Chapter 3: Pakiṇṇaka - Buddhism, Philosophy, and Khmer Literature


Buddhism, Philosophy, and Khmer Literature

The teachings of the Buddha are aimed solely at liberating sentient beings from suffering. The Basic Teachings of Buddha which are core to Buddhism are: The Three Universal Truths; The Four Noble Truths; and The Noble Eightfold Path.

Post Top Ad

Post Top Ad

Saturday, June 15, 2019

Chapter 3: Pakiṇṇaka

Chapter 3: Pakiṇṇaka 
                                                                                              (1) In this Chapter Citta and Cetasikawill be classified by way of the following 6 points:
        (a)       Feelings         (Vedanā),
        (b)       Roots              (Hetu),           
        (c)       Functions       (Kiccā),
        (d)       Doors             (Dvārā),
        (e)       Objects           (Ārammaṇā), and
        (f)        Bases              (Vatthu).
(2) There are 53 Associated Mental Phenomena which will deal in this Chapter. They run as follows:
            (a)       Citta                (01)
            (b)       Cetasika         (52)
            All together               (53)
According to their intrinsic nature (sabhāva) the Associated mental phenomena (citta and cetasika) are 53. Regarding this the 89 Cittas are counted "one". Because they all have the same characteristic, the awareness of an object. But the Cetasikas are 52, because they have their own characteristic each.
(I) Classification of Feeling
(3) Feeling (vedanā) is a Universal cetasika which has the characteristic of feeling or experience of the object. In Abhidhamma feeling is analyzed into two ways - by way intrinsic nature (Anubhāva-naya), and by way of the governing faculty (indriya).
By way of the intrinsic nature the feeling is threefold:
Pleasant feeling
Painful feeling
Feeling that is neither painful nor pleasant
By way of the governing faculty the feeling is fivefold:
(Domanassa), and
Neutral feeling

Classification of Citta through associated "feeling"
(4)      According to the three types of feeling Citta must be classified thus:

(a)       Citta with pleasure                                     (sukha-sahagata citta)        (63)
(b)       Citta with pain                                            (dukkha-sahagata citta)     (03)
(c)       Citta with neither-pleasure-nor-pain                                                       (55)
            All together                                                                                                 (121)
According to the fivefold feeling Citta must be classified thus:
(a)       Citta with pleasure                                     (sukha-sahagata)                 (01)
(b)       Citta with pain                                             (dukkha-sahagata)              (01)
(c)       Citta with joy                                               (somanassa-sahagata)        (62)
(d)       Citta with displeasure                                (domanassa-sahagata)        (02)
(c)       Citta with neutral feeling                             (upekkhā-sahagata)         (55)
            All together                                                                             (121)

Citta with pleasure is 1
Body-consciousness with pleasure (01)

Citta with pain is 1
Body-consciousness with pain       (01)

Cittas with joy are 62
Lobhamūla with pleasure                (04)
Ahetuka with pleasure                     (02)
Kāma sobhana with pleasure          (12)
The First Jhāna                                 (11)
The Second Jhāna                            (11)
The Third Jhāna                               (11)
The  Fourth Jhāna                            (11)

Cittas with displeasure are 2
Dosamula                                          (02)

Cittas with neutral feeling are 55
Akusala with neutral feeling           (06)
Ahetuka with neutral feeling          (14)
KāmaSobhana with neutral feeling (12)
The Fifth Jhana                                 (23)
            *Note: By way of the three types of feeling the Cittas with Pleasure are 63, by adding those Cittas with pleasure and with joy together. And the Cittas with pain are 3, by adding those Cittas with pain and with displeasure together.

(1) Roots are all Cetasikas which are analyzed into 6 By way of their intrinsic nature, namely:
(a) Lobha (greed)
(b) Dosa (hatred)
(c) Moha (delusion)
(d) Alobha (non-greed)
(e) Adosa (non-hatred) and
(f) Amoha (non-delusion).
            But by way of species (jāti) they are 9. They are:
(a) Wholesome Roots (kusala hetu) are 3: Alobha, Adosa, and Amoha.
(b) Unwholesome Roots (akusala hetu) are 3:  Lobha, Dosa, and Moha.
(c) Indeterminate Roots (abyākata hetu) are 3: Alobha. Adosa, and Amoha.


Cittas without Roots 18
            (2) Cittas without Roots are 18. They are, according to thought process, as follows:

(a) Five-door adverting       (01)
(b) Sense-consciousness     (10)
(c) Receiving                        (02)
(d) Investigating                   (03)
(e) Determining                    (01)
(f) Smiling                             (01)

Cittas with one Root -2  Cittas with one Root (ekahetuka) are 2. They are:
            Cittas rooted in delusion (Mohamūla) (02).

Cittas with two Roots -22 Cittas with two Roots (dvihetuka) are 22. They are
(a) Cittas rooted in greed (Lobhamūla)                 (08)
(b) Cittas rooted in hatred (Dosamūla)                  (02)
(c) Beautiful Cittas without knowledge                (12)

Cittas with three Roots – 47  Cittas with three Roots are 47. They are:
(a) Beautiful Kāma Cittas with knowledge           (12)
(b) Fine-material-sphere (Rūpāvacara)                 (15)
(c) Immaterial-sphere (Arūpāvacara)                    (12)

A. There are 14 Functions which Cittas perform each. They are as follow:
            (1) Rebirth-linking   (paṭisandhi)
(2) Life-continuum  (bhavaṅga)
(3) Adverting            (āvajjana)
(4) Seeing                  (dassana)
(5) Hearing                (savana)
(6) Smelling              (ghāyana)
(7) Tasting                 (Sāyana)
(8) Touching             (phusana)
(9) Receiving            (sampaṭicchana)
(10) Investigating     (santīraṇa)
(11) Determining      (voṭṭhabbana)
(12) Javana                (javana)
(13) Registration      (tadārammaṇa), and
(14) Death                 (cuti).

B. The Stages of Cittas (thāna) are 10. They are:
            (1)      Rebirth-linking                           (paṭisandhi)
            (2)      Life-continuum                           (bhavaṅga)
            (3)      Adverting                                     (āvajjana)
            (4)      Fivefold Sense Consciousness (Pañcaviññāṇa)
            (5)      Receiving                                     (sampaṭicchana)
            (6)      Investigating                                (santīrana)
            (7)      Determining                                (voṭṭhabbana)
            (8)      Javana                                          (javana)
            (9)      Registration                                 (tadārammaṇa), and
            (10)    Death                                            (cuti).

C. Cittas are classified by way of these 14 functions they perform

Cittas of Rebirth-linking-19
Cittas which perform the function of rebirth-linking are 19. They are:
(a) Investigating with neutral feeling         (02)
(b) Great resultants (mahā vipāka)            (08)
(c) Fine-material-sphere resultants            (05)
            (d) Immaterial-sphere resultant,                 (04)
Note: Cittas of Life-continuum. They are totally the same with the Cittas of Rebirth-Linking

Cittas of Adverting-2
Cittas which perform the function. They are:
(a) Five-door adverting (pañcadvārāvajjana)       (01)
            (b) Mind-door adverting (manodvārāvajjana)     (01)

Cittas of Seeing-2:
Eye-consciousness (cakkhuviññāṇa)         (02)

Cittas of Hearing-2
            Ear-consciousness (sotaviññāṇa)               (02)

Cittas of Smelling-2
Nose-consciousness (ghānaviññāṇa)         (02)

Cittas of Tasting-2
Tongue-consciousness (jivhāviññāṇa)      (02)

Cittas of Touching-2
Body-consciousness (kāyaviññāṇa)          (02)

Cittas of Receiving-2
Receiving Consciousness (sampaṭicchana) (02)

Cittas of Investigating-3
Cittas which perform the function of investigating they are:
            Investigating consciousness (santīraṇa)    (03)

Cittas of Determining-1
It is the only Mind-door adverting consciousness; which performs the function of determining in five-door.

Cittas of Javana-55
Cittas which perform the function of javana are 55. They are as follows:
(a) Unwholesome consciousness               (12)
(b) Wholesome consciousness                   (21)
(c) Functional consciousness except the  
     two types of adverting consciousness (18)
            (d) Fruition consciousness                          (04)

Cittas of Registration-11
Cittas which perform the function of registration are 11. They are as follows:
(a) Investigating consciousness     (santīraṇa)     (03)
(b) Great resultant consciousness (mahāvipāka) (08)

D. Here we should study Cittas by way of the function they perform. Some of cittas perform only one function, and some several functions. They are classified thus:

Cittas with one function-68
(a)    Fivefold sense consciousness                 (10)
(b)    Five-door adverting consciousness       (01)
(c)    Receiving consciousness                        (02)
(d)    Javana consciousness                              (55)
Note: These cittas have only one function each - seeing, hearing, smelling, tasting, touching, receiving and javana function.

Cittas with 2 functions-2
(a) Investigating with pleasure                 (01) (functions of investigating and registration)
(b) Mind-door adverting consciousness (01) (functions of adverting and determining)

Cittas with 3 functions-9
(a)    Fine-material-sphere               (05)
(b)    immaterial-sphere resultant   (04)
Note: They have 3 functions as rebirth-linking, life-continuum, and death

Cittas with 4 functions- 8
            Great resultant consciousness        (08)
Note: They have 4 functions as rebirth-linking, life-continuum, death and registration, and registration.

Cittas with 5 functions-2
Investigating consciousness with neutral feeling (02)
Note: They have 5 functions as rebirth-liking, life-continuum, death, registration, and investigating.

(1)   There are 6 doors through which citta interacts with the objective world. They are as follows:
(a) eye door               (cakkhudvāra)
(b) ear door               (sotadvāra)
(c) nose door             (ghānadvāra)
(d) tongue door         (jivhādvāra)
(e) body door            (kāyadvāra)  
(f) mind door            (manodvāra)
Therein the eye itself is the "eye door"; and so for the other.  But the life-continuum is called "mind-door"

Through doors cittas are to be classified thus:

Cittas in eye-door are 46
Cittas that arise in eye-door are 46. They are mentioned according to the order of thought process. They are as follows:
(a)    Five door adverting consciousness        (01)
(b)    Eye-consciousness                                   (02)
(c)    Receiving consciousness                        (02)
(d)    Investigating consciousness                   (03)
(e)    Determining consciousness                    (01)
(f)     Kāma javana                                             (29)
(g)    Registration (11)                                      (08)
            Note: Cittas in ear-door mostly similar to the cittas in eye-door  except  the 2 cittas, eye-consciousness, which are specially in eye-door. Therefore we should note that "ear-consciousness" is only in ear-door; nose-consciousness is only in nose-door; tongue-consciousness is only in tongue-door; body-consciousness is in body-door. The other cittas general to all.

Cittas in mind-door are 67.
Cittas that arise in mind-door are 67. They are mentioned according to the order of thought process. They are as follows:
(a) Mind-door adverting consciousness (01)
(b) Javana cittas (55)
(c) Registration (11)

Cittas that are door-free are 19
19 types of Rebirth- linking  consciousness are  door-free".

Citttas in One door are 36
            Cittas which arise in one door are 36. They are as follows:
            (a)       Sense consciousness             (10)
            (b)       Appanā javanas                    (26)
Note: The ten types of sense consciousness are each in their own door as eye-consciousness is in eye-door, and son on. And Appanā Javanas are in mind-door.

Cittas in 5 doors are 3
(a)       Receiving consciousness                            (02)
(b)       Five-door adverting consciousness           (01)

Cittas in 6 doors are 31
(a)       Investigating with pleasure (01)
(b)       Determining                                      (01)
(c)       Kāma Javanas                                   (29)

Cittas either in 6 doors or door-free are 10.
(a)       investigating with neutral feeling   (02)
(b)       Great resultants                                (08)

Cittas that are ever- door-free are 9.
(a)       Fine-material-sphere resultant        (05)
(b)       Immaterial-sphere resultant            (04)
            There are 6 kinds of objects corresponding to the 6 senses. They are as follows:
(a)       Visible object            (rūpārammaṇa),
(b)       Sound                         (saddārammaṇa),
(c)       Smell                          (gandhārammaṇa),
(d)       Taste                           (rasārammaṇa),
(e)       Tangible                     (photthabbārammaṇa), and
(f)        Mental object            (dhammārammaṇa).

            Definining of objects
            Therein, visible form itself is visible object. Likewise, sound, etc., are sound object, etc. But mental object is sixfold:
(a)       Sensitive matter (pasādarūpa)        (05),
(b)       Shuttle matter (sukhumarūpa)        (16),
(c)       Consciousness (citta)                       (89),
(d)       Mental factors (cetasikas)               (52),
(e)       Nibbāna                                             (01), and
(f)        Concepts (Paññatti)                          (01).

Note: ārammaṇa = where cittas delight in,          ālambaṇa = where cittas hang on to.

Classification of Cittas through their objects (general)
Cittas in eye-door, etc.
            There are 46 cittas which arise in eye door. They have only one object as visible object that pertains only to the present. Likewise, sounds, etc., that pertain only to the present are the object of the Cittas in ear-door, etc.

Citlas in mind-door
            There are 67 cittas which arise in mind-door. They have one of all six kinds of objects. And they are present, past, future, or independent of time, according to circumstances,

Cittas door-free
            There are 19 cittas which are door-free. They have the six objects which are mentioned as 3 by their special terms:
(a)       volitional action                   (kamma)
(b)       sign  of volitional action     (kammanimitta)
(c)       sign of destiny                       (gatinimitta)
            According to the situation that object has usually been apprehended in one of in the six doors in the immediately preceding existence, as either a present or past or as a concept.

Classification of cittas through their objects (special)
            To classify in special way there are 4 types of the six kinds of objects. They are as follows:
(a)       sense-sphere objects            (kāmāvacarārammaṇa)
(b)       Sublime objects                    (mahaggata)
(c)       concept object                       (paññatti), and
(d)       Nibbāna object                      (nibbānārammaṇa)

Cittas with only Sense-sphere objects arc 25
(a)       Sense consciousness            (10)
(b)       The triple Mind Element     (03)
(c)       The tadārammaṇa                 (11)
(d)       Smiling consciousness        (11)

Cittas with only Sublime objects arc 6
Immaterial-sphere consciousness (the 2nd and the 4th) (6)

Cittas with only concept objects-21
(a)       Fine-material sphere (Rūpāvaraca)           (15)
(b)       Immaterial sphere (the 1stand the 3rd)       (06)
Note: Concept objects are 28: 10-Asubha, 10-Kasina, 1Ānāpāna, 1Kāyagatāsati, 4 Beings objects of  4 Noble Abodes, Infinite space and Nothingness.

Cittas with only Nibbāna object
            Supramundane (Lokuttara)             (08)

Cittas with Classification of Cittas through their objects -20 (general)
 Cittas with mundane objects-20
(a)       Unwholesome (Akusala)                                                     (12)
(b)       Sense-sphere javanas dissociated from knowledge         (08)

Cittas with all objects except the Path and Fruition of Arahantship-5
(a)       Sense-sphere wholesome with knowledge            (04)
(b)       Wholesome direct knowledge (Abhiññā)             (01)

(1) Cittas with all kinds of objects- 6
(a)       Sense-sphere functional with knowledge (04)
(b)       Functional direct-knowledge (Abhiññā)               (01)
(c)       Determining consciousness                                    (01)

Cittas and their objects
(a) Sense-sphere objects
(b) Sublime objects
(c) Concept objects
(d) Nibbāna object

(1) There are 6 Bases depending on which citta arises. They are as follows:
(a)    eye-base (cakkhu - vatthu)
(b)    ears base (sota - vatthu)
(c)    nose-base (ghānā - vatthu)
(d)    tongue-base (jivhā - vatthu)
(e)    body-base (kāyā - vatthu)
(f)     Heart-base (hadaya-vatthu) 
Note:  All these bases are found in the sense world. But in the fine-material world, 3 bases-nose, tongue and body are not found. In the immaterial world, no bases exist

7 Elements of Cittas
(a)    element of eye -consciousness          (cakkhuviññāṇadhātu)
(b)    element of ear-consciousness             (sotaviññāṇadhātu)
(c)    element of nose-consciousness         (ghānaviññāṇadhātu)
(d)    element of tongue-consciousness     (jivhāviññāṇadhātu)
(e)    element of body-consciousness        (kāyāviññāṇadhātu)
(f)     element of mind                                   (manodhātu)
(g)    element of mind-consciousness        (manoviññāṇadhātu)
In sense plane, there are 7 elements which are dependent on the 6 bases; in fine-material plane, 4 elements are dependent on 3 bases; in the immaterial plane, one element is not dependent on any base.
Cittas and their Bases
Cittas on the eye-base 2
Eye-consciousness (02)

Cittas on the ear-base 2
Ear-consciousness (02)

Cittas on the nose-base 2
Nose-consciousness (02)

Cittas on the tongue-base 2
Cittas on the body-base

Cittas on the body-base 2
Body-consciousness (02)

Cittas on the heart-base (always) 33
(a)       Dosamūla                  (02)
(b)       Sampaṭicchana          (02)
(c)       Santīraṇa                   (03)
(d)       Pañcadvārāvajjana   (01)
(e)       Hasituppāda              (01)
(f)        Mahāvipāka              (08)
(g)       Rūpāvacara               (15)
(h)       Sotāpattimagga         (01)

Cittas on the heart-base (sometimes)
(a)      Lobhamūla                             (08)
(b)      Mohamūla                              (02)
(c)      Manodvārāvajjana                (01)
(d)      Mahākusala                            (08)
(e)      Mahākriya                              (08)
(f)       Arūpa kusala                          (04)
(g)      Arūpa kriya                            (04)
(h)      Lokuttara (except 1st Path)   (07)

Cittas without base 4
            Arupa vipaka            (04)

No comments:

Post a Comment

Post Top Ad