the body sensitivity extends all over the body.

These five are called sensitive phenomena or Pasada R|pa. They correspond to the five sense consciounesseseye consciousness, ear conscious­ness, nose consciousness, tongue conscousness and body consciousness. These sensitivities serve as the base for eye consciousness and so on. In the third chapter, the last section deals with Vatthus. There you have Cakkhu base, Sota base, Ghana base, Jivha base, Kaya base and Hadaya base. Cakkhu base and Cakkhu Psada are the same. Sota base and Sota Pasada are the same and so on. We will come to Hadaya Vatthu later. These five are called Pasada R|pa, sensitive material properties or sensitive phenomena.

The next group is called Gocara R|pa or Visaya R|pa. Gocara means domain, a place where one roams about. In brief it means an object. Gocara R|pa means objective phenomena, material properties that are objects, that are objects of eye sinsitivity and so on. Corresponding to the five sensitive phenomena there are five objective phenoma or there are five Gocara R|pas.


The first on is called R|pa, visible object. What is visible is called R|pa. What we see is only R|pa. When I say. '' I see a man,'' I don't really see a man. What I see is the visible object in what is called a man . But my mind deceived me into believing that I see a man. Actually what I see is just a visible object, the particles of a visible object all over the body.

Now the word R|pa please note has at least two meanings even in Abhidhamma. Generally R|pa means material properties is contrast of Nama. But here when it means visible object it is different although the word is the same. It is very important when you read books on Abhidhamma to understand whether R|pa means Material properties in general or visible object. Here R|pa means visible object, what you see. The second one is Sadda, sound. You know what sound is. It is sound or noise. The third one is Gandha, smell. The fourth one is Rasa, tastesomething we always experience taste. The fifth one, a number is not assigned to that one because Photthabba, tangibility is the combination of three great essentials. The combination of Pathavi, Tejo and Vayo, the combination of earth, fire and air element is called Photthabba. There is no separate Photthabba, there is no separate tangible matter. When we say tangible matter we mean the combination of the three great essentials which are Pathavi, Tajo and Vayo. Apo cannot be touched. It is not tangible, so it is left out here.

This may cause some confusion when we enumerate the material properties or when we find out how many material properties there are. We have to be very careful. If there are four great essentials and there is also Photthabba, we are not to double the number. We must take only the four or only the three. These five material properties are called Vocara R|pa, object phenomena, those that are object of the five sensitivities. R|pa is the and so on. Tangibility or Photthabba is the object of body sensitivity. Actually they are the object of consciousness; they are not the object of the sensitivity but of consciouness.

You now know the five Pasadas and the five objects. Corresponding to these five Pasadas and five objects there are five Pancavinnana, five sense consciousness. Sense consciousness, let us say Cakkhu Vinnana, arises when these two meet together, when these two come together i.e eye sensitivity and visible object when they come together or when the visible object into the avenue of eye sensitivity. When something to be see comes into the avenue of our eyes, then there is seeing. So seeing consciousness depends on at least these two, eye sensitivity and the visible object. It depneds on these two, but there are more conditions. What are the other conditons? Light and attention.

The others are similar. Body consciousness arises through the conjunction of or the coming together of tangibility and body sensitivity.


The next group is called Bhava R|pa, sexual phenomena or we may call it gender. The first one is called ItthibhÈva or Itthatta. There are two words. They mean the same thing–femininity or being a female, the state of being a female.


The next one is Pumbhava or Purisatta, the state of being a male, masculinity. These are also called faculties. When we study the 22 faculties in the seventh chapter we swill find that these two are included there. These faculties have the characteristic of the female sex and the male sex. Their function is to show femininity and masculinity. Actually masculinity and femininity cannot be seen. What we see is not masculinity and femininity, but something that shows us it is a male or it is a female. They are something like are mark, the sign, the ways of male and female. That means the sexual structure of th body of a man and a woman is different. You know that a person is a man or a woman by looking at the structure of the body, by looking at its masculine or feminine features.

You look at a face and you know that is the face of a man or a woman. Man have a mustache and women have no mustache. And then for the typical occupation - men do a certain kind of work and women do another kind of work. In our books it is said we can know by how they play when they are children . Girls play with pots and pans, cooking and so on. Boys will play with bows and arrows and some other things, Boys never play with pots and pans in our country, But in this country everything can happen. Men have to cook in this country.

Also there is masculine and feminine deportment - that means how they walk, how they do things. By looking at it you know this is a man or this is a woman. Even in a dim light, even if you cannot see clearly, you know this is a man or this is a woman. So there is this difference between men and women. This difference is known by their masculinity and their femininity. That is called masculinity or femininity. That is actually not visible. What is visible is their structure, their features, their occupations, their manner of playing and also their deportment.

It is said that the Bhava R|pa extends all over the body. It is not just in one place. It is like body sensitivity; it is all over the body. So if you look at a finger, you know if it is a man or a woman.


Now we come to the next one, Hadaya Vatthu, heart phenomenon, heart base. We met heart base in the third chapter, in the section on bases. The heart base the characteristic of being the material support for the mind element and mind consciousness element. Do you remember mind element and mind consciousness element? Mind element means Manodhatu. How many Cittas are there? Three–Pancadvaravajjana and two Sampaticchanas. They are called mind element. Mind consciousness element means the other Cittas excepting the ten sense consciousnesses and the Manodhatu. These are known in Pali as Mano Vinnana Dhatu. The heart base serves as support for Mano Dhatu and Mano Vinnana Dhatu, mind element and mind consciousness element. Its function is to uphold them or act as a receptacle, as a basis for them. It is found in dependence on the blood inside the heart. It is on the blood. The physical heart is not called Hadaya Vatthu here. ''It is to be found in dependence on the blood inside the heart, and is assisted by the four great essentials and maintained by the life faculty.''

With regard to this Hadaya Vatthu there is a lot of say or a lot of argue. Hadaya Vatthu does not mean the heart itself but something, some material property that exists depending on the blood in the heart. This Hadaya Vatthu is not mentioned in the Dhammasangani. Dhammasangani is a book where all Cittas, Cetasikas and R|pas are mentioned. It is the first book of Abhidhamma. As the first book of Abhidhamma it must describe all Cittas, all Cetasikas and all R|pas. But in that book Hadaya Vatthu is not mentioned. There are only 27 material properties given there.

The commentary reason for the existence of Hadaya Vatthu–you look at the last of the material properties . Their argument is given on another sheet. ''Manodhatu and Mano Vinnana Dhatu when they arise in Kama-sphere and R|pa sphere (They arise in Kamavacara and R|pavacara realms.) must depend on R|pa (R|pa here means matter). That R|pa cannot be the four Mahabbhutas because they are depended upon by Upada R|pas. Therefore that R|pa must be an Upada R|pa. The teachers are giving you reasons for acceptiong the existence of Hadaya Vatthu. There are Manodhatu and Mano Vidnana Dhatu. If they arise in Kamavacara and R|pavacara sphere they must depend on some R|pa. If there is no R|pa for them to depend on they will not arise. For example Cakkhu Vinnana depends on the visible object and Cakkhu Vatthu. But that R|pa which they depend on cannot be the four great essentials because they are depended upon by Upada R|pa. They are already depended upon by Upada R|pa. They have to serve as a basis or the support for Upada R|pa. The Manodhatu and the Mano Vinnana Dhatu cannot depend on the four essentials. It is something like a law of elimination. We eliminate one after another. So we come to the last one and we just pick it up. When it is said that Manodhatu and Mano Vinnana Dhatu must depend on some matter, then we will ask, ''do they depend on the four great essentials?'' The answer is no. Why? they are depended upon by the 24 Upada R|pas and so they cannot serve as a basis or support for Manodhatu and Mano Vinnana Dhatu.

Among the 24 Upada R|pas can they depend on eye sensitivity and so on? No. Because eye sensitivity is support for seeing consciousness and so on. They cannot depend on the five sensitive properties.

Can they depend on visible object ? Neither can they depend on R|pa. Sadda and so on because they, that is R|pa, Sadda and so on, can be found externally too. R|pa is found internally and externally. The pen I see here is external R|pa. The hand I see here is internal R|pa. So they can be found externally. Manodhatu and Mano Vinnana Dhatu cannot depend on R|pa, Sadda-sound, smell taste or tangibility.

What about Bhava? Do Manodhatu land Mano Vinnana Dhatu depend on Bhava R|pa? The answer is no. They cannot depend on the two qualities of sex because these Dhatus arise in those who have no sexual qualities. That means those who are neither men nor women. There are some people who are sexless persons. Manodhatu and Mano Vinnana Dhatu arise in those persons also. So Mano Dhatu and Mano Vinnana Dhatu do not depend on the two sex qualities.

What else? Do they depend on Ahara? They do not depend on Ahara for the same reason that Ahara is found externally also.

'' It should be understood that there must be some other R|pa (matter) on which these Dhatus must depend and that R|pa must be a dependent one itself and not a Mahabhuta.'' There must be some R|pa on which Manodhatu and Mano Vinnana Dhatu depend. That material property must be an Upada R|pa and not a Mahabhuta.

'' That dependent one which is the seat of these Dhatus is none other than the Hadaya Vatthu.'' This is arbitrary. The first argument is good, but the last one, the conclusion is arbitrary. It must be Hadaya Vatthu, so there is Hadaya Vatthu.

The reason why it was not mentioned in the Dhammasangani, –now there is a question. If there is really Hadaya Vatthu or if Hadaya Vatthu really exists, why is it not mentioned in the Dhammasangani where all material properties are mentioned. The answer is: ''that is it were mentioned there, the uniformity of presentation of the Vatthu-duka and Arammana-duka, so important for the understanding of the doctrine and the realization of Reality by listeners, would be broken and thus defeat the very purpose of the doctrine–the realization of Reality by listeners.''

You have to go to the Dhammasangani to understand this. In the Dhammasangani especially in that section, Vatthus are mentioned in two ways. It says, ''There is R|pa which is the basis of eye consciousness; there is R|pa which is not the basis of eye consciousness.'' This is one dyad. The next one is : ''There is R|pa which is the basis of ear consciousness; there is R|pa which is not the basis of ear consciousness.'' In this way R|pa is treated in that section of the Dhammasangani. So th e dyads 1-5 are OK. ''There is R|pa which is the base of body consciousness; there is R|pa which is not the base of body consciousness''–because you can point out the R|pa which is the base of body consciousness and which is not the base of body consciousness. All other R|pas. So you can find the R|pas mentioned in these sentences.

Then we go to Arammana-dyad–that means object. ''There is R|pa which is the object of eye consciousness.'' Can you point that out? What ? Number 10, R|pa. ''There is R|pa which is not the object of eye consciousness.'' Yes, all others. The second through the fifth are the same. Let us go to the fifth. ''There is R|pa which is the object of body consciousness.'' Which? Photthabba is the object of body consciousness. '' There is R|pa which is not the object of body consciousness.'' All others.

Suppose the sixth dyad were to be made. There is R|pa which is the base for mind consiousness, Mano Vinnana. There is R|pa which is not the base for mind consciousness. Can you point them out? There is R|pa which is the base for mind consciousness, we can say it is Hadaya. What R|pa is not the base for mind consciousness? The other bases.
Now we come to Arammana dyad. There is R|pa which is the object of mind consciousness. Yes, there are many. There is R|pa which is not the object of mind consciousness. No, there is nothing there. The dyad is broken here.

These two are not actually in the Dhammasangani. That's why the heading is given as laudable Vatthu dyad. If we are to make the sixth dyad it would look like this. Vatthu dyad is alright because you can point out the R|pas mentioned in the sentences. But when we come to Arammana-duka it is broken. There is answer only to the first one. There is R|pa which is the object of mind consciousness–all Cittas, Cetasikas, R|pas and so on. There is R|pa which is not the object of mind consciousness–no. There is no answer to that question. We cannot find out anything as an answer to that question. The dyad would be broken. If the dyad were broken, the listeners would be agitated. They may not follow the teachings of the Buddha and they may not gain the realization of Reality. In order' not to make them agitated, the Buddha left Hadaya Vatthu out of the list of material properties in the Dhammasangani. That is why it is not mentioned in the Dhammasangani.

Even if we say the Abhidhamma teaching is a very exact teaching and it does not take into account whether people like it or not, but still the purpose of Buddha's teaching is not to show off his wisdom but to have people realize Reality, to have people reach enlightenment. So if Buddha were to mention Hadaya Vatthu in the Dhammasangani he would have to say these probable dyads also. The dyads are not complete and one is broken. The flow of the teaching is broken. The understanding of the listener may be effected. In order to save them from getting confused or whatever Hadaya Vatthu is not mentioned in the Dhammasangani. It is not mentioned not because it does not exist. If it were mentioned in the Dhammasangani it would not help listeners get the realization of Reality. That is why it is not mentioned in Dhammasangani. That is one question.

If it is not mentioned in the Dhammasangani, where is it mentioned? The answer is that it is mentioned in the Patthana, the seventh book of Abhi­dhamma. We are not out of trouble yet. Although it is said that Hadaya Vatthu is mentioned in the Patthana, when we go to Patthana and actually read it, we do not find Hadaya there. There the Buddha uses a very general term for Hadaya Vatthu. ''Depending on a certain material property Manodhatu and Mano Vinnana Dhatu arise.'' Just that. ''Depending on a certain material property'' - Buddha did not say depending on Hadaya Vatthu. The teachers, the commentators take that to mean Hadaya Vatthu. Their argument is that Manodhatu and Mano Vinnana Dhatu must depend on some material property and so on. However much we explain, we are not altogether out of trouble.

Why is it not mentioned in Dhammasangani ? Because Buddha wanted to keep his flow of teaching smooth. Where is it mentioned ? It is mentioned in the Patthana. But we don't find it in Patthana, but we just find a general statement there. But the author says that means Hadaya Vatthu. It is arbitrary.

Why did the commentators interpret like that although Hadays Vatthu is not mentioned by name either in Dhammasangani or in the Patthana ? I think it is because when you are happy or when you are sad you feel something in the heart, in the chest. When you are afraid you have the pounding of your heart. So people took that consciousness depends on heart base. The word Hadaya, like the word 'heart' in English is a synonym for Citta also. Hadaya is a synonym for Citta. In English you also use the word 'heart' for mind. You say, ''he has a good heart '' or something like that. I think in the olden days it was universally accepted that the mind depended on the heart. Only recently, a hundred years ago maybe, did they say that mind depends on the brain, that the brain is the seat of consciousness. We cannot say which is more reasonable. Even now they are not sure that consciousness really depends on the brain. They are still in the experimental stage. We cannot take sides or we may take side with out ancient teachers. So we take the heart or the material properties on the blood in the heart to be the seat of Manodhatu.

On this sheet the description given in the Visuddhi Magga is given there is only one thing I want to say about this because in that passage there is a mistake. ''the heart-base has the characteristic of being the (material) support for the mind-element and for the mind-consciousness-element. Its function is to observe them.'' I think it is not correct. Its function is to be their base or to be their receptacle. The Pali word is 'ŒdhÈra'. It cannot mean 'observe'. Bhikkhu Bodhi does not say 'observe' in the guide. It says there, '' Its function is to uphold them.'' I think that is a correct translation.

Life Faculty

What is next? Jivita R|pa, life phenomenon. You have met Jivitindriya as a Cetasika. It is the counterpart of that Cetasika. The Cetasika is called mental life faculty and this is called physical life faculty. It maintains the conascent material properties. It arises with other material properties and maintains them. It helps them to exist as long as they exist. ''the life faculty has the characteristic of maintaining the coexistent kinds of matter at the moment of their presence. Its function is to make them occur. It is manifested as the establishment of their presence. Its proximate cause is the four great essentials that are to be maintained.''

There is a question. If Jivitindriya maintains other material properties what maintains it? Jivitindriya maintains others, so what maintains it? The answer is that it maintains itself as well as the others. The analogy of a boatman is given in the commentaries. When a boatman takes other people to the other shore or rows a boat to the other shore, he also takes himself to t he other shore because he is connected with the boat. In the same way life faculty is connected with the other faculties it maintains. So along with them it maintains itself.

Then Ahara R|pa, nutritional phenomenon–that means some nutriment in what we eat. Actually it is everywhere. This nutriment is found externally as well as internally.


These are 18 which are called concretely produced matter or in Pali Nipphanna R|pa. There are 18 Nipphanna R|pas or concretely produced matter. 'Concretely produced matter' means produced by the four causes of matter. In the third section the four causes of matter will be treated. Those that are the direct product of these four causes fo matter are called Nipphanna R|pa. That means they are real R|pas. They are substantial R|pa or something like that.


They are also called Sabhava R|pa, matter possessing intrinsic nature. They have their own characteristics. 'Intrinsic nature' means they have their own characteristics. ''Each type has a distinct objective nature such as hardness in the case of the earth element etc.''

They are also called Salakkhana R|pa. 'Lakkhana' means mark and 'Sa' means together. That means that are together with characteristics. Here 'characteristic' means the three general characteristics of impermanence, suffering and non-self. Also we can say they have the three characteristics of aristing, presence and disappearing or death. The others beginning with limiting phenomenon are not like that. So only these 18 are called Salakkhana R|pa, those with have characteristics of their own. That means impermanence and so on and aristing and so on.

They are also called Nipphanna R|pa, concretely produced matter because they are directly produced by conditions such as Kamma, Citta, Utu and Ahara.

They are called R|pa R|pa. That means real R|pa. When you repeat something, you emphasize it . R|pa R|pa means th R|pa which is real R|pa. They are the real R|pa. The other ten are unreal R|pas. They are real R|pas, R|pa R|pa because ''they possess matter's essential characteristics of undergoing deformation.''

''Also they are called Sammasana R|pa because they are to be' made the objects of insight contemplation by way of the three characteristics.'' Do you understand that ? You are meditators, so you must understand that. That means you can practice Vipassana on these 18 only and not on the other ten. Because these 18 have the characteristic of impermanence and so on. When you practice Vippassana you try to see these three characteristics. In order to see these three characteristics you must watch, you must note these 18 and not the other ten. The ten are not the object of Vipassana meditation. They are called Sammasana R|pa. Sammasana means contemplation. So these lend themselves to contemplation. Contemplation here means Vipassana practice. Out of the 28 these 18 R|pas only are the object of Vipassana practice. You can practice Vipassana on these 18 only and not on the ten Anipphanna R|pa.

Look at the chart again. There are 28 R|pas. They are divided into the four great essentials and 24 dependent ones = in Pali four Mahabhutas and 24 Upada R|pa. Then Upada R|pas are divided into Pasada R|pa sesnstive phenomena, Gocara R|pa - objective phenomena, Bhava R|pa - sexual phenomena, Hadaya R|pa - heart phenomenon, Jivita R|pa - life phenomenon and Ahara R|pa - nutritional phenomenon. We are not finished yet. There are other groups. These 18 beginning with Mahabhutas are called Nipphanna R|pa, concretely produced matter. That means matter which is produced by the four causes - Kamma, Citta, Utu and Ahara. The remaining we will talk about next week.

Sadhu ! Sadhu ! Sadhu !

Tape# 30
Chapter 6 (b)


Anipphanna R|pa & R|pa Vibhaga

Last week we finished the 18 Nipphanna R|pas, concretely produced matter. Today we will study the other ones, Anipphanna R|pa, non-concrete matter. The first 18 are the real R|pa, the real matter. The other ones beginning with the space element are not real R|pas. They are called in Pali Anipphanna R|pa. It is translated as ‘non-concretely produced matter’. Actually 'non' should be connected with produced, not concretely produced or not produced concretely. That means these ten R|pas do not arise from the four causes of matter. Now we will study the four causes of matter in the third section. These ten beginning with the space element exist as attributes or modes of the concretely produced matter. That means they are not concrete matter, but they are some quality, they are some attribute of the concrete matter. They are actually not included in the Paramattha Dhammas. They are not included in those that are object of Vipassana meditation. If you look at the beginning of the seventh chapter, page 264, you will find guide to section one the 72 kinds of entities''The four ultimate realities that have been described in the first six chapters can be analyzed into 72 distinct entities.'' So 72 and they are called Vatthu Dhamma, that is phenomeha which exists with intrinsic nature. So they have their own existence, their own intrinsic nature, their own Sabhava R|pa. They are consciousness taken as one, 52 Cetasikas taken as 52 and then 18 concretely produced material phenomena (That mans the 18 Nipphanna R|pas) and the last one is NibbÈna. When we add them up we get 72 kinds of phenomena.

There are altogether ten Anipphanna R|pas. The first one is called a limiting phenomenon. That means this material property or this R|pa delimits the groups of R|pa. R|pa will be treated as groups in the fourth section of this chapter. This space element delimits or separates one group from another. Actually when the groups of matter meet together although they touch there is a kind to space between them, a separation between them. That separation between groups of matter is called Akasa Dhatu, space element. This is not just space. It is not caused by anything. It has no actual existence. It is not caused two or more groups of material properties is called Akasa Dhatu, space element.

Actually there are four kinds of Akasa of space. The first one is open space. The Pali for this is Ajjhatakasa, unentangled space. That just means open space–like we see now the space between the earth and sky. These open spaces are called AjaÔÈkasa.
 Then the next one is called delimited space. That is the space in the windows and the doors or in the pots and vessels and so on. That space is called delimited space, Paricchinakasa in Pali.

The third kind of space is the conscept of space which is the object of the first Ar|pavacara consciousness. The object of first Ar|pavacara consciousness is the concept of infinite space. That is called space obtained by removing the Kasina object or Kasina sign.

The last one is this delimiting space. The second and the fourth are different. The second is delimited space, space which is limited by other things–by a door, by a window, by a vessel, by a pot, by a hole. The space in a hole is called delimited. The fourth one is delimiting space. That means it delimits or separates different groups of material phenomena. This is called space element here, the last one.


The next two R|pas are called Vinnatti R|pas. Vinnatti means making known. It is translated as intimating material phenomena. By Kaya Vinnatti and Vaci Vinnatti we make our intentions, our desires known to other people. Those are called intimations or intimating material phenomena. We communicate by these intimating material phenomena. It is a particular mode or modification in the material properties.


          The first one is Kaya Vinnatti, bodily intimation. That means intimation by the body. When I make this gesture, especially in this country, (Not in our countries, we make another gesture.) you know that I want you to come here. The movement of my fingers, the movement of my hand - there is some kind of particular mode in this movement. Not all movement is called Vinnatti because the movement of the trees for example does not make us know anything. It is just movement. When I move my hand like this, you know that I want you to come here. Some mode in this movement is what is called I have first he intention to move the hand. Before moving my hand I have the desire or intention to move. That intention or the moments of consciousness of intention arise and disappear billions of times. That intention or consciousness accompanied by intention produces material properties, R|pas especiall Vayo, aie element. So it produces a great amount of Vayo, the air element. What we perceive as movement is actually the increase of Vayo. Old material particles disappear and new material properties take their place. When old material particles disappear and new material particles take their place, they take place in a very small distance from where the old particles have disappeared. Arising of new material paricles in a new place makes us think that there is movement of the hand. So in the books it is stated that the ultimate reality does not move. There is no movement in ultimate realities. It is difficult to understand. Why do we think there is movement? Because of the increase of Vayo Dhatu in the hand. When Vayo Dhatu increases the other material properties, especially the other three great essentials also increase. By their increase we think there is movement in the hand. Actually nothing moves from one place to another. Material properties arise here and disappear here, then new material properties arise and disappear, and then anothr one, like that.

          It is like a movie film. On the frames of the movie film there is the image. One image is just a little bit different from another image. It is actually imperceptible, but there is a difference between one image and another. But when those pictures are projected on the screen and made to move, say thirty frames per second and so on, then you think the picture is moving. Actually we do not see pictures moving. We see different pictures at different places. Then our mind combines these pictures into one moving picture. What we see is not a moving picture, but many pictures in different places. When I make a gesture like this with my hand, there is movement in my hand. When I make a gesture like this with my hand, there is movement in my hand. That movement which I make with the intention of calling you is called Kaya Vinnatti. There is Kaya Vinnatti in movement when I intend to call someone or when I try to let you know my idea or intention through movement. But not every movement is Kaya Vinnatti. When we are asleep our bodies move. No one, Nobody knows what we mean. So there is no Kaya Vinnatti in those movements. That is called Kaya Vinnatti, bodily intimation.


          The second one is Vaci Vinnatti, vocal intimation. That means speech. I make my desire, my intention known to you by speech, by talking to you. I will say, ''Come''. You know that I want you to come here. By these words, by these sounds (Sadda), I make you to understand that I want you to come to me. My saying ''come'' is what is called Vaci Vinnatti. Here also the sound ''come'' is not the Vaci Vinnatti but something inherent in that sound-that I make the sound and that I have the intention for you to come. That particular mode of sound in my mouth, which issues from my mouth, is what is called Vaci Vinnatti. It is very close to sound. If I want you to say something, again I have the intention to make that sound. That produces here what is called earth element, Pathavi Dhatu. It produces Pathavi Dhatu in my throat. That friction makes the sound come out. In this case what is in excess, what is prominent is Pathavi Dhatu, the earth element. In the case of Kaya Vinnatti what is in excess, what is prominent is air element, Vayo Dhatu. In Kaya Vinnatti there is an excess of Vayo dhatu. In Vaci innatti there is an excess of Pathavi Dhatu. Sound it just the outcome of the friction between the one element and the other elements. When we say something, we are lettingt other people know what we want , or what we desire , or what we intend, or what we mean. That sound, that speech is what is called Vaci Vinnatti, vocal intimation.

          These are also not separate material properties. Actually they are some mode, some modification which we detect in the hand or in the sound. That particular mode is what we call Vinnatti. Vinnatti' is said to be not visible. What you see is not Vinnatti but visible object in my hand. But from this you infer that he wants me to come. Actually Vinnatti cannot be seen. You know when we classify the different classes, you will see that among the 28 material properties only one can be seen. The others can be seen only through mind. Vinnatti are those that are not visible to the physical eye. The two are called Vinnatti R|pa.


The next group is called Vikara R|pa, mutable phenomena. That means the change, or here a special quality, or a special mode of the phenomena. There are three of them.

R|passa LahutÈ, -MudutÈ, -KammaÒÒatÈ

They are R|pa Lahuta, R|pa Muduta and R|pa Kammannata. You have met these three words Lahuta, Muduta and Kammannata in the 52 Cetasikas. They are the same. Lahuta means lightness. Muduta means softness or malleability. Kammannata means wieldiness. These words are difficult to understand in English. They are also difficult to understand in Pali. Lahuta is not difficult to understand. Lahuta is lightness, lightness of R|pa. When the climate is good, when the weather is fine, we feel our bodies to be light. When we have good food or when we are healthy we feel that lightness in our body. That is R|pa lahuta.

R|pa Muduta is compared to the leather which is well pressed. I think they have to press or to snash the leather so that it becomes soft and you can make it into things. That also we feel when the weather is good, when we are healthy.

          R|pa Kammannata is compared to gold which is refined. When gold is really refined, you can make it into any ornament you like. Kammannata is like that.

          These three are always together. When there is Lahuta there is also Muduta and Kammannata. These there are found only in living beings and not in outside things. The two Vinnatti phenomena and the three mutable phenomena are called Vikara R|pa. So there are five Vikara R|pa - two Vinnattis and three mutables. They are called Vikara R|pa. They are some mode, they are some attribute of the concretely produced matter.


          We come to the last group. They are called Lakkhana R|pa, characteristics of matter or signs of matter. We are familiar with three signs. What are the three signs? Impermanence, suffering and no soul. Here the signs are different. The beginning, the middle and the end are called the characteristics of matter.

R|passa Upacaya, - Santati, - JaratÈ, - AniccatÈ

The first one is called R|passa Upacaya. It is translated as production. The second is R|passa Santati, continuity. Actually production of matter, continuity of matter, R|passa Jaratadecay of matter and R|passa Aniccataimpermanence of matter, Impermanence here means end or death or dissolution of matter.

          The first two, Upacaya and Santati, are both terms for the arising, the genesis or the birth of matter. The arising of matter is called by two names here - Upacaya and Santati. The commentators try to explain the difference between Upacaya and Santati. In the word 'Upacaya' the word 'Upa' has two meanings. One is first. So Upacaya means first arising. The other, the literal meaning is above. That means later. So arising first and arising later, that is called Upacaya. One arising has two modes here , first arising an later arising. After that there is the continuity of material properties arising which is Santati.

At relinking for human beings let us say, thirty material properties arise. At relinking there is arising of thirty material properties and that arising is called Upacaya. They will arise from that moment on because they are born of kamma and so they will arise every moment. So they will arise again, again and again, When they arise again and again they still Upacaya until the time comes when all materials in one life arise fully. That means the fetus in the mother' womb gets eyes, ears and so on at about eleven weeks after conception according to the commentaries. Until that time, until the eleventh week let us say, these material properties arise. The first arising of material properties at the moment of relinking, Patisandhi are Upacaya and their arising until the eleventh week is called Upacaya. From the eleventh week on their arising is called Santati, for the whole life until 17 moments before death consciousness. In one life Upacaya can be understood to have taken place at he moment of relinking until about eleven weeks if it is a human being. But if it is a Deva they have all the necessary material properties right at the moment of relinking. Their arising at relinking is called Upacaya. The others are Santati, continuity. So just one arising here is called by two names Upacaya and Santati.

          Jaratayou know Jarata, decay, getting old. What is the life span of R|pa, of material properties? How many thought moments? 17 or 51 submoments. The first one is called Upacaya and Santati. Then the 49 in between are called Jarata, decay. The 51stis called Aniccata, death. The first moment is Upacaya and Santati. 49 moments are Jarata, decay. And the 51st moment is Aniccata, death.

          They are not concrete matter. They are the marks of concrete matter. This is when concrete matter arises. This is when it gets old. This is when it dies. Since they are the marks of concrete matter, they are called Lakkhana R|pa or characteristics of matter. There are four of them-production, continuity, decay and impermanence.

          Now we come to the end to the 28 material properties. 28 material properties are grouped into eleven groups. The first group is the four essential phenomena, Mahabhuta or Bhuta R|pa. The second is Pasada R|pa, sensitive phenomena. The third is Gocara R|pa, objective phenomena. The fourth is Bhava R|pa, sexual phenomena. The fifth is Hadaya R|pa, heart base. The sixth is jivita R|pa, life faculty. The seventh is Ahara, nutriment. The eighth is Pariccheda R|pa, limiting phenomenon. The ninth is Vinnatti R|pa, communicating phenomena. The tenth is Vikara R|pa, mutable phenomena. The eleventh is lakkhana R|pa, characteristics of matter.

          By groups there are eleven and counting separately there are 28 material properties. Among them the first 18 are called Nipphanna R|pa, concretely produced matter. The other ten are called Anipphanna R|pa, non-concrete matter. These 28 properties may be compared to the periodic table table in chemistry. There also they have arranged the elements into some order. Just as the eleements in the periodic table are the components of what we call matter, these 28 material properties according to Abhidhamma are the building blocks of what we call material things including living beings.

Again 28 material things can be divided into two. What are the two? The four great essentials and the 24 dependent matter. Dependent matter means those that depend on the four essentials for their arising. Only when there are four essentials can they arise. If there are not four essentials, they cannont arise. So they are called dependent phenomena. It is mostly translated as derived phenomena. That is not so good. We will use dependent phenomena. In Pali they are called Bhuta R|pa and Upada R|pa. You must be familiar with these terms. When you study Patthana you will find these many times. So there ar four Bhuta R|pas and 24 Upada R|pas.

          Among the 24 Upada R|pas there are eye sensitivity and so on, R|pa and so on, and then femininity, masculinity, heart, life principle and nutriment. Then among then non-concrete matter there are limiting phenomena, communicating phenomena, mutable phenomena and the characteristics of matter.

          Let's go back to the beginning. How many Bhuta R|pas are there? Four. How many Pasada R|pas, sensitivities ? Five. How many objectice R|pas? Seven because Photthabba is Pahavi, Tejo and Vayo then Bhava R|pa, sexual phenomena? Two. Heart? Only one. Life Principle? Only one. Nutriment? Only one. Limiting? One, Intimating or communicating? Two. Mutables? Three. or five - actually five including the intimations. Characteristics? Four. So we get 28 material properties. These will be like the 89 types of consciousness. You may draw a diagram showing the 28 if you want to.

          The next section is called R|pa Vibhaga, classification of matter. Matter will be classified into different things. First all matter is just one. It is just one by its characteristic. What is the characteristic of matter? Change. By that characteristic there is only one kind of R|pa.

Ahetuka, Sapaccaya, SÈsava, Sa~khata, Lokiya, KÈmÈvacara, AnÈrammaÓa, AppahÈtabba
That R|pa is said to be Ahetuka, rootless. It is Sappaccaya, with conditions. With conditions means it is caused by conditions. Sasava - Sasava means with Asavas. Asava means taints or cankers. You will study the Asavas in the seventh chapter. There are four Asavas. Sasava means literally with Asavas. Then Sankhataconditioned by conditionsconditioned by the four causes. Lokiya belonging to the mundane world or to the five aggregates of clinging. And Kamavacarathey are the object of sense desire. And then Anarammanano objectthey don't take any object, they have no ability to take an object. Taking an object is the ability of mind and not of matter. Appahatabbathey cannot be abondoned. Abandoned means like abandoning mental defilements. We cannot abandon any of the R|pas. They cannot he abandoned. We must understand that R|pa has these qualities.

The first quality is Ahetuka. R|pa is without roots. It does not associate with wholesome roots or unwholesome roots, or neutral or indeterminate. Because it is R|pa there is no Lobha, Dosa or Moha with it. So it is called Ahetuka. ''Association with roots being restricted to mental phenomena''only Cittas and Cetasikas can be said to be associated with roots. ''This citta is with root; this Citta is without root; this Cetasika is with root; this Cetasika is without root.'' But not with R|pa, R|pa is always Ahetuka.

          Then Sapaccaya, with conditionsthat means they are dependent upon conditions, they are dependent upon causes, the four causes of matter. They are Kamma, Citta, Utu and Ahara. The next section deals with them.

          Sasava-they are with Asavas. That means they are object of Asavas. Lobha, Ditthi and Moha are Asavas. There are four Asavas, but in reality there are three - Lobha, Ditthi and Moha. Matter is the object of Lobha, Ditthi and Moha. So they are called Sasava.

Sankhatathey are all conditioned. It means the same as Sappaccaya. They have causes. They are conditioned. R|pa is never Asankhata. R|pa is always Sankhata. It always arises depending upon conditions.

          Lokiyait belongs to the world of five aggregates. R|pa is never Lokuttara but some Cittas are Lokiya and some Cittas are Lokuttara. But R|pa is always mundane, Lokiya.

KamavacaraR|pa is the object of sensual craving or of sense desire. Now whether R|pa arises in Brahma world or not is called Kamavacara because it is the object of sense desire. You may remember the classification of objectsKamavacara object, Mahaggata object and Lokuttara object. There Kamavacara object means Cittas, Cetasikas and R|pa. So R|pa belongs to Kamavacara objects because it is the object of sense desire. Whether R|pa arises in the human world or the Deva world or the Brahma world, it is called Kamavacara.

Anarammanait does not take object, so it is without an object. It does not know the object, It does not cognize the object. It is the object. Since it is the object, it has no power of cognition, it is called Anarammana. That is also the difference between R|pa and Nama. Nama can be both - object and let us say subject. Nama can take another Nama as object. So Nama can be sometimes subject and sometimes object. But R|pa is always object. It is never a subject because it never takes an object. It never knows an object. It never cognizes an object.

And then Appahatabbacannot be abandoned, not to be abandoned, like the defilements. When a person attains enlightenment, when a person attains the first stage of enlightenment, he abandons some mental defilements - doubt and wrong view. He does not abandon any material property, any R|pa because R|pa cannot be abandoned. Even though one becomes an Arahant, R|pas are still there. No R|pa is abandoned. So R|pa is called Appahatabba; it can never be abandoned.

There is one R|pa according to characteristic and one R|pa according to qualities such as Ahetuka, Sappaccaya etc. R|pa can be of many kinds when conceived of as internal and external and so on. From now on R|pa will be classified as consisting of two kinds, three kinds and so on.

Ajjhattika and BÈhira R|pas
Pasada R|pathey are eye sensitivity, ear sensitivity, nose sensitivity, tongue sensitivity and body sensitivity. They are called internal, in Pali Ajjhattika. These five are called Ajjhattika, internal. Now it may be a little confusing. Every material property that we possess is internal. It is in us. But here only these five are called Ajjhattika. That is because they are very beneficial to us. If we do not have eyes, ears and so on we cannot function as a human being. We would be like a piece of log. They are so beneficial to us that only those we call internal. If soneone is so beneficial to you then you may call him an internal person. He is among us. Since these five are so beneficial to our lives, we call them internal R|pas or inner R|pas. The rest are called external. External does not mean outside the body. They are still inside the body but they are not as beneficial as the five sensitivities so they are called external R|pas.

Vatthu and Avatthu R|pas
Next is the five sensitive organs and the heart - five Pasadas and Hadaya, these six are called Vatthu R|pa, bases. You are familiar with bases. How many bases are there? Six bases. You studied bases in the third chapter. These are called base R|pa because they are the seat of consciousness. Eye sensitivity is the seat of eye consciousness and so on. They are called Vatthu R|pa. When these six are called Vatthu R|pa, the other 22 are called Avatthu R|pa, non-base matter.

DvÈra and AdvÈra R|pas
And then there are seven kinds comprised of sensitive organs and the two media of information. That means the five sensitivities, bodily intimation and verbal intimation. These seven are called Dvara R|pas, door R|pas, door material properties. The rest are called non-door R|pas. You know the five senses are called doors. Through them the mind seeing consciousness and the others arise. The two bodily and verbal intimation are called Dvara because they are the doors the Kamma to arise. Through bodily intimation and verbal intimation we acquire Kamma. So they are called Dvara even though they are not the seat of consciousness. When we do something with our body we have Vinnatti there. When we tell a lie there is some sort of Vaci Vinnatti there. So they are the doors of Kamma; here they are called Dvara R|pa, door matter.

Indriya and Anindriya R|pas
And then the eight kinds comprising the sensitive organs (They are always there.), masculinity, femininity and life (Jivita). These eight are called ndriya, faculty R|pas. Indriya means what? Having authority because they exert a controlling power in their respective spheres. That means if you do not have eyes, you do not see. So the eyes have the controlling power over seeing. If the eyes are weak your seeing consciousness is weak. If your eyes are not good your seeing consciousness is not good. If your eyes are good your seeing consciousness is good. So eyes control the seeing consciousness. They have the controlling power, the authority over seeing. The same is true for hearing and so on. The two Bhava R|pas, sexual phenomena, control the masculine or feminine features and traits. That means when a person is a man his movement, his way of playing, his way of speaking and so on are different from those of women. These faculties control the features and traits of male and female. The life faculty controls the coexisting types of matter as a pilot controls a ship. Life faculty is compared to what? Water in the lotus stock. When there is water in the lotus stock it keeps the lotus fresh. This life principle, Jivita, controls the coexistent types of matter. Matter does not arise singly. Matter arisses together, Jivita arises together with other material properties. When Jivita and other material properties arise, Jivita maintains them. It controls them and keeps them existing until they die. It does not keep them eternally, but it keeps them until they die. You know material properties have 51 moments of existence. So Jivita keeps them fresh or alive through the 50th moment. It is compared to a pilot who controls a ship. But I think it is not quite what is meant in the commentaries I think I told you about this last time. If life principle controls other material properties, what controls it? If Jivita maintains others what protects Jivita? The analogy of a boat and a boatman is given there. The meaning there is when the boatman takes others on the boat to the other side, to the other shore, he takes himself also. When he takes people on the boat to the other shore, he takes himself also because he is connected with the boat. Although he does not mean to take himself as he takes the boat to the other shore he takes himself too. In the same way Jivita, the life faculty maintains others, the material properties and it maintains itself also because it is connect with other material properties. That is the meaning her. The pilot controls the ship is not so good an analogy.

OÄÈrika-Sukhuma, Santike-D|re, SappaÔigha-AppaÔigha
The next group is twelve kinds comprising the five sensitive organs and seven sense objects. Eye sensitivity, ear sensitivity and so on, they are five. Seven sense objects means visual object, sound, smell, taste, earth, fire and air. Altogether there are five and seven, so twelve. They are called gross, Olarika in Pali, proximate or near, and Sappatigha with impingement, with impinging material phenomena. The rest are called subtle, distant and non-impinging. The sense organs and the corresponding objects are subject and object. They are said to be gross. Here gross does not mean rough or big. Gross simply means it is easier to see, easier to perceive, not difficult to perceive. When you see something you know there is eye sensitivity and you see the visible object. They are not difficult to see. They are easy to see, easy to perceive. That is why they are called gross, not that they are more substantial than or rougher than the subtle matter. But here gross just means easy to see, easy to perceive.

Proximate means near. What is near is easy to see. So they are called near. They are with impinging. That mans they come into contact - the eye and the visible object, the ear sensitivity and the sound - so there is a kind of impinging, a kind of contact. They are called Sappatigha R|pa. The rest are called Sukhumar|pa, not so easy to see, not so easy to perceive. Apo, the water element is said to be Sukhumar|pa, subtle matter, easy to see. We can see the water, but it is not easy to perceived the element or trickling characteristic or cohesion of water element. It is not as easy to see as the other elements. What is not easy to see seems to be far away, so they are called distant. Here we should understand distance not as real distance but just as not as easy to see as the other ones. They are therefore distant. And non-impinging - there is no coming together.

Material phenomena born of Kamma are called Upadinna. The others are called Anupadinna. This term must be understood properly and correctly. Many people make a mistake about this term. The word 'Updinna' is composed of the word 'Upa' and 'Adinna'. Upa here means Kamma which is the object of craving and wrong view. Actually Upa means approached, so here Kamma approached by craving and wrong views, Kamma which is the object of craving and wrong view or Kamma which is concommitant with craving and wrong view. Actually it is the object of craving and wrong view because if it is Kusala Kamma they do not arise together, but still Kusala Kamma is the object of craving and wrong view. Up here means approached, approached by craving and wrong view. Adinna means taken. Taken means here something like claiming. It is claimed by Kamma as its result. That is called Upadinna, something that is claimed by Kamma as its results. It is an though Kamma came forward and were to say, ''these are my results, these are the results that I produced.'' It is something like that. They are called Upadinna. It is usually translated as clung to, but actually Upadinna means those that are born of Kamma.

The others are not Upadinna; they are called Anupadinnathose not born of Kamma. If they are not born of Kamma, they are born of Citta, Utu and Ahara. Those that are born of Kamma are called clung to, Upadinna and the others are called not clung to, Anupadinna.

In the book, ''It should be noted that unlike the other pairs of terms used for the purpose of classification, the pair 'clung to' and 'not clung to' does not establish a mutually exclusive dichotomy.'' You will understand more clearly when you get to the next section. ''Nine kinds of material phenomena born of Kamma can also originate from other causes.'' There are 18 material properties caused by Kamma. Nine are caused by Kamma only and the other nine are cused by Kamma and the others as well. They are not mutually exclusive. That is one thing.

There is another thing to understand. ''Generally, however, in a less technical sense, all organic matter in the body is referred to as 'clung to' , while inorganic matter is spoken of as 'not clung to' .'' That is important. The word Upadinna strictly in Abhidhamma terminology means R|pa born of Kamma. Anupadinna means R|pa not born of Kamma, R|pa born of other three causes. But in other places Upadinna means simply organic matter, matter in living beings. Anupadinna means matter in outside things. That you have to understand. Otherwise you will make a mistake. Expecially in the Vinaya we find this Upadinna and Anupadinna many times. There if you translate as clung to or born of Kamma, you are wrong. There Upadinna means animate R|pa and Anupadinna means inanimate R|pa, outside things. We must understand that Upadinna and Anupadinna have two meanings each. In Abhidhamma Upadinna means born of Kamma. Anupadinna means born of Citta, Utu or Ahara. But in general usage Upadinna means animate matter. Anupadinna means inanimate matter.

Monks are not allowed to touch women. Women are Upadinna. They are animate. We can touch the desk. The desk is Anupadinna. There is no offense for us when we touch Anupadinna. With regard to Upadinna we are not to touch women. These words are used there. You msut understand that Upadinna means animate matter and so on. Otherwise if you take Upadinna to just mean R|pa born of Kamma you will be wrong there. So please understand these two words, Upadinna and Anupadinna.

The visible form is visible and the rest are non-visible. Among the 28 material properties only one can be seen. It is R|pa, visible object. So R|pa only can be seen among the 28 material properties. The other ones you cannot see with your eyes. You see them with your minds.

Eye and ear the called not reaching their object, Asampatta. Nose, tongure and body are called Sampatta. Sampatta means reaching out. That means coming to you. Eye and ear take the object which does not reach them. That means they take the object before it reaches them. Eye and ear do not go out and take the object outside . We can also say that meaning, but the correct meaning is that they take objects that have not reached them yet.

For example, let us say the sound waves come and hit our ear. According to Abhidhamma we take the sound before it hits the ear. It may be close to the ear, but it has npt yet reached the ear. Eye and ear are said to be Asampatta. Then we put the word 'GÈhika' after it. That means taking the object which has not reached them. But the nose, tongue and body are called those that take objects that have reached them. That's undertandable. The smell as long as it does not come in contact with your nose, you do not feel that smell. Touch and taste are the same. So they are called Sampattagahika.

There is a difference of opinion among the teachers before the time of the Commentaries. There is what is called MahÈ AÔÔhakathÈ. That means the original commentaries. When Buddhagosa wrote his new commentaries he took many from the MahÈ AÔÔhakathÈ. The authors of MahÈ AÔÔhakathÈ think that they take the object which has reached them. There is difference of opinion. The opinion of Venerable Buddhagosa or the elders at Mahavihara in Sri Lanka is the opinion that prevails. Later authors or monks follow them. Venerable Anuruddha also followed them. So he states that eye and ear take objects that have not reached them. The others take objects that have reached them. We may or may not agree with that.
These five–eye sensitivity, ear, nose, tongue and body sensitivity–are called Gocara Gahika. Gocara means object and Gahika means state. These five are called those that take objects. The others are called Agocara Gahika, those that do not take objects. The five are called those that take objects, Gocara Gahika. The others are called Agocara Gahika, those that do not take object.

At the beginning of this chapter it is said that R|pa does not take object, Anarammana. Here it says it takes the object. Here we should understand that when it says they take the object, the eye and ear take the object means actually not they themselves, but the eye consciousness and ear consciousness that arise depending upon them take the object. That is why they are said to take object. Actually R|pa cannot take objects.


The last one, the inseparable ones–they are Vanno (visible object), Gandho (smell), Raso (taste), Oja (Oja means nutritive essence) and Bhuta catukkka (the four freat essentials). The eight kinds of material phenomena that are inseparable - these eight are called in Pali Avinibbhoga those that cannot be separated. The rest are called Vinibbhoga, those that can be separated. These eight are everywhere. In every paticle of matter, however small it may be, are these eight particles. We may reduce the material perticles to the samllest atoms or subatoms. That subatomic particle according to Abhidhamma has these eight particles-color, odour and so on. They cannot be separated. But we can understand them, we can separate them with our minds. We say there are color, taste and so on, but actually we cannot separate them. The four essentials-earth element, water eleemnt, fire element and air element - they cannot be separated. Always there are these eight material properties everywhere. That is why they are called inseparables. The other exist separately and they can be separated. Eye sensitivity and ear sensitivity do not arise together. They are separate. We know there is no eye sensitivity in the ear sensitivity and no ear sensitivity in the eye sensitivity. But in a particle of matter we say ther is color, there is smell, there is taste. So these are called inseparable eight. The rest are the separable ones. These eight will be take these eight as a basis. Then we will add one material particle or two particles or three particles to it. We will study them in the third section. These eight elements are collectively known as (on page 246 ) the pure actad. That means pure group of eight material properties. In Pali they are called Suddhatthaka. Suddha means pure. Pure means not mixed with others. Atthaka means a gruoup of eight. So here it is a pure group of eight material properties.

Also they are collectively called Ojatthamaka, a group with nutritive essence as the eighth. There is nutritive essence among the eight-color, odour, taste and nutritive essence. So they are called Ojatthamaka. If you read the commentaries in Pali you will find these terms here and there. Suddhatthaka and Ojatthamaka mean the same thing. They both mean the eight material properties. These eight material properties cannot be separated. They are always in every particle of matter.

These 28 material properties can be divided into many classifications internal and extenal, base and non-base, door and non-door and so on. The basis of classification are the five sensitive phenomena. The five sensitive phenomena are internal and the others external. Add one thing, heart, and they are called base, Vatthu and the rest Avatthu. Then we add two, the Vinnatti. These seven are door R|pa and the rest are non-door R|pa. Then we add three. What are the three? These five, two Bhavas and Jivita. In Pali you can say Pasada, Bhava and Jivita. Pasada means the five sensitivities. So altogether there are eight. They are called faculty, Indriya R|pa. The rest are Anindriya, non-faculty. Then there are twelve. what are the twelve? Pasada and Visaya. Five Pasada and seven Gocara or Visaya. Here the word Visaya is used. There are twelve. They are gross near and impinging. The rest are called subtle, distant and non-impinging. And then there are those that are born of Kamma. They are 18. We will see them later. They are called Upadinna and the others are called Anupadinna. You must also understand the different meanings of Upadinna and Anupadinna - animate and inanimate. And the only one- R|pa, the only visible object; it is the only one that can be seen. The others cannot be seen. Here it is said that they are with seeing and without seeing. Then there are those that take the object which has not yet reached them. What are they? Eye and ear. And then there are those that take the object which has reached them–nose, tongue and body. These five are called object-taking R|pa, Gocara Gahika R|pa. Then there are those that cannot be separated. How many Avinibbhoga are there? Eight. Color, smell, taste, nutritive essence and four essentials. These eight are called Avinibhhoga. The rest are called Vinibbhoga. Can you tell me another name for Avinibbhoga R|pa? Suddhatthaka or Ojatthamaka. So there are three means for these–Avinibbhoga, Suddhatthaka and Ojatthamaka. We will find the word Suddhatthaka in the fourth Section.

Sadhu ! Sadhu ! Sadhu !

Tape# 31
Chapter 6 (c)

Origination of Matter

Four Causes of Matter
Today we come to the section called the origination of matter or the causes of matter, R|pasamutthana. Buddhism teaches the conditionality of all things animate and inanimate. R|pa can be both animate or inanimate. R|pa must have conditions or causes. There are four kinds of causes for the arising of matter. They are Kamma, Citta, Utu and Ahara. You know Kamma and Citta. Utu literally means climate or weather. In abhidhamma Utu means heat or cold or temperature. Ahara normally means food. Nutriment inherent in food is called Ahara. There are these four kinds of causes of R|pa. We will study in this chapter which kinds of causes originate which kinds of R|pas. You know there are 28 kinds of material properties.


First there is Kamma. What is Kamma in this particular section? The manual says, “The 25 kinds of wholesome and unwholesome Kamma” –so Kamma here means the 25 kinds of wholesome and unwholesome Kamma, not all Kamma because we are dealing with Kamma that causes R|pa. Now 25 kinds of wholesome and unwholesome Kamma–then how many whlesome Kammas are there? There are Kamavacara Kusala eight and R|pavacara five. Eight and five is thirteen. And then there are Akusala twelve or unwhlesome Kamma. Altogethere there are 25.

Kamma means Cetana accompanying these 25 types of consciousness. That Kamma is performed in the past, past Kamma. That Kamma produces R|pa at what moment? Beginning with Patisandhi Citta, there are three submoments within Patisandhi Citta–arising, presence and dissolution. Here it is said beginning with Patisandhi produces R|pa moment by moment. That means at every moment R|pa is produced. There are three submoments in Patisandhi. And there are three submoments in Bhavanga and so on. AT the arising moment Kamma produces Kamma born R|pa. Then at the present moment it produces R|pa again. And at the dissolution moment also it produces R|pa again. Kamma produces R|pa born of Kamma at every moment in our lives, actually every submoment. Where does it produce R|pa born of Kamma? In the internal continuum. My Kamma in the past will produce Kamma in me, not in you, not in other persons. Kamma or volition or Cetana accompanying these 25, that is Akusala, Kamavacara Kusala and R|pavacara Kusala, produces Kamma born matter beginning with the first submoment of Patisandhi and all through life until the 17th moment reckoned backward from death. It will become clear when we study the section on how matter arises and how matter disappears in one life. Kamma born matter must disappear with death Citta, with Cuti Citta. Life span of matter is how many moments? 17 throught moments. The last moment when Kamma born matter arises in one life is 17th thought moment reckoned backward from Cuti Citta. That will become clear later. This is how Kamma born matter arises.

When we say Kamma here we do not mean all Kamma. We mean Cetana associated with Akusala, Kamavacara Kusala and R|pavacara Kusala. Ar|pavacara is not included simply becaause there is non R|pa in Ar|pavacara realms. Since there is no R|pa in Ar|pavacara realms, Ar|pavacara Kamma cannot produce R|pa. This is Kamma and Kamma born matter. In the guide from the manual, “The volitions of wholesome immaterial-shpere Cittas generate rebirth in the immaterial plane and thus cannot produce material phenomena originating from Kamma.” Matter, no R|pa in Ar|pavacara realms.


The next one is Citta. There are 89 Cittas, but not all 89 Cittas produce R|pa. There are some types of consciousness that have to be excepted. Look at the manual. “The 75 types of consciousness, excluding the immaterial-shpere resultants (That is Ar|pavacara Vipaka) and the two sets of fivefold sense consciousness (That means ten seeing consciousness and so on.) produce material phenomena originating from consciousness.” Citta here means 75 Cittas. Those ;75 are all Cittas except Ar|pavacara Vipaka four and the two sets of fivefold sense consciousness. So 89 minus 14 is 75. These 75 Cittas produce what is called Citta born R|pa. Beginning with what moment? Beginning with the first Bhavanga. After Patisandhi there is Bhavanga. Beginning with that first Bhavanga, Citta produces Citta born matter. When do they produce matter? Only at the moment of arising. That means the first submoment. Citta produces Citta born matter at the first submoment of the first Bhavanga. Following that at every moment of arising Citta produces Citta born matter. Citta born matter is not produced at presence submoment and dissolution submoment. Now that is the difference between Kamma born and Citta born. Kamma born R|pa is produced at every submoment in one life. Citta born R|pa is only produced at the a rising submoment of each Citta. Citta born matter is not produced at the present submoment or the dissolution submoment of Citta.

Now there are some things we have to understand. Rebirth consciounsess and death consciousness do they produce matter or not? It is said that rebirth consciousness does not produce matter, cannot produce matter because it has to depend on a weak base. It is llike a guest. It has just come to a new existence. It is new,so it cannot produce Citta born matter at the moment of Patisandhi. Actually at the moment of Patisandhi what arises is Kamma born matter. Since Kamma born matter arises at moment of Patisandhi, Patisandhi Citta cannot produce Citta born matter at that moment. Patisandhi Citta or rebirth consciousness are to be excluded.

Then it is said in the books that the death Citta of an Arahant does not produce any R|pa. But death Citta of other beings does produce R|pa. Here we have to excclude death Citta of Arahants also. Although we leave then\m out the number of Cittas is the same. Although we leave out rebirth consciousness, there are Bhavanga consciounesses. Also there are death consciousness of other dbeings. So the number of Cittas is the same. But to be exact or if we go into details we have to except rebirth consciousness and the death consciousness of Arahants. These types of consciousness do not produce any R|pa.

The Ar|pavacara Vipaka Cittas do not produce any matter. That is easy to understand. It is simply because there is no R|pa in those realms.

What about the ten Cittas, seeing consciousness and so on? They do not produce R|pa. Why? It is said that in order for the Cittas to be strong enough to produce matter they need to be associated with what are called Jhana factors, Magga factors and Hetus (roots). These types of consciousness (Dvipancavinnana) are accompanied by Vitakka, Vicara, Ekagatta and Sukha. Also they a re not accompanied by Vitakka, Vicara, Ekagatta and Sukha. Also they are not accompanied by factors of path or any roots. So they are without them and have no power to produce matter. That is why they are excluded from the Cittas here. The four Ar|pavacara Vipakas do not produce matter because there is no matter in Ar|pavacara realm. The ten Cittas Dvipancavinnana do not produce matter because they are too weak. Why are they too weak? They are too weak because they are not accompanied by the factors of Jhana, factors of path and Hetus. Rebirth consciousness does not produce R|pa. Death consciousness of Arahants also does not produce R|pa.

Now we have to unerstand at what moment mental phenomena and material phenomena are strongest. It is said that mental phenomena are strongest at t he moment of arising, among the three submoments. Cittas and Cetasikas are strongest at t he moment of arising. That is why Cittas produce R|pa at t hat moment and not at presence moment and dissolution moment. But material phenomena are strongest at t he moment of presence. You know material phenomena last for 51 submoments. Their presence is for 49 submoments. When they exist for that long they are strong. Matter is strongest at the moment of presnece. That means it is trongest during the 49 submoments of existence. Cittas and Cetasikas are strongest at the moment of arising.

There are some particulars to understand with regard to Cittas producing matter. That is Appana Javanas. How many Appana Javanas are there? 26, there are 26 when you take Lokuttara as eight. These Appana Javanas also uphold the bodily postures. That means in addition to originating matter they uphold and maintain the bodily postures. In that chart what color are Appana Javanas? Orange. These (Mahaggata Kusala & Kiriya & Lokuttara) produce matter and also uphold and maintain postures. When a person is in a state of Jhana he can sit cross-legged for seven days. Jhana Javanas are strong so they can maintain the postures. The maintenance or upholding of the bodily posture is done by the 26 Appana Javanas.

The determining consciousness (Votthabana), Kamavacara Javanas and two Abhinnas produce matter, maintain or support postures, and they also activate bodily and vocal intimation. How many Cittas are there? Vinnatti (bodily intimation and vocal intimation). In the chart you you have to look at two colors red and green–Votthabana, two Abhinnas and Kamavacara Javanas.

Then the last one–the 13 Javanas accompanied by Somanassa produce smiling. There are four from Lobhamula, one from Ahetuka and eight from Kamavacara or four from Kamavacara Kusala and four from Kamavacara Kiriya. These 13 produce matter, maintain postures, produce bodily and vocal intimation and also produce smiling.

This chart shows what Cittas cause what R|pa. The yellow color shows Cittas that produce R|pa only. (Two Sampaticchana, Three Santirana, Pancadvaravajjana, eight Kamavacara Vipaka, and five R|pavacara Vipaka)* Orange color produce R|pa and maintain posture. (Mahaggata Kusala & Kiriya and Lokuttara)* I say they maintain or support posture. They do not produce posture. They keep the postures intact. In order for there to be posture there must be Vinnatti. They do not produce Vinnatti. So they cannot produce or create posture. The posture that is already there they maintain or support. Those that support posture and produce R|pa are orange color. There are Cittas that produce R|pa are orange color. There are Cittas that produce matter, support postures and also produce intimations. They are shown with red color. (Manodvaravajjana, four Lobhamula Upekkha, two Dosamula, two Mohamula, four Kamavacara Kusala Upekkha, four Kamavacara Kiriya Upekkha and two Abhinnas)* Then there are Cittas that produce R|pa, support bodily postures, produce Vinnatti and produce smiling. (Four Lobhamula Somanassa, Hasituppada, four Kamavacara Kusala Somanassa, four Kamavacara Kiriya Somanassa)*

Fifth R|pavacara Kusala and R|pavacara Kiriya have two colors. That means fifth Jhana can be ordinary fifth Jhana or Abhinna fifth Jhana. If they are ordinary they do not produce intimation. But when they are Abhinnas they produce intimation also. So they are colored * I added in what the Cittas were that are represented by the colors. Half orange and half red. When ; we say 26 Appana Javanas we mean ordinary fifth Jhana. We do not include Abhinna there. When we say 26 Appana Javanas uphold postures, we mean ordinary fifth Jhana. When we say Votthabana, Kamavacara Javanas and Abhinnas produce matter, uphold postures and produce intimation, we mean the fifth Jhanas that are Abhinnas. Therefore we have the fifth R|pavacara Cittas in two colors. If we want to know how many Cittas produce matter, then we take all colors. How many Cittas support posture? Orange. How many Cittas produce matter and support postures? Orange, red and green. How many Cittas produce intimations, Vinnatti? Red and green. How many Cittas produce smiling also? Green. How many Cittas donot produce matter? Those without color.

With regard to those that produce smiling also, there are 13 of them. With these Cittas people smile. Puthujjanas smile with’ how many Cittas? Four Lobhamula accompanied by Somanassa and four Kamavacara Kusala accompanied by Somanassa. With one of these eight Cittas Puthujjanas smile. What about trainees, Sekhas (That means Sotapannas, Sakadagamis and Anagamis.) - with how many Cittas do they smile? Two from Lobhamula, those not accompanied by wrong view (That means the third and fourth Lobhamula Cittas), and then four Kamavacara Kusala Cittas accompanied by Somanassa. With one of these six Cittas trainees smile. What about Arahants with what Cittas do they smile? Five - Hasituppada and four Kamavacara Kiriya accompanied by Somanassa. So Puthujjanas smile with eight Cittas. Trainees smile with six Cittas. Arahants smile with five Cittas. What about Buddhas? There were some teachers who thought that a Buddha would not smile with Hasituppada. The common opinion of teachers does not accept that. Those who said Buddha does not smile with Hasituppada gave this reason: it is said that all bodily actions of Buddha follow wisdom, follow Nana. This Hasituppada does not have Nana or even Hetuys. Since it is Ahetuka Citta, it does not follow wisdom. Since it is said that all Buddha’s bodily actions are followed by wisdom, so Buddha would not smile with Hasituppada Citta. The common opinion is that Buddhas do smile with Hasituppada Citta.

When Buddha smiles, he may look at the–let us say Buddha saw somebody and he smiled. He may look at a person’s past by his knowledge of past times. Or he may look into the future of this person by his supernormal power. Seeing the past or seeing the future are always accompanied by wisdom. After that there is smiling. We can say that smiling follows wisdom. Buddhas do smile with Hasituppada Citta. This is the common opin9on of teachers. According to some Buddhas do not smile with Hasituppada Citta because it has no Nana; it does not follow Nana. The others say that when Buddha smiles first he looks into the past of that being or looks into the future of that does Buddha smile. Although it is not accompanied by Nana, it follows Nana. Therefore smile with five Cittas. That is the common opinion of teachers.

The chart on page 249 is the same as this chart with a different format. You can check the chart on the board with the chart in the book. Greed rooted in joy means four green ones in the first column. They produce matter, maintain posture, produce intimation and produce smiling. Greed rooted inequanimity, the other four produce matter, maintain posture, produce intimation but not smiling. Hate rooted two, Dosamula two what do they produce? Matter, posture and intimation–only three. Delusion rooted two? The same–matter, posture and intimation, no smiling. Sense consciousness ten–nothing. Then receiving consciousness two- what are the two receiving consciousness? The two Sampaticchana. What do they produce? R|pa only–no posture, no intimation and no smiling. Then investigating three produce R|pas only. They do not produce psoture, intimation or smiling. The five sense door adverting, Pancadvajjana produces R|pa only, no posture and so on. Then mind door adverting, Manodavaravajjana what? Matter, posture and intimation. Then Hasituppads, smile producing? All four. Kamavacara Kusala accompanied by Somanassa produce all four matter, posture, intimation and smiling. Kamavacara Kusala accompanied by Upekkha they don’t produce smiling, so only three. Then Kamavacara Vipaka, all eight what do they produce? R|pa only. They do not produce psoture and so on. And then Kamavacara Kiriya accompanied by Somanassa what do they produce? Matter, psosture, intimation and smiling. Then Kamavacara Kiriaya accompanied by equanimity? Only three-matter, posture and intimation, no smiling. R|pavacara Kusala five? Matter and posture, no intimation, no smiling. When you are in Jhana you are still. You do not move. So there can be no Kaya Vinnatti or Vaci Vinnatti. Then R|pavacara Vipaka five? R|pa only. R|pavacara Kiriya five? R|pa and postures. Ar|pavacara Kusala four? Two, matter and Iriyapattha (postures). Ar|pavacara Vipaka four? Nothing. Ar|pavacara Kiriya four? R|pa and Iriyapattha. Lokuttara eight? R|pa and postures, no intimation and no smiling. Direct knowledge two (That means Kusala and Kiriya fifth R|pacacara), they produce matter, postures andintimation. You may use any chart–the chart in the book or this chart.


Now we come to R|pa caused by temperature. What is Utu or what is temperature here? Tejo Dhatu or fire element. Among the four elements Tejo Dhatu is called Utu here. It is heat or cold. It is stated as temperature. “Fire element, which comprises both heat and cold on reaching its state of presnece (second submoment) produces according to circumstances both internal and external material phenomena originting from temperature. “Tejo Dhatu is R|pa. So it is strong only at its presence moement. At the moment of arising it does not produce matter. At its presence moment, during 49 submoments, it produces Utu born matter or temperature born matter. Where? Both internal and external.

“Beginning from the stage of presence at the moment of rebirthlinking, the internal fire element found in the material groups born of Kamma combines with the external fire element and starts producing organic material phenomena originating from temperature.” At Patisandhi Citta–there are three moments in Patisandhi Citta. The first submoment is arising moment. It cannot produce anything. At the next submoment or presence moment of Patisandhi Citta the internal fire element combines with the external fire element. It is said that internal fire element cannot produce R|pa unless it receives the support of external fire element. That means internal heat can produce R|pa only when it gets the support of external heat. External heat is always–we always feel that external heat. There is always external heat even through our bodies like mothers through their bodies the external heat gets inside the body and supports the internal temperature. That internal temperature supported by the external temperature causes R|pa. What about external things? Whatever happens outside living beings is called external. There also the external fire element produces climatic changes or geological transformations. There also Utu born of temperature is produced. Utu or temperature produces matter only at t he moment of presnece. Beginning with the presence moment of Patisandhi Citta temperature produces R|pa. It will go onand on producing R|pa. The temperature’ in the material group born of all four causes produces organic material phenomena born of temperature trhoughout the course of existence. So all through life the temperature causes R|pa. Temperature can be among the group of matter which is caused by all four causes. It is among the four esentials. And four essentials are in every group of R|pa. We will study the groups of R|pa a litle bit later. Utu or temperature produce R|pa whenit reaches its presence state. The R|pa which is produced at presence stage of Patisandhi Citta reaches its presnece stage at the dissolution moment of Patisandhi Citta. We can say that the Utu born matter is produced at almost every moment. One R|pa also when it reaches its presnece stage produces another R|pa and so on. Actually at every moment Utu born matter is produced.


The last one is nutrition. “Nutriment, known as nutritive essence, on reaching its stage of presnece, produces material phenomena originating from nuriment at the time it is swallowed.” Oja or in Pali it is called Ahara. Ahara is known as Oja, nutritive essence. What we call Ahara in Abhidhamma is not the food itself. The nutritive essence that is in the food is called Ahara. That nutritive essence on reaching its stage of presence produces material phenomena.

“At that time it is swallowed” is said here is using ordinary usage. It does not really mean at the time of swallowing. Even before and then reaches your taste buds, it begins even then to produce matter caused by nutriment. “At the time it is swallowed” is just an expression. Actually even before swallowing the R|pa is produced.

Here there are two opinions. The common opinion is that external Ahara or nutriment produces matter. When you eat something the nutriment is external. That external Ahara that you eat comes into contact with internal Ahara. It gets the support of internal Ahara and produces R|pa. What produces matter is external Ahara or nurtiment. The external nutriment comes into our bodies and comes into conact with the internal Ahara. Then supported by internal Ahara the external Ahara produces R|pa. If you remember how temperature produces R|pa, it is theother way round. With regard to temperautre caused R|pa the internal temperature causes or produces R|pa when it gets the support of external temperature. With regard to temperature caused R|pa the; internal temperature causes or proudces ‘r|pa when it gets the support of external tmeperature. With regard to temperature born R|pa it is the internal temperature that produces R|pa. With regard to nutriment born R|pa it is the externaloroutside nurtikent which produces matter with the support of internal matter. That is the difference.

There was one teacher in a subcommentary to the Visuddhi Magga that had a different opinion. According to him it is the internal nutritive essence that produces matter, not external. External is only a support.

In this manual in guide to section 13, “The internal nutritive essence, supported by the external, produces material phenomena at the moment of presence starting from the time it is swallowed.” It follows the subcommentary to the Visuddhi Magga.

The others are taken from the Visuddhi Magga. “The: nutritive essence that has reached presence in the material groups originating from nutriment produces a further pure octad. And the nutritive essence in that octed originates still a further octad; thus the occurrence of octads link up ten or twelve times. “Actually this passage explains not just R|pa produced by nutriment, this passage explains the R|pa produced by nutriment which has nutriment as its condition. It is a little complicated. In the Visuddhi Magga there are given sometimes five sometimes six kinds of R|pa born of Citta, R|pa born of Utu, R|pa born of Ahara and so on. The divisions are: What is Ahara? What is caused by Ahara? What is that which has Ahara as its condition? And so on. This passage explains that one kind of R|pa born ; of Ahara produces another kind of R|pa born of Ahara. It goes on and on like that. It is not simply the explanation of R|pa caused by Ahara. This explanation is for R|pa caused by Ahara which has Ahara as its condition, the R|pa born of Ahara producing R|pa born of Ahara.

“The nutriment taken by a pregnant mother, pervading the body of the embryo, originates materiality in the child.” What the mother eats from that the child gets Ahara.

“Even nutriment taken by a pregnant mother, pervading the body of the embryo, originates materiality in t he child.” What the mother eats from that the child gets Ahara.

“The nutritive essence in the internal groups born of the other three causes also originates several occurrences of pure octads in succession.” If we do not study all these in detail you may not understand. “The nutriment taken on one day can support the body for as long as seven days.” It is what they believed that food taken once can support the body for seven days. After that the body may be supported by some other means or other causes. A person can be without food for more than seven days.

There was a monk in Burma who demonstrated against the British. He was put into prison and he refused to eat anything. He was without food for more than a 100 days. Eventually he died. His body may be sustained by his will or from the water he drank. He got very little nutriment.

You may remember that when people enter into Nirodha Samapatti that human beings can only enter for seven days. The reason given is that with one day’s sustance, the body can be sustained for seven days only. There are animals who hibernate and don’t anything for a long time.

Now let us go to which R|pa is caused by which cause. Heart base and then eight Indriya R|pas. You remember Indriya faculties. They are caused by Kamma only. What are the Indriya R|pas? Five sensitivities, two Bhavas and Jivita. They are called Indriya R|pas. These eight and heart base are produced by Kamma only.

The two intimations are caused by Citta only. When I talked about the life span of R|pa Indriya I always ‘generally’. The life span of R|pa is 51 submoments. That means the life span of R|pa except the two Vinnattis and the four characteristics. Before I did not tell you that because I did not want to confuse you. Vinnatti orintimations are born of consciousness. That means they follow consciousness. They arise and disappear together with consciousness. Thjey do not live for 51 submoments. In the Dhammasangani they are mentioned as “Cittanuparivati”. That means those that follow Cittas. When we say the life spanof R|pa is 17 thought moments, we mean R|pas except the two Vinnattis and the four characteristics. This is true for Lakkhana R|pa because thefour characteristics are just the marks of different Ruaps. So they are not really R|pas.Vinnattis always follow Citta. That means they arise ; and disappear along with Citta. They don’ last for 17 thought moments. The Vinnatti are caused by Citta only.

Sound is caused by Citta and Utu. Sometimes sound is caused by Citta. Sometimes sound is caused by Utu. Now I am talking and I am producing sound. This sound is caused by Citta. Then there may be some in my body - my stomach making sound and so on - t hat is not caused by Citta. That is caused by Utu. And then outside, any sound outside is caused by Utu. Sound is caused by Cita and Utu. That means sound is caused by Citta sometimes and by Utu sometimes, not by both Citta and Utu together.

The three, lightness (Lahuta), malleability (Muduta), and wieldiness (Kammanna­­ta), are caused by temperature, consciousness and nutrimen. These three arise only sometimes, not always. Sometimes you have no lightness of matter. When you are dull, when you are sleepy, when you are ill, there is no lightness, malleability or wieldiness. They arise or exist not always. They arise sometimes. They cannot be the product of Kamma. If they were the product of Kamma, they must arise every moment. They would always bewithus. We wish they would be caused by Kamma. It is a pity they do not arise through Kamma These three are caused by Citta, Utu and Ahara. When you have a happy frame of mind, you feel lightness in your body. When the weather is good you feel lightness. When you have eaten good food or sutiable food, you feel lightness and so on. These three are caused by Citta, Utu and Ahara.

The eight inseparable R|pas–do you remember the eight inseparable R|pas? Four essentials, visible object, smell, taste and Ahara. These eight are called inseparables. These eight and space (Akasa Dhatu) are caused by all four causes. They are caused by Kamma, Citta, Utu and Ahara, by all four causes. Actually Akasa is not caused by anything. But when the groups of matter are produced there is always Akasa between thes groups of matter. So it is said to be produced by four causes. Akasa Dhatu appears only when the R|pa caused by four causes arises. Without these R|pa there can be no Akasa. So they are said to be caused by four causes.

The four characteristics are not caused by any cause. Actually they are not real R|pas. They are not caused by anything. Why do the characteristics arise from not any cause? In the manual itself it is said, “the characteristics 9of material phenomena) are not produced by any (modes of origin) since their intrinsic nature consists solely in the qualities of being produced, etc.” That means they are the nature of those that are produced. When something is produced, there are these four characteristics. They are not separate materials properties, but the qualities of these material properties. That means their arising, their staying for some time and their disappearance. Since they are the nature or the essence of the material qualities, they are said to be not caused by any cause. The four characteristics are outside the matter caused by any of the four causes.

In the summary the numbers are given 18, 15, 13 and 12. 18 are caused by Kamma. 15 are caused by Citta. 13 are caused by Utu. And 12 are caused by Ahara. We will have to find out the 18. Which are the 18 caused by Kamma? Nine caused by Kamma only and nine caused by four causes. Again you will have to find the 18 caused by Kamma. Caused by Kamma does not mean necessarily by Kamma only. If Kamma is among the causes, we say it is caused by Kamma. So 18 R|pas are caused by Kamma; what are those 18? Nine are caused by Kamma only and nine are caused by four causes.

By Citta there are said to be 15. What are the 15? Eight inseparables, Vinnatti two, Lahuta, Muduta, Kammannata, sound and space. There are 15.

Thirteen are caused by nutriment. Eight inseparables plus space and lightness and so on.

18, 15, 13 and 12-18 are caused by Kamma, 15 are caused by Citta; 13 are caused by Utu; and 12 are caused by Ahara. On page 252 you may find the answer. “The 18 that arise from Kamma are: eight inseparables, eight faculties, heart base and space.” It is just another way of reckoning. “The 15 that arise from consciousness are: eight inseparables, five mutables (That means intimations, lightness and so on) sound and space.” “The thirteen that arise from temperature are: eight inseparables lightness tried sound and space.” “he twelve that arise from nutriment are: eigh inseparables, lightness tried and space.”

The 28 material phenonmena can be further classified according to their number of causes as follows: those arise through only one cause how many? Eleven. Eight faculties–what is the cause of eight faculties? Kamma. What is cause of heart base? Kamma. What is cause of intimations? Citta. They are all caused by one cause, but they are different causes.

Two causes? Sound. What are the two causes? Citta and Utu.

Three Causes? Lightness andothers. They are caused by Citta, Utu and Ahara. They are not caused by Kamma because they don’t exist always.

Four Causes? Eight inseparables and space.

Which have no cause? The four characteristics.

Again I wish you had this chart. When you get this chart, you will see it clearly. What are the four causes of R|pa? Kamma, Citta, utu and Ahara. What is Kamma? Kamma is volition or Cetana. Here it is Cetana associated with 25 Cittas. Which 25 Cittas? Akusala, Kamavacara Kusala and R|pavacara Kusala.

Citta–75 Cittas. What do you exclude? Dvipancavinnana ten and four Ar|pavacara Vipaka.

What is Utu? What is temperature? Among the four essentials it is the fire element.

What is Ahara? Nutriment or nutritive essence found in everything because nutrimen is one of the inseparables. Even in a rock there is Ahara.

How many are caused by Kamma? 18. How many are caused by Citta? 15. How many are caused by Utu? How many are caused by Ahara? 12. How many by no cause? 4.
Those caused by only one cause? Eleven. Those by two causes? One. Byt hree causes? Three. By four causes? Nine. By no causes? Four.

Sadhu! Sadhu! Sadhu!

Tape# 32
Chapter 6 (D)

Matter Groups

Today we come to the groupings of material phenomena, in Pali Kalapa Yojana.The Pali word Kalapa means a group. So it is very close to t he English word club. Material phenomena do not arise singly but in combinationof groups know as R|pa Kalapa. When material properties arise they arise in a group. There are altogether 21 such groups. Theya re divided into groups caused by Kamma, groups caused by Citta, by Utu and by Ahara. The basis of these groups is the eight inseparable material properties.

First you must be familiar with these eight material properties. If you look at the chart you will see them in R|pa Vibhaga, the next to last column–Avinibbhoga: the four essential elements, R|pa (visible form), Gandha (smell), Rasa 9taste), and Ahara (nutriment). These eight are called Avinibbhoga in the section R|pa Vibhaga. They will be called Suddhatthaka among the Cittaja groups, four Utuja groups and two Aharaja groups. Tese eight inseparable ones are called Avinibbhogs or Suddhatthaka or they may also be called Ojattamaka, another name. These eight are the basis for forming groups or Kalapas.

KalÈpas caused by Kamma

As to nine Kalapas caused by Kamma these eight plus one Jivita–these nine are the basis fort he nine groups caused by Kamma. To that nine you add one which is eye-sensitivity. You get Cakkhu Dasaka. Dasaka means a group of ten. Cakkhu you know means eye sensitivity. So a group of ten material properties marked by eye sensitivity they are called in Pali Cakkhu Dasaka and in English eye decad. These ten properties as a group are called Cakkhu Dasaka, eye decad.

The next decad is Sota Dasaka. Here you substitute Sota for Cakkhu. There are eight inseparables, Jivita plus ear sensitivity. These ten are called Sota Dasaka, ear decad.

The next is the eight inseparables, Jivita and nose sensitivity. These ten are called Ghana Dasaka.

Next there are the eight inseparables, jivita and tongue sensitivity (Jivha). Thses ten are called Jivha Dasaka.

Then there are eight plus Jivita plus body sensitivity. Thses ten are called Kaya Dasaka or body decad.

Then next there is Itthibhava Dasaka. There are the eight inseparalbes, Jivita and Itthibhava (feminity). Thses ten are called Itthibhava Dasaka, female decad.

The next is Pumbahava Dasaka. Here there are eight inseparables, Jivita and masculinity. These ten a re called Pumbhava Dasaka.

The next group is eight inseparables, jivita and heart base. These ten are called Vatthu Dasaka, base decad.

But the last one is only nine. These are the eight inseparables plus Jivita. These nine are called Jivita Navaka, the life nonad.

These nine groups or Kalapas are caused by Kamma. There are nine Kammaja Kalapas. Once again what is the first one? Cakkhu Dasaka. What are the ten? The eight inseparables, Jivita and eye sensitiviy. The second one is Sota Dasaka, ear decad -eight inseparables, Jivita plus ear sensitivity. The next one is Ghana Dasaka, nose decad. That is eight plus Jivita plus nose sensitivity. The next is tongue decad. That is eight plus Jivita plus nose sensitiviy.The next is tongue decad. So it is the eight plus Jivita plus tongue sensitivity. The next one is Kaya Dasaka - eight plus Jivita plus body sensitivity. And then there is Itthibhava Dasaka, female decad. There are eight plus Jivita plus feminity (Itthibhava). The next is Pumbhava Dasaka, masculinity decad.The ten are eight plus Jivita plus masculinity. Then the next one is Vatthu Dsassaka - Vatthu here means Hadays Vatthu. So there are eight plus Jivita plus Hadaya. The last one is only nine, so eight plus Jivita. There are altogether nine groups that are caused by Kamma.

KalÈpas caused by Citta

Look at the R|pa Samutthana column. You will see they all causes Cittaja, mind born Kalapas–how many Cittaja Kalapas, mind born groups are there? Six. The first one is Suddhatthaka.Suddha means pure. Atthaka means a group of eight, so octad. It is called pure octad. Suddhatthaka eight just means the inseparables (four essentials, R|pa, Gandha, Rasa and Ahara). The first one is the pure octad, only these eight.

The second one is Kaya Vinnatti Navaka. Eight plus Kaya Vinnatti make up Kaya Vinnatti Navaka.

The next one is Vaci Vinnatti Dasaka. When you take Vaci Vinnatti you also take Sadda (sound) because there can be no Vaci Vinnatti without sound. When we say Vaci Vinnatti (vocal intimation) we also mean sound. So although the name is Vaci Vinnatti Dasaka, we must understand it to mean Vaci Vinnatti Sadoa Dasaka. We do not call it Vaci Vinnatti Sadda Dasaka. We must understand that sound is included in the term Vaci Vinnatti Dasaka. Vaci Vinnatti Dasaka consists of eight inseparables, sound and vocal intimation.

The next one is what? We have a long name–LahutÈdekÈdasaka. ‘EkÈdasa’ means eleven. Lahuta means Lahuta and others. That means the three Lahuta, Muduta and Kammannata. Lahuta Dekadasaka means eight plus Lahuta, Muduta and Kammannata, so eleven.

The next one is longer–KayaviÒÒatti-lahutadi-dvadasaka. Kaya Vinnatti is one. Lahutadi is three. So one plus three is four. And four plus eight is twelve. Twelve is called Dvadaska in Pali. So we get Kaya Vinnatti Lahutadidvadasaka, a g roup of twlve material properties with Kaya Vinnatti and three Lahuta and the rest.

The last one is still a long name–VacÊviÒÒatti-sadda-lahutadi-terasaka. Now here Sadda is used, Vaci Vinnatti isone. Sadda is one. Ldahutadi is three. So five plus eight is thirteen. Thirteen is called Terasa in Pali. So the name for this group is Vaci Vinnatti Sadda Lahutaditerasaka. The English words are as difficult as the Pali words–Undeca, Duodeca and so on. It looks like Spanish. You may learn Pali or English which ever is easier for you. Neither one is easy.

There are six groups caused by Citta–actually all these are those that are caused by Citta in the R|pasamutthana (causes of R|pa). Let us go through them once more. The first one is Suddhatthaka, only eight. The second one is Kaya Vinnatti Navaka. That means eight plus Kaya Vinnatti. The third one is Vaci Vinnatti Dasaka. That means eight plus Vaci Vinnatti plus Sadda (sound). And then there is Lahuta Dekadasaka eleven–eight plus Lahuta, Muduta and Kammannata. Fifth is Kaya Vinnatti Lahutadivadasaka twelve. There is Kaya Vinnatti and then Lahuta, Muduta Kammannata three, and eihgt pure octad. The last one, the sixthone is Vaci Vinnatti Sadda Lahutaditerasaka - eight plus vocal intimation, sound, plus Lahuta and the others. Altogether there are 13.

If you have the chart you can find them out very easily. If you don’t have the chart you have to memorize them. The eight are the basis. You add something to the eight. With regard to the Kamma-born Kalapas you add Jivita and make nine the basis. But here with Cittaja you make you make eight as the basis. So you add one Kaya Vinnatti and you get one Navaka. Then you add Vaci Vinnatti and ;you get Vaci Vinnatti Dasaka. You add Lahuta and the others and you get Lahuta Dekadasaka. And then you add Kaya Vinnatti and Lahutadi and then Vinnatti and Lahutadi.

KalÈpas caused by Utu

The next group is the four Kalapas caused by Utu, caused by temperature. The first one is pure octad, Suddhatthaka. The second one is Sadda Navaka. That means eight plus sound (Sadda).The third one is Lahuta Dekadasaka. So it is eight plus Lahuta, Muduta, and Kammannata. The fourth one is Sadda Lahutadidvasaka. So it is sound and three Lahuta and others and eight pure octad. These are caused by temperature or climate.

KalÈpas caused by ŒhÈra

The last group consists of two Kalapas. They are caused by nutriment, Ahara. The first one is again Suddhatthaka. The second one is Lahutadeka­dasaka. Three lightness and so on plus eight octad, so we get eleven that make up this Kalapa. Altogether there are 21 Kalapas - nine, six, four and two.

In the manual on page 254, section 21, “Of them, the two material groups produced by temperature–the pure octad and the sound nonad are found externally too. All the rest are strictly internal.” We must understand this. Out of 21 Kalapa, only two Kalapas can be found outside living beings. Externally means outside living beings. The others are always internal. Here the pure octad and the sound nonad are found externally too.They are found both externally there can only be two. They are the pure octad and the sound nonad. A piece of rock, what does it consist of? Only eight. You drop the piece of rock on the ground, then sound is produced. That is sound nonad. Only these two are found outside living beings. The others are always internal.

In Abhidhamma trees, plants, mountains and others are all taken to be external, not internal. Therefore we cannot say there is Jivita in plants or trees. Jivita as you see here arises only internally. Jivita Navaka and all these Kammaja groupings arise internally only. So Jivita cannot be found outside living beings according to Abhidhamma. Abhidhamma takes trees and others as non-living things, not as living beings. It would be wrong to say that there is Jivita in trees or plants. We should be very careful when we talk about these things. There may be what is called life in plants or in trees, but that life is not Jivita. It may be some other thing which is called life. So all 21 groups may be found internally and only two are to be found externally. Whenever we hear the noise of thunder however loud it may be, it is just Sadda Navaka.

Akasa (space) and the four characterisitic marks (Upacaya, Santati, Jarata & Aniccata ) they are not part of Kalapas or material groups. When we talk about Kalapas we do not talk about these things. They are not included in Kalapas. The last verse explains that. “As space demarcates, and the characteristic marks just indicate the wise state that they are not constituents of material groups.” I think one word is missing here. “As space demarcates, and the characteristic marks just indicate the Kalapas.” We should add the material groups. “As space demarcates, and the characteristic marks just indicate the material groups, the wise state that they are not constituents of material groups.”

Why are space and four characteristic marks not included in the Kalapas? Because space is just the separation of one Kalapa and another. When Kalapas meet there is this space, By space I do not mean open space, but space between two Kalapas. Space can be found only between Kalapas and not inside Kalapas. That is why space is not included in the Kalapas. In one Kalapa all the material particles are pressed together without any space between them. Space is found only between one group and another. These groups may b e touching together but still there is a kind of space between these two groups. And then the characteristics are just the mark of or the different stages of these material properties. So they are not included in the Kalapas. Space is not included in naterial groups because it is just demarcation of Kalapas. Characteristic marks are not included in material groups because they just indicate the stages of matter - the arising, continution, old age and impermanence. So they are not the constitutents of the Kalapas.

This chart is very useful for understanding from the beginning of the chapter up to end of this section. Please look at the chart again. The first column is R|pa Samuddesa. That means the enumeration of R|pa. 28 R|pas are given there in Pali. If you want to have the English translation, you look at the chart in the book. On the chart I give all Pali names–Pathavi, Apo, Tejo, Vayo and so on. Then there is Cakkhu, Sota, Ghana, Jivha, Kaya, R|pa, Sadda, Gandha, Rasa, Phottabba. Photthabba is actually the combination of three esssential elements. Photthabba is combination of what three? Pathavi, Tejo and Vato. That is why I don’t give a number there, just an asterick. Then number 14 is Itthibhava (feminity), and then Pumbhava (masculinity), Hadaya (heart base), Jivita (life), Ahara (nutriment), Akasa (space). Then there are Kaya Vinnatti (bodily intimation), Vaci Vinnatti (vocl intimation) and then Lahuta (lightness), Muduta (softness) an Kammannata (wieldiness) and Upacaya (first arising) Santati (continuation), Jarata (old age), Aniccata (impermanence). Aniccata means dissolution or death. There are 28 materials properties given here.

We have to be careful about Photthabba. Although Photthabba is included in some enumerations, the number does not change because Photthabba and the three essentials are the same. When we have taken the four essentials although we take Photthabba the number does not increase. So we have shown Photthabba in a lighter shade. The others are in a darker shade.

The first column is Mahabhuta, the four essentials. The others are Upada R|pa. So wer have the four essentials and the 24 dependent material properties. Next there is Ajjhattika and Bahira. Cakkhu, Sota, Ghana, Jivha and Kaya are Ajjhattika. The others are Bahira. Ajjhattika means internal. Bahira means external. Then there is Vatthu. Vatthu means Cakkhu, Sota, Ghana, Jivha, Kaya and Hadaya (hear). The others are Avatthu (non-base). Then there is Dvara. Cakkhu, Sota, Ghana, Jivha, Kaya, Kaya Vinnatti and Vaci Vinnatti, they are called Dvara because they are the doors of actions; of body and actions of speech. They are not like the Dvara we are familiar with in the third chapter. They a re called Kamma Dvara. Since they are Dvara, they are included here. There are seven Dvara and the others are Advara, non-doors. The next one is Indriya faculties–Cakkhu, Sota, Ghana, Jivha, Kaya, Itthibhava, Pumbhava and Jivita. These eight are called Indriya, faculties. The rest are called Anindriya, non-faculties. Then Olarika (gross) and so on, there are twelve. Apon is not included. There are called gross, near and impinging. The others are called Sukhuma. That means subtle, far and non-impinging. Apo (water element) is Sukhuma. The next one is Upadinna. What is Upadinna? Do you remember? Kammaja. Upadinna and Kammaja are the same. There are 18–four essentials, five sensitivities, R|pa, Gandha, Rasa, Photthabba and then Itthibhava, Pumbhava, Hadaya, Jivita, Ahara and Akasa 9space). Altogether there are 18. Theothers are Anupadinna. And then what? Sanidassana (with seeing), there is only one. Among the 28 material properties there is only one that you can see. The others you cannot see with your eyes. The others you see with your mind. Then there is Gocaraggahika, those that take objects. There are five–Cakkhu, Sota, Ghana, Jivha, and Kaya. The others are Agocaraggahika, not taking objects. Then Avinibbhiga, the inseparables, there are eight. The others are Vinibbhoga. Then causes of R|pa - Kammaja there are 18. They are the four essentials, five sensitivities, R|pa, Gandha, Rasa, Photthabba and then Itthibhava, Pumbhava, Hadaya, Jivita, Ahara and Akasa. Those caused by Citta are four essentials, R|pa, Sadda, Gandha, Rasa, Photthabba and then Ahara, Akasa plus Kaya Vinnatti, Vaci Vinnatti, Lahuta, Muduta, and Kammannata. And Utuja, those caused by Utu are the four essentials, and then R|pa, Sadda, Gandha, Rasa, Photthabba, Ahara, Akasa and then Lahuta and others. Aharaja, caused by nutriment are four essentials, R|pa, Gandha, Rasa, Photthabba, Ahara, Akasa, and then Lahuta, Muduta and Kammannata. This chart covers four sections - Samuddesa, Vibhaga, Samutthana and Kalapas.

Please look at the names in the box. A is Muhabhuta. B is Pasada R|pa. C is Gocara R|pa. Gocara means objec. D is Bhava R|pa. E is Hadaya R|pa. F is Jivita R|pa. G is Ahara R|pa. H is Pariccheda R|pa. I is Vinnatti R|pa. J is Lahutadi R|pa. I and J together are Vikara R|pa. K is Lakkhana R|pa.

Arising of Matter

We will go to the next section. The next section is the occurance or arising of material phenomena. The Pali word is R|pappavattikkama. That means the sequence of the occurrence of material properties–when they arise and actually not only that but when they last arise and when they last disappear also.

In R|pa Samuddesa we learned something about when material properties arise in one life. Do you remember that? When does Kammaja R|pa arise, at what moment? At the first moment of Patisandhi Citta and then at every submoment through life. And then mind born R|pa when does it first arise? It arises at the first submoment of Bhavanga. There is Patisandhi Citta. Then there is first Bhavanga, second Bhavanga, third Bhavanga and so on. The first submoment of first Bhavanga with it there arises Citta born matter. And then after that Cittaja R|pa is produced at each arising submoment, not at presence submoment and not at dissolution submoment but just at arising submoment. Do you also know when Utu, temperature born matter arises? It first arises at the presence submoment of Patisandhi Citta. You must remember this before you go forward. The first arising of nutriment born R|pa we do not know. We cannot pinpoint when it arises. When conception takes place we do not know when nutriment born matter arises there. For those who are born in mother’s womb, they get Aharaja, the nutriment born R|pa, when they get nutriment from the mother through the umbilical cord. We do not know or cannot say exactly when nutriment born R|pa arises first in a life.

In KÈmÈvacara Loka

During the Course of existence

Now we will go forward. “All these material phenomena are obtained with no deficiency according to circumstances, during the course of existence in the sensuous wold (Kamavacara Loka). In Kamavacara Loka these 28 propertties can be obtained. There can be all of these 28 material propetties in sensuous world (Kamavacara Loka). “According to circumstances and with no deficiency” that means all these 28 material propetties can be obtained. But “according to circumstances” –that means if you are a man, you only have 27; if you are a woman, you only have 27. You cannot have all 28 material properties. That is why it is said ‘according to circumstances”., Generally speaking all 28 material properties can be obtained in the human world. Specifically one person can have at most only 27 and not 28.

At Rebirth-linking

But at rebirth-linking (at Patisandhi) to moisture-born beings and those of spontaneous birth there are four kinds of birth. If you turn to the next page (page 256) you will see them there. According to Buddhism there are four kinds of birth, namely egg-born beings (Anadaja)”, you know egg-born beings right? Birds and fish. “….Womb-born beings (Jalabuja”, that is human beings, animals and others. “…..Moisture-born beings (Samsedaja)”, that means insects and so on. The last, “….. And beings having spontaneous birth (Opapatika)” –that means for Devas, Brahmas, for hell, for Petas and so on. It is called of spontaneous birth because they don’t have to grow from a fetus. When they are reborn they are born; as grownup persons. When ;you are reborn as a Deva, you are reborn there at about the age of 16 years. You don’t have to be a child and then grow up. They are called spontaneous births. There are these four kinds of birth.

The author says here, “But at rebirth-linking, to moisture-born beings and to those of spontaneous birth, there arise at most seven decads.” Let us take for example a Deva. A Deva is a person of spontaneous birth. When he is reborn as a Deva, at the very moment of rebirth-linking seven decads will arise. They are eye decad, ear decad, nose decad, tongue decad, body decad, sex decad and the heart base decad. These seven decads arise at moment of Patisandhi. That means these seven kinds of decads, not just seven decads. You are reborn there as a 16 year old person. So there are millions and millions of material properties. Seven decads means seven kinds of decads, but there may be millions of eye decads, millions of ear decads and so on. It is said at most there can be seven. “As a minimum sometimes the eye, ear, nose and sex decads are not obtained.” For these beings, for those who are moisture born and those who are of spontaneous birth eye decad, ear decad, nose decad or sex decad can be deficient. Some may be born without eyes, ears, nose or sex.

We must understand by way of these decads the deficiency of material properties or the deficiency of decads. Sometimes the ear decad may be missing. In that case there will be only six decads. Sometimes the nose decad will be missing. In that case there will be only six decads and so on. Eye, ear, nose and sex decad can be deficient in these beings, beings who are moisture born and who are spontaneously born.

Human beings at the beginning of one world cycle are of spontaneous birth. They don’t have to get into the mother’s womb because they are the first human beings there. When human beings appear in the world for the first time, they a re born spontaneously. It is like they fall down from the world of Brahmas or something like that. It is said that at the beginning there was no difference of sex. They were just human beings. Sex decad can be deficient for those human beings who are born at t he beginning of a ;world cycle by spontaneous birth. Only later did sex and other differences occur. In the beginning ages of the world cycle there was no man or woman, just human beings. If you want to read that you should consult the Visuddhi Magga. In Visuddhi Magga the beginning of the world and the end of the world are explained. For beings who are moisture born and who are of spontaneous birth ther can be at most seven decads at t he moment of relinking. Among them eye, ear, nose and sex decads may be deficient. If one ois deficient there will be six decads. If two are deficient there will be five and so on.

For womb-born creatures

Now the next section–“To the womb-born creatures (like human beings and animals) there a rise 9at rebirth) three decads.” Only three decads arise at the moment of relinking. That means at the moment of conception in the mother’s womb. These three are the decad of body, the decad of sex and the decad of heart base. Sometimes however the sex decad is not obtained. A person may be born without sex. They are called in Pali ‘Nipumsika’. “Thereafter, during the course of existence (That means after Patisandhi, beginning with the moment after Patisandhi is called here the course of existence), gradually there arise the eye decad and so forth.” That is how beings develop. But it is very rudimentary. So according to this at the moment of Patisandhi there are three decads. Three decads means thirty material properties. Then after that, gradually, the eye decad and so on arise.

In connection with this we should know what the Buddha said about the development of the fetus. You have the sheets. First we will read this page. “Pathamam kalalam hot, kalala hot abbudam, abbuda jayate pesi, pesi nibbattate ghano, gnana pasakha jayante, kesa, loma nakha pi ca.”This is Pali in the Samyutta Nikaya. Once a deity came to the Ruddha and asked about the beings. The Buddha replied in this verse. “First there is Kalala. (We will come to the meaning later.) After Kalala there is Abbuda. After Abbuda it becomes Pesi. (That means it grows into Pesi.) Pesi becomes Ghana. After Ghana Pasakhas arise and also head hair, body hair and nails.” This is what the Buddha said about the growth of a fetus.

Buddha did not say that Kalala developed for one week and then after that Abbuda developed for one week. That one week is inserted by the commentaries. In the commentaries it is said, “Together with the first relinking consciousness there are no names as Tissa or Phussa,”. That is because it is a very tiny speck of material property. There are only thirty material propeties. “But there is Kalala which is as much as a drop of oil hanging on the tip of a single thread made of three hairs of a new born kid’s wool. “Here kid means a new born sheep.*“With reference to that it is said, ‘Like a drop of seasme oil, (or of) unclouded cream of ghee, thus the counterpart appearance, is Kalala said to have.’”

The first one is called Kalala. The basic meaning of Kalala is mud. It may be something like soft mud. Kalala is explained as clear, so water like R|pa. What is the size of this Kalala? “It is as much as a drop of oil hanging on the tip of single thread made of three hairs of a new born kid’s wool.” The hair of a new born kid’s wool is very very delicate, very subtle, very small. You take these three and make it into a thread. Hen you dip it in the oil and take it up. The oil will drip donw. And the last drop, so very very little, is about the size of a Kalala. That is what the commentary says here. “There is Kalala which is as much as a drop of oil hanging on the tip of a single thread made of three hairs of a new born kid’s wool. With reference to that it is said,” So Kalala is like that drop of sesame oil or like a d rop of unclouded cream of ghee. Ghee is clear. It is clarified butter so it is pure. That means Kalala is very small. We cannot say how small. It is a very small material particle.

“After Kalala there is Abbuda: after the lapse of a week from that (stage of) Kalala,” –here the commentaries says that it takes one week for a kalala to develop and then during t he second week the Kalala changes into Abbuda, or develops into Abbuda. “It becomes Abbuda which has the appearance of water with which meat has been washed.” Ladies may know more about this than men. You have washed meat many times may be. I don’t know how the water with which you wash meat looks like. May be there is somehing like bubbles orsome red color. It develops into that Abbuda. When it becomes Abbuda the name Kalala disappears. When it becomes Abbuda, you don’t call it Kalala. You call it Abbuda. That is t he second stage in development.

After Abbuda it becomes Pesi. “After Abbuda it becomes Pesi. Also from that (stage) of Abbuda, after the lapse of a week,” - the commentary always gives one week for each step to grow. “It becomes Pesi by name which resembles molten lead.” Pesi means a peice of flesh. It becomes a little more solid. Kalala is just clear oil or water. Abbuda may be a little bit colored but still liquid. When it becomes Pesi there is n o name Abbuda.

“Pesi becomes Ghana: from that Pesi, after the lapse of a week, it becomes Ghana by name, a lump of flesh resembling an egg of a hen.” It is not as big as a hen, but perhaps the shape of a hen or something like that. The meaning of Ghana is solid. The fetus becomes a little solid now.

After Ghana, Pasakhas arise. Pasakhas mean branches. Branches means the five swellings in the fetus for five things. Five swellings appear for the two hands, the two feet and the head. So there are five swellings in that lump of flesh.

From here, skipping the sixth, seventh and other weeks and condensing the discourse, the Buddha said, ‘Kesa, etc.’–that means the Buddha said head hairs, body hairs, nails. If you just read the text, the verse, you may think that after Pasakhas, head hairs, body hairs, nails etc. follow immediately. Here the commentary explains that the Buddha skipped the sixth, seventh and other weeks because he wanted to condense the discourse. Then he jumps to the 42nd week. At that time the Buddha said head hair, body hair and nails appear. According to the interpretation of this commentary headhair, body hair and nails appear in the 42nd week after conception. How many months? There are 52 weeks in a year. There are head hair, body hair and nails after 42 weeks. This is from the Commentary to Samyutta Nikaya.

In the Kathavatthu Commentary it is also said, “To those born of mother’s womb, among the internal bases (Ayatanas) only Manayatana and Kayayatana arise at the moment of relinking.” At the moment of Patisandhi there arise only Manayatana and Kayayatana, only two among the six bases appear. And then “The rest, the four bases (Cakkhu, Sota, Ghana and Jivha bases) appear at the 77th, may be 70-77th night. During that period Cakkhu, Sota, Ghana and Jivha bases apeear according to the Kathavatthu commentary. The commentaries are written by Venerable Buddhaghosa. According to the Venerable Buddhaghosa the eye sensitivity, ear sensitivity etc. arise after about 70-77 days from conception.

Now please turn to the other page.

Student : Why did the deity ask the Buddha this quesiton?
Sayadaw: Because the deity believed in Atman. This is how you can explain without reference to Atmanor something like that. So the Buddha sid this.

On the next page we have the development of the fetus in the mother’s womb according to enerable Buddhaghosa and according to Abhidhammattha­vibhavini. According to Venerable Buddhaghosa, the first week is the period of Kalala, clear water like R|pa. There are three decads or thirty R|pas. You know the thirty R|pas or three decads (Kaya, Bhava & Vatthu). In the second week there is Abbuda, foam like R|pa. In the third week there is Pesi, a lump. In the fourth week there is Ghana, sokid R|pa. And in the fifth week there are five swellings - one for the head, two fort he hands, and two for the feet. We don’t know sixth and seventh week and so on. In the eleventh week eye, ear, nose and tongue sensitivities arise according to the commentary. Then the other weeks are skipped until the 42nd week. During this week head hair, body hair and so on appear in the fetus. Thisis according to the commentaries or the Venerable Buddhaghosa.

The Abhidhammathavibhavini is a subcommentary on the Abhidhammattha­sangaha, this manual. That teacher says differently. According to him the first through the fifth week are the same. So there would be clear water like R|pa, foam like R|pa, a lump, solid R|pa and five swelliings. But he said at the seventh week eye decad arises. During the eighth week ear sensitivity arises. In the ninh week nose sensitivity arises. And in the tenth week tongue sensitivity arises. There is a difference between the Venerable Buddhaghosa and the author of the Abhidhammatthavibhavini. Who do you follow? Venerable Buddhaghosa has more authoriy. We will side with Venerable Buddhaghosa. There is a reason why the Abhidhammatthavibhavini differs from Venerable Buddhaghosa. But if you do not know Pali it is difficult to explain. Our teachers, Burmese teachers, have thought of the reason why Abhidhammatthavibhavini differs from the Venerable Buddhaghosa. According to Burmese teachers the author of the Abhidhammattha­vibhavini Tika had a different reading in one commentary. He met with that different reading or corruption of the reading, but he took it to be correct reading. Basing on that reading he said at seven weeks there is eye sensitivity, at eight weeks there is ear sensitivity and so on.

It can happen easily in Pali because ‘Satta Sattati’ is 77. But if the scribe forgot to write the last ‘ti’ it becomes ‘Satta Satta, 7-7. That means 49, not 77. 49 means the seventh week. Sometimes that can happen. During their days it was very difficult to compare two copies of one manuscript. Even one manuscript was very difficult to obtain. Burmese teachers explained that the author of Abhidhammatthabibhavini may have read a corrupt reading of the commentary. So he had that opinion. The author of the Abhidhammatthavibhavini is not followed by later teachers. We just stick with what the Venerable Buddhaghosa said. At eleven weeks eye and so on arise. At 42nd week head hair and others arise.

This is how development of fetus is taught in Buddhist books. The Buddha just says the different stages of development. But Buddha did not say how many days it takes for one stage to develop into another stage. The commentaries said that one stage lasts forone week. The week is not expressly said by the Buddha. The commentaries explain it to mean on week. They say Kalala is for one week, Abbuda is for one week and so on. It may or may not be consistent with what modern medical science has found out. It maynot be exact in every respect. No one can really get into the womb of t he mother and look at the fetus. Nowadays there are instruments that take pictures of the fetus. There are pictures of fetus at one week, two weeks and so on. It may or may not be what moden medical science has found. But at least we know development of fetus is described in Buddhist books. That may roughly correspond to what peopleknow about fetus nowadays.

That is with regard to human beings. Although animals are born in mother’s womb they may not take as long as human beings to take birth. Most animals are not born ten months after conception. This Kalala for one week, Abbuda for one week and so on are for human beings, not for animals.

“Thereafter, during the course of existence, gradually there arise the eye decad and so forth. Thus the continuity of material groups produced in four ways, namely Kamma-born and so on uninterruptedly flows on in the sense shpere till the end of life.” This flow of material properties goes on and on until the end of life - “like the flame of a lamp or the stream of a river.” You light a lamp and see a flame there. You think that the flame goes on and on. Actually there is a new flame at every moment. The same is true for the stream of a river. When you look at a river you think it is the same all the time, but at every moment there is new water flowing. In the same way in the sense sphere dutil the end of life these material groups produced in four ways flow on and on.

So here Kamma-born from the time of rebirth-linking–that means Kamma-born from t he time of the first momentof rebirth-linking. And the consciousness born form the second moment of consciousness that means first moment of second consciousness. There means first Bhavanga, from the momentof first Bhavanga. That means from first submomentof the first Bhavanga. “Temperature-born from the time of the diffusiion of nutritive essence”–so we don’t know when. For those who are born spontaneously it may b egin when the person swallows his own saliva. From that moment it gets nutriment-born R|pa. But for those wholive in the womb of the mother they may get nutriment-born R|pa from the mother. The mother eats something and then nutriment is received through the umbilical cord by the fetus. What we should understand here is at what precise moment Kamma-born R|pa arises, at what precise moment does mind-born R|pa first arise and at what precise moment does Utuja-born R|pa arise. From the second submoment of Patisandhi temperature-born R|pa arises. From then almost every moment temperature-born matter arises because the temperature or Utu which arises at the second submoment of Patisandhi Citta reaches its presence moment at the third submoment of Patisandhi Citta. Visualize three submoments of Patisandhi, so first second and third. At the first submoment Kamma-born R|pa arises. At the second submoment temperature-born R|pa arises. At that submoment it is the first submoment of Patisandhi. Now it reaches the next submoment. That submoment is the third submoment of Patisandhi but the second submoment of temperature-born R|pa. From the second submoment of Patisandhi onwards at every moment temperature-born R|pa arises. Here the passage shows when they arise for the first time.
When they arise for the last time in one life and when they disappear altogether, that will come next week.

Sadhu! Sadhu! Sadhu!


Tape# 33


Chapter 6 (e)

Occurrence of Matter & NibbÈna

The last occurance, and disappearance of Matter

Up to now we have studied how matter arises at the moment of relinking and also a few moments after relinking. Today we will study R|pa at the time of death. “At the time of” means at the time approaching death and also may be after death. At the time of death Kamma-born material phenomena no longer arise starting with stage of presence of the 17th consciousness preceding the death consciousness. Please look at the chart. You find the Patisandhi first, the second line of the diagram. There are three submoments of Patisandhi- arising, presence and disappearing or death. At the submoment of arising of Patisandhi what arises? Kamma-born matter. That is the first moment of arising of Kamma- born matter. At the presence moment, that means the second submoment of Patisandhi, temperature-born matter or Utuja arises. It is the first arising of Utuja R|pa. And then at the first submoment of first arising of Bhavanga arises mind-born matter. So we have here the first arising of matter born of Kamma, matter born of temperature and matter born of mind. There are these three moments. Later on Kamma-born matter arises at every submoment all through life. Temperature born matter arises when R|pa reaches presence stage. Actually from that moment on temperature born matter arises at every moment. Then mind-born matter arises only at the first submoment of each arising of Citta. So mind-born matter arises at the first submoment of first Bhavanga, and then at first submoment of second Bhavanga, and then at first submoment of third Bhavanga and so on. Mind-born matter does not arise at presence stage or at dissolution stage.

Kamma-born matter must disappear at the end of one life. Kamma-born matter cannot continue to exist after death. You know that the life span of matter is 17 thought moments. So you can find out when the last moment of the arising of Kamma-born matter must disappear with the last moment of Cuti. That mean you must go backward until the 17th moment. 17 means to take Cuti as one. When you go backward in this particular thought process you come to Atita Bhavanga. At the first submoment of that 17th though moment preceding Cuti there is the last moment of arising of Kamma-born matter. Kamma-born matter arises for the last time at that submoment. Kamma-born matter that arises at that moment will disappear with the third moment of Cuti. The third submoment of Cuti is the final cessation of Kamma-born matter. Kamma-born matter arises for the last time at the 17th thought moment reckoned backward from Cuti. Kamma-born matter arising at that moment continues to exist until the third or last submoment of Cuti. With the cessation of Cuti Citta Kamma-born matter also ceases. There is no more Kamma-born matter after death. In the manual it is said, “At the time of death, Kamma-born material phenomena no longer arise starting with the stage of presence of the 17thconsciousness preceding the death consciousness. “Starting with the presence submoment of the 17th though moment Kamma-born matter no longer arises. “Kamma-born material phenomena that arose earlier (That means that arose at the first submoment of the 17th thought moment) occur till the death-moment (that means exist) and then cease.” That means it finally ceases with Cuti Citta.

“Following that, the consciousness-born and nutriment-born material phenomena come to cessation.” The manual does not say when. We have to find out when. It simply says that consciousness-born and nutriment-born material phenomena come to cessation after that or following that. In order to understand this, we must understand first the arising of mind-born matter. Mind-born matter arises at every first submoment of every though moment. It means that at the first submoment of the arising of Cuti Citta mind-born matter arises. Since the life span of R|pa is 17 thought moments, it must go 17 thought moments. Cuti is one moment. Patisandhi is second moment. And then 15 Bhavangas are 17 though moments. At the 15th Bhavanga the 17 thought moments are full. At the third submoment of 15th Bhavanga the mind-born matter of the previous life ceases. That means how many submoments? How many submoments after Cuti? 48. 48 submoments after Cuti mind-born matter of the previous life ceases finally.

Then nutriment-born matter–it is said that nutriment-born matter can arise even at the last submoment of Cuti. The last moment of arising of nutriment-born matter in one life is in the third submoment of Cuti. Then it must go on for 51 submoments. We get only one moment with Cuti. When we reach the presence stage of 16th Bhavanga, 51 submoments are full. And so at the presence moment of the 16th Bhavanga the nutriment-born matter of the previous life finally ceases. It means some R|pa from this life continues to exist even after death. But you know 17 thought moments is nothing when talking about experiences. It is not even one second. But to be precise and to be exact we must say some material properties continue to exist even after death. They are what? Citta-born matter and nutriment-born matter but not Kamma-born matter. Kamma-born matter must cease with the cessation of Cuti Citta or with the cessation of this life.

"Thereafter, a continuity of material qualities produced by temperature persists until it becomes a corpse." Here "until it becomes a corpse" is not to be taken literally because the corpse may decay and even at that time there are temperature-born matter arising and disappearing. That will go on and on until the end of this world actually, not just for the time that a man is called a corpse. Suppose he is buried. Then the body degenerates little by little. Then at that time also there is temperature-born matter arising and disappearing. It will go on and on until the world is totally destroyed. If he is cremated and reduced to ashes, still there is temperature-born matter arising and disappearing. Among the four kinds of material properties, that is Kamma-born, Citta-born, Utu-born and Ahara-born, three kinds of material properties continue to exist even after death. Kamma-born matter ceases together with the last moment of Cuti Citta. That is the order of the arising and disappearing of material properties at death or at the time around death. If you understand that Kamma-born matter arises at every submoment, that Citta-born matter arises only at the arising moment and temperature-born matter arises only at the presence moment. If you understand this you can find out when a certain material property arises for the last time, when it ceases.

Let's go back again. When is the last arising of Kamma-born matter? At the first submoment of 17th thought moment reckoned backward from Cuti Citta. The Kamma-born matter that arise at this 17th though moment ceases at the third submoment of Cuti Citta. What about Citta-born matter? Citta-born matter can arise even at the first moment of Cuti Citta. It will go on until the 15th Bhavanga following the Patisandhi. At the third moment of 15th Bhavanga Citta-born matter of the previous life ceases altogether. And then nutriment-born matter- it is said that it can arise even at the last moment of one life. We take it that nutriment-born matter arises at the third submoment of Cuti Citta. It must go on for 51 submoments. When it reaches the presence moment of the 16th Bhavanga it ceases altogether. For Utu or temperature-born matter it goes on and on until the end of the world.


At the end of the fifth chapter there is a description of Patisandhi following Bhavanga and then Cuti, Patisandhi, Bhavanga and so on, the wheel of life. That is Nama Samsara, Citta and Cetasikas arising one after another. Here the R|pa process is indicated by the verse on page 257, "Thus to the deceased beings, again in a subsequent life, material phenomena arise, starting from rebirth-linking, in the same way." As soon as a person takes Patisandhi there is R|pa arising. Then R|pa arises in life at every moment or at the first moment, or when R|pa reaches presence moment until death or a little later. This is the arising and disappearing of R|pa for Kamavacara beings.

In R|pÈvacara Loka

"In the fine-material world, the decads of nose, tongue, body sex and the material groups produced by nutriment are not found." Now we go to Patisandhi again. In the R|pavacara Loka nose, tongue, body and sex groups are not found because they don't like nose, tongue, body and sex. So these do not arise for them. In the world of R|pavacara beings nose, tongue, body and sex decads are not found.

"Therefore, to those beings, at the time of rebirth-linking there arise four material groups produced by Kamma." Four Kamma-born groups arise at the moment of Patisandhi–eye decad (Cakkhu Dasaka), ear decad (Sota Dasaka), There are four groups. Four groups of material properties sarise at Patisandhi for the R|pavacara beings.

"During the course of existence (That means after Patisandhi) material phenomena produced by consciousness and by temperature are also found." You must add 'also' there. If there is no 'also' it means a different thing. At the moment of Patisandhi there are only four decads. But in life, during the course of existence there are these four decads plus those produced by consciousness and those produced by temperature. How many groups are produced by consciousness? Six. How many are produced by temperature? Four. During the course of life six plus four, plus four (the eye decad, ear decad, heart decad, vital nonad) 14 altogether are produced. That is for R|pavacara beings. R|pavacara beings means all R|pavacara beings except mindless beings. For mindless beings there is a difference. For R|pavacara beings at the momentof Patisandhi there are four groups–eye decad, ear decad, heart decad and vital nonad. Nonad means a group of nine. There are three groups of ten and one group of nine. During the course of existence six groups born of Citta and four groups born of temperature are also found. Four are found at Patisandhi and 14 during the course of life. Later on we will have to find out how many R|pas.


Now we come to Asanna Sattas, mindless beings. "Among the non-percipient beings, the eye, ear, heart-base and sound are also not found." No sound is found. "Similarly, no consciousness-born material phenomena are found." No Cittaja R|pa is found. "Therefore at the moment of their rebirth-linking, only the vital nonad arises." So there is only one group at the moment of relinking for Asanna Sattas. "During the course of existence, material phenomena produced by temperature, with the exception of sound, continue." Look at the groups caused by temperature. How many are there? Four. From these four you leave out what consciousness -------------------------------
Navaka) we cannot take because there is sound. Also the last grop Sadda Lahutadidvadasaka cannot be taken. From among the four Utuja groups only the first one and the third one are taken in the world of mindless beings. At the moment of Patisandhi there is one group. During life there are three groups. Jivita Navaka, Suddhatthaka and Lahutadekadasaka. There are no R|paborn of Citta and also no R|pa born of Ahara (Nutriment). Although there is nutriment in their bodies, they do not get nutriment from outside. There is no nutriment-born R|pa. It is the same with R|pavacara Brahmas. The other R|pavacara Brahmas, for them also there is no R|pa born of nutriment. It is said that they do not eat anything. They survive with Piti. Piti is their food. Since they do not eat anything , they do not have R|pa born of Ahara. R|pa born of Ahara needs external Ahara. When internal Ahara and external Ahara come together R|pa born of Ahara arises. For R|pavacara beings both with mind and without mind there are no material properties born of Ahara.

Let us go to the end and then come back. "Thus in the three cases of the sensuous world, the fine material world, and non-percipient beings the occurrence of material phenomena should be understood as two fold, by way of rebirth-linking and the course of existence." There are two kinds of arising of matter for these beings–at Patisandhi and during life.

"In the sense planes, 28 material phenomena are found." In the Kamavacara world all 28 can be found." In the fine-material planes, 23 are found. "What are missing? Nose, tongue, body and two sexes. 28 minus 5 is 23. In the R|pavacara world except Asanna Satta only 23 material properties are found. Although they do not have nose sensitivity, tongue sensitivity and body sensitivity, they have noses, tongues and bodies. Only they lack sensitivity. Although they are without sex, it is said they look like men. "Among the non-percipients 17 (material properties) are found." From this chart you can pick the 17 very easily. At the left end of the chart you can see the 17 the four essentials, R|pa, Gandha Rasa, Photthabba, Jivita, Ahara, Akasa, Lahuta, Muduta, Kammannata, Upacaya, Santati, Jarata and Aniccata. Altogether there are 17. Only these 17 properties are found in the world of mindless beings. In the world of mindless beings there are the four essentials. There is R|pa. There is smell. There is taste. There is touch. Although there is no sense of touch, they have Photthabba. There are life principle, nutriment, space, the material groups lightness and so and the characteristics.

"At the moment of conception sound, mutability, decay and death are not found." At the moment of Patisandhi there is no sound; no sound can arise. There is no mutability, Vikara. That means Kaya Vinnatti, Vaci Vinnatti, Lahuta, Muduta and Kammannata. There is no Jarata. Here at Patisandhi means at the very first submoment of Patisandhi because at the second submoment there is Jarata. Patisandhi here means the first submoment of Patisandhi. And death is not found. These are not found at the moment of conception.

"In the course of existence (during life), there is nothing that is not obtained." All 28 material properties can arise.

Now you know how matter arises and how it finally disappears in one life. And as hinted by the verse on page 257 Burmese teachers of old have formulated R|pa Vithi. It is not found in the commentaries. This is the product of Burmese teachers. If there is a process of thought moments, there can be a process of material properties only. They designed this. It is very complicated and also not exact. It is just a glimpse, just a sample of how the material properties arise.

I will not go through all these. It is too complicated, but let us see how much we can understand. Although there are many groups arising at the moment of Patisandhi here we take only one group, Suddhatthaka. The other groups may or may not arise at the moment of Patisandhi. The group containing Sadda (sound) will never arise at the moment of Patisandhi. Here the pure octad, Suddhatthaka is meant here. At Patisandhi there are three submoments–genesis, stasis and decease. The First submoment is arising. Atasis is presence. Decease is disappearing. At the first moment for womb-born beings, like human beings how many Kalapas are there? There are three groups. Do you remember the three groups? Kaya, Bhava and Vatthu. On the bottom of page 255, "To the womb-born creatures there arise (at rebirth) three decads–the decads of body, sex and the heart-base (Kaya, Bhava & Vatthu). So at the genesis moment or arising moment of Patisandhi three Kalapas arise. These three will last until the 17th moment. It is said that Kamma-born matter arises at every submoment. At the stasis stage three arise again, and so there are six–the three that arose at genesis continue to exist and at the second moment three are added, and at the third moment, at decease moment, three more are added. There are three at genesis moment. There are six at stasis moment. And there are nine at decease moment of Patisandhi. Following Patisandhi there is Bhavanga, many Bhavangas. At genesis moment of first Bhavanga there are 12. At stasis there are 12 plus 3-15. At decease there are 15 plus 3-18. So you add three all through until you reach Manodvaravajjana. From Manodvaravajjana on wards the number is always 153. That is because thre arise and three disappear. The three that arise at the genesis moment of Patisandhi disappear at the 16thBhavanga moment. At the genesis moment of Manodvaravajjana three are added. Although three are added since three have disappeared the number is the same. From that moment the number is always the same. The same means three arise and three disappear. The number will go on and on the same. This is for Kamma-born Kalapas. Do you understand now? In order to understand this first you must understand that Kamma-born matter arises at every submoment. Let us say for human beings at the moment of Patisandhi three Kalapas arise–body, sex and heart. So three arise at genesis, three at stasis and three at decease. So we add three, three and three until we come to 153. After that the number remains constant. The moment following that three arise and three disappear.
Next are those born of Citta. Mind-born R|pa arises when? At the first moment of first Bhavanga. It arises at every first moment, not every submoment, but every first submoment. At the first submoment of first Bhavanga there is one Kalapa born of Citta. It continues to exist. At the stasis and decease submoments of first Bhavanga there is no addition. But at the first submoment of second Bhavanga one group arises. So there are two groups. And at the stasis and decease submoments of second Bhavanga there is no addition. At the third Bhavanga at the genesis submoment one more Citta-born material group should be added. So we get one, one, one, two, two, two, three, three, three and so on. Until when? Until Manodvaravajjana. After that the number remains the same–17, 17, 17 because one disappears and one arises. So one disappears and one arises and so on and so on. From that time it is constant.

Now Utuja, temperature-born matter can arise when? Beginning with the stasis moment of Patisandhi. That means the three Kammaja Kalapas that arise at the genesis moment of Patisandhi reach their stasis moment beginning with the stasis moment of Patisandhi. When they reach that moment they produce three Utu-born Kalapas. Then the Kammaja Kalapas that arise at the stasis moment of Patisandhi reach their stasis stage at the stage of decease of Patisandhi. Since they have reached their stasis satge, they produce three more. So there are six. It is a little complicated. The three Kammaja Kalapas that arise at genesis moment of Patisandhi, those three Kalapas will exist until the 17th moment. The life span of R|pa is 51 submoments. The first moment is their genesis. 51stmoment is their decease. The 49 submoments in between are their stasis stage. The genesis and decease stages of Citta and R|pa are the same. But the stasis stage of R|pa and Citta are different. The three Kalapas that arise at the genesis moment of Patisandhi reach their stasis moment at the stasis moment of Patisandhi. When they reach their stasis moment they become strong. And so they produce three Kalapas. Then the three Kalapas that arise at the stasis moment of Patisandhi reach their stasis moment at the decaease moment of Patisandhi. So they become strong and they produce three more. And the three Kalapas that arise at decease moment of Patisandhi reach their stasis stage at the genesis moment of first Bhavanga. So they produce three more. So you add three and get 3, 6, 9 and so on.

Then there is 13, not 12. It’s not easy. Why do we add four? Cittaja Kalapa which arises at genesis moment of first Bhavanga reaches its stasis moment at the stasis moment of first Bhavanga. At the moment of stasis of first Bhavanga we add four Kalapas, not three. Three is as usual by Kammaja Kalapas. Cittaja Kalapa reaches stasis moment at the stasis moment of first Bhavanga Citta. It produces one. So we add for and not three–three by Kammaja Kalapas and one by Cittaja Kalapa. We add four Kalapas so there are 13 and not 12. Later we just add three. And at every stasis moment we add four because the Cittaja Kalapa that arises at genesis moment of second Bhavanga reaches its stasis at the stasis moment of second Bhavanga. So it produces one. Then we add 4 to 19 and so we get 23. It goes on and on like this. So at stasis moment you add four and at iother moments you add three.

Look at the next page–Manodvaravajjana. Beginning with the stasis satge of Manodvaravajjana there is no increase in numbers- all 170, 170, 170. Why? The three that are caused by the Kammaja R|pas disappear at that moment. That means three disappear and four arise. That means only one more. That is why it is 170 and not 173. So there is only one more. And later on there is one more and so on. This is just a glimpse of what we can explore the arising of matter in one life. When we say three Kalapas, six Kalapas we do not mean only three groups. We mean three kinds of groups because there may be many of those groups. With regard to kinds of groups there are only these three kinds. When we say three Kalapas we donot mean that there are only three groups but three kinds of groups. Let us say there is Kaya, Bhava and vatthu groups. There may be thousands of Kaya group. There may be thousands of Bhava group. There may be thousands of Vatthu group. But we call them three groups because there are three kinds of groups. This is the process of R|pa or in Pali we call it R|pa Vithi. It is not mentioned in any commentary. In Burma especially in olden days students had to study this also. There are many more actually.


Now we come to the last section of the sixth chapter and that is on NibbÈna. There are four ultimate truths. Citta the first ultimate truth is treated in the first chapter. Cetasikas are treated in the second chapter. In the third, fourth and fifth chapters both Cittas and Cetasikas are treated. In the sixth chapter R|pa is treated. There is only one reality left–NibbÈna. It is a very short description of NibbÈna in this book.

NibbÈna is termed supramundane, in Pali, Lokuttara. You know Lokuttara - ‘Loka’ and ‘Uttara’, transcending the Loka. Loka here means the world of five aggregates of clinging. NibbÈna is called Lokuttara because it transcends the five aggregates of clinging, the world of five aggregates.

It is to be realized by the knowledge of the four paths. NibbÈna is not nothingness. NibbÈna is something. It can be realized by the knowledge of the four paths. That means NibbÈna is a direct experience for those who have gained enlightenment. Only when a person gains enlightenment can his mind take NibbÈna as an object. At the moment of enlightenment Magga Citta arises. That Magga Citta takes NibbÈna as object. So those who have experienced Magga and Phala can experience NibbÈna or take NibbÈna as object directly. But for Puthujjanas it is not direct knowledge. It is inferential knowledge. To be realized by the knowledge of the four paths means NibbÈna is a direct experience for any of those who have gained any one of the four path knowledges.
“It becomes an object to the paths and fruits”–that means it is the object of path and fruit. It is the object of Magga and Phala Cittas. We learned about this in the third chapter. In the third chapter there is one section that deals with objects. Lokuttara Cittas all take NibbÈna as object. NibbÈna is the object of Magga and Phala.

The commentary explains that by this sentence that NibbÈna is the object of Magga and Phala, the author wants us to understand for the unenlightened persons it is to be understood through inference. What we understand about NibbÈna is not direct knowledge but through inference. There is what is called Magga and Phala or there is what is called freedom from mental defilements. Although nowadays we do not see Arahants, in the olden days they may see Arahants. And they may really see people who are free mental defilements altogether, like the Buddha and so on. When we see what is called the eradication of mental defilements we can infer that there is something which is not conditioned phenomenon and which is not concept and is the object of Magga and Phala. That object is NibbÈna. By inference those who have not yet reached enlightenment can understand through thinking in this way that NibbÈna is the object of Magga and Phala. I’m repeating. When we see or understand the eradication of mental defilements we can infer there must be some knowledge which can accomplish the eradication of mental defilements. Any Citta or any knowledge which takes conditioned things or concepts as object is incapable which takes conditioned things or concepts as object is incapable of achieving eradication of mental defilements. It is only the knowledge that can take NibbÈna as object that can eradicate mental defilements. Since there is the eradication of mental defilements we can infer there must be something which is the object of Magga and Phala, which accomplishes the eradication of mental defilements. With such an inference people who have not yet become enlightened understand NibbÈna. NibbÈna is direct experience to those who have attained enlightement. For others NibbÈna should be understood through inference.

“It is called NibbÈna because it is a departure from craving, which is an entanglement.” Now the word ‘NibbÈna’ is explained here as composed of ‘Ni’ and ‘vÈna’. You have to understand Pali grammar to know why ‘v’ becomes ‘b’. This is the domain of grammar. The word NibbÈna is composed of the words ‘Ni’ and ‘Vana’. Vana is explained here to mean entanglement or stitching together. That stitching together is nothing but craving. So long as there is craving together is nothing but craving. So long as there is craving there will be rebirth. Craving is like a thread that combines one thing with another. That stitching or that thread is called Vana in Pali. Ni means getting out of. NibbÈna means getting out of craving. Getting out of craving means NibbÈna can not be the object of craving. Craving cannot take NibbÈna as object. NibbÈna is beyond the range of craving. Also there is no craving in NibbÈna. NibbÈna is said to be out of Vana, out of craving. That is why it is called NibbÈna. Ni and Vana are put together and V is changed to B, so it becomes NibbÈna. That is the meaning described in this manual.

Another explanation is given in the guide here. “Etymologically, the word NibbÈna–the Pali form of the better known Sanskrit Nirvana–is derived from a verb ‘Nibbati’ meaning ‘to be blown out’ or ‘to be extinguished’. It thus signifies the extinguishing of the worldly fires of greed, hatred and delusion.” This is another meaning. This is also explained in the commentaries, but not here in this manual. NibbÈna is called NibbÈna because through NibbÈna the fires of greed hatred and delusion are extinguished. That is why it is called NibbÈna. In that case NibbÈna is derived from the verb ‘Nibbati’, to be blown out or to be extinguished.

“But the Pali commentators prefer to treat it as the negation of, or departure from (Nikkhantatta), the entanglement (Vana) of craving, the derivation which is offered here.” Actually the Pali commentators give both these meanings - to be extinguished, to depart from, to get out of craving.

“For as long as one is entangled by craving, one remains bound in Samsara.” So long as there is craving we cannot get out of Samsara. “But when all craving has been extirpated, one attains NibbÈna, deliverance from the cycle of birth and death.” NibbÈna is derived in two ways. The derivation here in this manual is Ni plus Vana, getting out of or departure from Vana which is entanglement or which is craving. The other meaning is NibbÈna is something through which of fires of greed, hatred and delusion are extinguished.

NibbÈna is only one according to its individual essence and that is peace. “By reference to a basis (for distinction), it is two fold, namely the element of NibbÈna with the residue remaining, and the element of NibbÈna without the residue remaining.” There are two kinds of NibbÈna. First we must understand that NibbÈna is only one according to its intrinsic nature because NibbÈna is peace. But we can say there are two kinds of NibbÈna. That distinction is a basis for reference. That distinction is beings with remaining and beings without remaining. When we look at it in that way–beings with remaining and beings without remaining - we can say there are two kinds of NibbÈna. The first one is called ‘Sa-upadisese’. I want you to be familiar with those words. Sa-upadisesa–you see the word in the Pali section–“Tad etam sabhavato ekavidham pi sa-upadisesa-NibbÈnadhatu.”The second one is ‘Anupadisesa’. NibbÈnadhatu. Now there is Sa-upadisesa. Sesa means remaining. Upadi means aggregates. Sa means with. So the meaning is with aggregates remaining. The element of NibbÈna which is with the aggregates remaining is called Sa-upadisesa. Anupadisesa means the opposite of that. The element of NibbÈna which is without the aggregates remaining is Anupadisesa. Looking in that way there are two kinds of NibbÈna.
When a person attains NibbÈna or realizes NibbÈna or let us say becomes an Arahant, he extinguishes all mental defilements. All mental defilements are gone for him. What remains is his body and other Cittas and Cetasikas. An Arahant still has a physical body and some Cittas and Cetasikas remaining. They are called remaining because when the mental defilements are eradicated, they remain. An Arahant’s mind and matter are called here Upadi Sesa-aggregates remaining, remaining after the eradication of mental defilements. The NibbÈna which a person realizes while one still has this body and mind is called Sa-upadisesa. It is NibbÈna which becomes evident after an Arahant’s death. When an Arahant dies the mind and the body disappear altogether. There is no more arising of mind and body. That kind of NibbÈna is called NibbÈna without the aggregates remaining. That means that NibbÈna after death of the Buddha or an Arahant. So there are two kinds of NibbÈna.

The first kind of NibbÈna is also called Kilesa PariNibbÈna. It means the extinguishing of Kilesas. The second kind of NibbÈna is also called Khanda PariNibbÈna, the extinguishing of the remaining aggregates. So there are Kilesa PariNibbÈna and Khanda PariNibbÈna. Kilesa PariNibbÈna is the same as Anupadisesa PariNibbÈna. The presence or absence of the aggregates is the basis of saying there are two NibbÈnas.

“It is threefold according to its different aspects, namely void, signless and desireless.” It can also be described as of three kinds of NibbÈna according to its different aspects. These three aspects we call three kinds of NibbÈna. The first one is void, in Pali Sunna or Sunnata. Here Sunna means devoid of greed, hatred and delusion. It is also called Sunna because it is devoid of all that is conditioned. Two explanations are given for the void or Sunna. It is Sunna; it is devoid of greed, hatred and delusion. It is devoid of all that is conditioned. There is nothing that is conditioned in NibbÈna and NibbÈna itself is unconditioned.

The second name is signless. Greed, hatred and delusion are called a sign. Being conditioned is called a sign. NibbÈna is called signless because it is free from the signs of greed, hatred and delusion, and also is free from the sign of all conditioned things. It is the same explanation.

It is called desireless because it is free from hankering of greed, hatred and delusion and also because it is not desired by craving. Not desired by craving means it is not the object of craving. According to these aspects we can say there are three kinds of NibbÈna. Actually there is only one NibbÈna by its intrinsic nature which is peace.

First there is one NibbÈna. Then there can be two kinds of NibbÈna depending on the presence or the absence of the remaining aggregates. It also can be three NibbÈnas depending on its aspects. These three aspects are what ? Sunna (void), Animitta (signless), and Appanihita (desireless).

We come to the end of the chapter. “Great seers who are free from craving declare that NibbÈna is an objective state (NibbÈna is a real state. It is not nothingness.) which is deathless (It is deathless because it is without a beginning. If there is a beginning, there must be an end. We must understand this very clearly. Most of the time we are not fair in our aspirations, in our desires. We don’t want the end but we want the beginning. If you do not want the end, you must not want the beginning. So if you do not want death you must not want birth. When there is birth there is death. It is natural law. Here NibbÈna is said to be deathless because it is beginingless. We cannot say when NibbÈna arises or when it disappear. It is absolutely endless. There is no end simply because there is no beginning. It is unconditioned. Nama and R|pa are conditioned by other Nama and R|pa. But NibbÈna is not conditioned. NibbÈna is never the result of anything. NibbÈna is never conditioned by any kind of condition. It is unsurpassed. That means it has no equal.”

In the Pali verse, there is a play of words. The great seers who are free from craving in Pali VÈnamuttÈ–the author takes the word ‘vÈna’ from the word NibbÈna. NibbÈna comes from ‘ni’ and ‘vÈna’. VÈna is used here to describe those who are free from craving. So those who are free from craving are VÈnamuttÈ. This is the style of authors. They may use similar words, words that sound similar.

“Thus as fourfold the TathÈgatas reveal the ultimate realities.” Buddhas reveal ultimate realities as being of four kinds. They are consciousness, mental factors, matter and NibbÈna. This is the end of the section on NibbÈna and this is the end of the sixth chapter. And this is the end of the discussion of all for ultimate realities. So we can stop here if we want to because we have come to the end of all Four Ultimate Realities.

Sadhu ! Sadhu ! Sadhu !

* Kid means a new born goat.

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