Chapter 6 - Rūpa - Buddhism, Philosophy, and Khmer Literature


Buddhism, Philosophy, and Khmer Literature

The teachings of the Buddha are aimed solely at liberating sentient beings from suffering. The Basic Teachings of Buddha which are core to Buddhism are: The Three Universal Truths; The Four Noble Truths; and The Noble Eightfold Path.

Post Top Ad

Post Top Ad

Saturday, June 15, 2019

Chapter 6 - Rūpa

Chapter 6 - Rūpa
Matter is termed in Pāḷi ‘rūpa’, because it changes through the influence of adverse physical conditions such as heat, cold, etc.
I-Enumeration of matter - rūpasamuddesa
The two types of matter
All 28 types of matter are the same regarding their common characteristic of change. It is, however, basically classified into two types:
1. Mahābhūta            = manifest (obvious) appearance; the four Great Essentials
2. Upādāya rūpa        = derived material phenomena
Mahābhūta – 4
"Mahābhūta" means the manifest (obvious, evident) appearance. They are also called
"elements" (dhātu). They are classified into four:          
            1. Paṭhavī       = the element of extension,
            2. Āpo            = the element of cohesion,
            3. Tejo            = the element of heat
            4. Vāyo          = the element of motion.

Upādāya rūpa - 24
There are some types of matter that depend on the 4 mahābhūtas. They are termed ‘upādāya rūpa’ in Pāḷi, meaning "derivative". The derivative types of matter are classified into 24 being enumerated in 10 groups:              
1. Pasāda     = sense-organ
            2. Gocara       = object
            3. Bhāva         = matter of sex
            4. Hadaya      = matter of the heart
            5. Jīvita          = matter of life
            6. Āhāra         = matter of nutrition
            7. Pariccheda = limiting
            8. Viññatti      = communicating
            9. Vikāra        = manner of matter
            10. Lakkhaṇa = characteristic

Pasāda – 5:
            The sensitive matter which lies in each of the five sense organs is called ‘pasāda’. The word ‘pasāda’ means ‘making the elements clarified’.
These matters are sensitive and classified into 5 types:
      1. cakkhupasāda = sensitive eye matter.        
      The eye (visual) matter lies at the centre of the pupil where an image forms, pervading the 7 layers of the visual sense-organ
      2. sotapasāda      = sensitive ear matter.        
       The ear (auditory) matter lies at the smooth hairs inside the inner ear.
      3. ghānapasāda   = sensitive nose matter.
      The nose (olfactory) matter lies on the olfactory bulb.        
      4. jivhāpasāda     = sensitive tongue matter. 
      The tongue (gustatory) matter lies at the center of the tongue, the lotus-petal-like growth.       5. kāyapasāda                = sensitive body matter.
            The body matter lies on the body spreading through out all parts of the body.
Gocara – 7:
            Gocara is the object matter. It is an object of the five viññāṇa consciousnesses. They are five-fold in types, but enumerated into 7:
1. Rūpa           = visible object (form and color)
2. Sadda         = sound
3. Gandha      = odor
4. Rasa           = taste
5. Phoṭṭhabba = tangibility (touchable)
Note: Phoṭṭhabba is not a single matter, but is composed of three elements: extension, heat and motion. The element of cohesion is not tangible (touchable); so it cannot be a tangible (touchable) object.

Bhāva – 2:
            ‘Bhāva’ literally means ‘the source of material quality from which the idea and the terms of male and female are derived’. Bhāva, the matter of sex, is two-fold:
1. Itthibhāva        = femininity
2. Pumbhāva       = masculinity
            The two types of "Bhāva" matter lie on all parts of the whole body.

Hadaya – 1:
The matter of the heart is a matter that lies on the blood of the heart. It is perceived as the seat of mind apart from the five viññāṇa minds. It is called ‘hadaya vatthu’, meaning ‘the heart that is the base of mind’.
In another way, "hadaya" means ‘mind’ and "vatthu" means ‘seat’. Therefore, ‘hadayavatthu’ is the seat of mind.

Jīvita – 1:
Jīvita means ‘life’. It protects kamma-born matter. Jīvita matter manages the function of protecting. Therefore, it is called ‘jīvitindriya’ or ‘material life faculty’. It lies on all parts of the whole body.

Āhāra - 1:
            Nutritive essence is called ‘āhāra’. It lies on any kind of food that is ingested by making it into morsels. Therefore it is described as ‘kabaḷīkārāhāra’.

Pariccheda – 1:
          The space that is non-entity is called ‘pariccheda’, the matter of limiting, because it limits or separates material groups.

Viññatti – 2:
          ‘Viññatti’ means ‘signifying’. Signs of body and speech cause one's ideas to be known to others. Therefore, they are called ‘viññatti’. Viññatti depends on matter and is included in matter. Its duration is only one thought-moment.
Viññatti is divided into two:
1. Kāyaviññatti   = bodily intimation
2. Vacīviññatti    = vocal intimation

Vikāra – 5:
            ‘Vikāra’ means ‘distinction’. It deals with matter. So, the distinction of matter is also called matter. The ‘vikāra’ matter is classified into five, namely:
1. Lahutā              = physical lightness
2. Mudutā            = physical softness
3. Kammaññatā   = physical adaptability
4. Kāyaviññatti   = bodily intimation
5. Vacīviññatti    = vocal intimation
Note: Herein, the last two matters, #4 and #5, are mentioned by the two names viññatti and vikāra, according to their mode.

Lakkhaṇa – 4:
‘Lakkhaṇa’ means ‘characteristic’. Here, the characteristic of matter is described as matter. The ‘characteristic’ matter is divided four-fold:
1. Upacaya           = initial appearance
2. Santati              = continuity
3. Jaratā                = decay
4. Aniccatā          = impermanence


No comments:

Post a Comment

Post Top Ad