CHAPTER II: Cetasika - Buddhism, Philosophy, and Khmer Literature


Buddhism, Philosophy, and Khmer Literature

The teachings of the Buddha are aimed solely at liberating sentient beings from suffering. The Basic Teachings of Buddha which are core to Buddhism are: The Three Universal Truths; The Four Noble Truths; and The Noble Eightfold Path.

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Saturday, June 15, 2019

CHAPTER II: Cetasika

Chapter 2  -  Cetasika

            When citta arises, there are mental states that depend on citta. Those that occur depending on citta are called ‘cetasika’.
            All types of cetasika are able to arise only by depending on citta. Without citta, they are not able to arise. But citta does not always arise with all cetasikas.

            When citta and cetasika associate with each other, they have four characteristics:
            1.         they arise together,
            2.         they pass away together,
            3.         they have an equal effect, and
            4.         they have an equal basis.

Cetasika  -  52

            Cetasika are of 52 types. They are classified into 3 groups:
            1.         Aññasamāna group       13
            2.         Akusala group              14
            3.         Sobhana group             25
                                    Total                52

Aññasamāna  -  13
            Aññasamāna cetasikas, common to others, are classified into two:
            sabbacittasādhāraṇa or universal and pakiṇṇaka or particular mental states.
The universal aññasamāna cetasikas that associate with all cittas are further subdivided into seven:
            1.         Phassa              = Contact
            2.         Vedanā             = Feeling
            3.         Saññā               = Perception
            4.         Cetanā             = Volition
            5.         Ekaggatā           = One-pointedness
            6.         Jīvitindriya       = Psychic life
            7.         Manasikāra      = Attention

            The particular aññasamāna cetasikas that associate with some of the cittas is further subdivided into six:
            1.         Vitakka             = Initial Application
            2.         Vicāra              = Sustained Application
            3.         Adhimokkha     = Decision
            4.         Virīya               = Effort
            5.         Pīti                   = Joy
            6.         Chanda             = Willingness (Intention)

Akusala Cetasika  - 14

            Akusala cetasika, immoral mental states, are subdivided into fourteen:
            1.         Moha               = Ignorance
            2.         Ahirika             = Shamelessness
            3.         Anottappa        = Fearlessness
            4.         Uddhacca         = Restlessness
            5.         Lobha              = Attachment
            6.         Diṭṭhi               = Wrong View
            7.         Māna               = Conceit
            8.         Dosa                = Hatred
            9.         Issā                  = Jealousy
            10.       Macchariya      = Stinginess
            11.       Kukkucca         = Worry (Remorse)
            12.       Thīna               = Sloth
            13.       Middha             = Torpor
            14.       Vicikicchā        = Doubt

Note:  The first four are common to all types of immoral mental states. Lobha is common to all attachment-rooted consciousnesses and diṭṭhi and māna to some of them. The other four, dosa etc., are common to all types of hatred-rooted consciousness. Thina and middha associate with some of both attachment-rooted and hatred-rooted consciousnesses. Vicikicchā associates only with the consciousness rooted in delusion accompanied by doubt.

Sobhana Cetasika  -  25

            The type of mental state that is with virtue is called ‘sobhana’ (lit. beautiful). Sobhana mental states are 25. They are classified into 4 groups:
            1.         Sobhana-sādhāraṇa       = Common to all types of sobhana citta
            2.         Virati                           = Abstinences
            3.         Appamaññā                  = Illimitables (Limitless, boundless, immeasurable)
            4.         Paññā                           = Wisdom

Sobhana-sādhāraṇa  -  19
            There are 19 sobhana mental states that are common to all types of sobhana citta:
1.         Saddhā                         = Confidence
            2.         Sati                              = Mindfulness
            3.         Hīri                              = Moral shame
            4.         Ottappa                        = Moral dread
            5.         Alobha                         = Non-attachment
            6.         Adosa                          = Non-hatred
            7.         Tatramajjhattatā            = Equanimity
            8.         Kāyapassaddhi             = Tranquillity of mental factors
            9.         Cittapassaddhi              = Tranquillity of mind
            10.       Kāyalahutā                   = Lightness of mental factors
            11.       Cittalahutā                   = Lightness of mind
            12.       Kāyamudutā                 = Pliancy of mental factors
            13.       Cittamudutā                 = Pliancy of mind
            14.       Kāyakammaññatā         = Adaptability of mental factors
            15.       Cittakammaññatā          = Adaptability of mind
            16.       Kāyapāguññatā             = Proficiency of mental factors
            17.       Cittapāguññatā             = Proficiency of mind
            18.       Kāyujjukatā                  = Rectitude of mental factors
            19.       Cittujjukatā                  = Rectitude of mind

Virati Cetasika  -  3

            Virati is a type of mental state that abstains from evil speech, action and livelihood.  It is classified into three:
            1.         Sammā-vaca                 = Right Speech
            2.         Sammā-kammantā        = Right Action
            3.         Sammā-ajīva                = Right Livelihood
Appamañña Cetasika  -  2

            Appamañña is a type of mental state that has limitless objects on which one practices.  Appamañña is divided two-fold:
            1.         Karuṇā = Compassion
            2.         Muditā = Sympathetic Joy

Paññā Cetasika  -  1

            Paññā is a mental state that realizes an object. It is termed in Pāḷi ‘Paññindriya’ = faculty of wisdom."

Two Ways of Association

            Cetasikas arise only depending on citta. Citta associates with cetasika. Cittas and some of the cetasikas work together on the same object. When citta and cetasikas associate with each other, there are two ways of association:

            1.         The way of Sampayoga
            2.         The way of Saṅgaha.

The Way of Sampayoga

            The sampayoga method explains, with how many cittas a cetasika associates.
1.         The 7 universalmental states arise depending on alltypes of cittas.
2.         Vitakka arises depending on 55 types of cittas, namely 44 kāmā cittas (except the 10 viññāṇa cittas) and the 11 first jhāna cittas.
3.         Vicāra arises depending on 66 types of cittas, namely the above 55 and 11 second jhāna cittas.
4.         Adhimokkha arises depending on 78 types of cittas, namely 43 kāmā-cittas (except the 10 viññāṇa cittas and one mohamūla citta with vicikicchā), 15 rūpāvacara cittas, 12 arūpāvacara cittas and 8 lokuttara cittas.
5.         Virīyaarises depending on 73 types of cittas:  12 akusala, 1 manodvārāvajjana, 1 hāsituppāda, and 59 sobhana cittas.
6.         Pīti arises depending on 51 types of cittas:  18 kāmā-cittas accompanied by pleasure, 11 first jhānas, 11 second jhānas and 11 third jhānas.
7.         Chanda arises depending on 69 types of cittas: 10 akusala cittas (except 2 mohamūla) and 59 sobhana cittas.

Akusala - 14:
8.         Moha, ahīrika, anottappa and uddhacca arise depending on 12 akusala cittas.
9.         Lobhaarises depending on 8 lobhamūla cittas.
10.       Diṭṭhiarises depending on 4 types of lobhamūla connected with wrong view.
11.       Mānaarises depending on 4 types of lobhamūla disconnected from wrong view.
12.       Dosa, issā, macchariya and kukkucca arise depending on 2 dosamūlas.
13.       Thina and Middha arise depending on 5types of akusala with promptitude.
14.       Vicikicchāarises depending on 1 citta accompanied by doubt.

Sobhana - 25:
15.       Sobhana sādharaṇa mental states (19) arise depending on 59 types of sobhana cittas.
16.       The 3 viratis arise depending on 16 cittas: 8 kāmā kusala cittas (sometimes and separately), and 8lokuttara cittas (always and together).
17.       The 2 appamañña arise depending on 28 types of cittas: 8 mahākusala cittas, 8 mahākriya cittas and 12 rūpāvacara cittas (except 3 fifth jhāna cittas).
18.       Paññindriya arises depending on 47 types of cittas: 12 kāmāsobhana cittas connected with knowledge, 15rūpāvacara cittas, 12 arūpāvacara cittas and 8 lokuttara cittas.
The Way of Saṅgaha

The saṅgaha method explains with how many cetasikas a citta associates.

(1)        The 12 akusala cittas:
1.         The 8 lobhamūla cittas associate with 22 cetasikas, namely 13 aññasamāna mental states, the 4 akusala-sādharaṇa,lobha, diṭṭhi, māna, thina and middha.
Note:  The 12 aññasamāna except pīti, 4 akusala-sādharaṇa and lobha (altogether 17) are common to all lobhamūla cittas. Pīti, diṭṭhi, māna, thina and middha (altogether 5) are common to some of the lobhamūla cittas.

2.         The 2 dosamūla cittas associate with 22 cetasikas, namely 12 aññasamāna (except pīti), the 4 akusala-sādharaṇā, dosa, issā, macchariya, kukkucca, thina and middha.
                Note:  Thina and middha associate only sometimes with dosamūla cittas.

3.         The 2 mohamūla cittas associate with 16 cetasikas, namely 11 aññasamāna (except pīti and chanda),the 4 akusala-sādharaṇa and vicikicchā.

Therefore, the 12 types of akusala cittas associate with 27 cetasikas:
13 aññasamānas and 14 akusala cetasikas.

(2)        The 18 ahetuka cittas:
1.         The 10 viññāṇa cittas associate with 7 universal mental states.
2.          The 2 sampaṭicchana and 2 santīraṇa accompanied by indifferenceand the pañcadvārāvajjana cittaassociate with 10 aññasamāna (except virīya, pīti and chanda).
3.         The santīraṇa accompanied by pleasure associates with 11 aññasamāna (except virīya
 and chanda).
4.         The manodvārāvajjana citta associates with 11 aññasamāna (except virīya and pīti).
5.         The hāsituppāda citta associates with 12 aññasamāna (except chanda).

Therefore, the 18 types of ahetuka cittas associate with 12  different aññasamāna cetasikas.

(3)        The 24 kāmāsobhana cittas:
1.         The 8 mahākusala cittas associate with 38 cetasikas:  the 13 aññasamāna and the 25 sobhana mental states.
2.         The 8 mahāvipāka cittas associate with 33 types of cetasikas: the 13 aññasamānas and 20 sobhana mental states except the 3 virati and the 2 appamañña.
3.         The 8 mahākriya cittas associate with 35 types of cetasikas: the 13 aññnasamānas and 22 sobhana mental states except the 3 virati.

Therefore, the 24 types of kāmāsobhana cittas associate with 38 cetasikas:
the 13 aññasamānas and the 25 sobhana cetasikas.
(4)        The mundane jhāna cittas:
1.         The 3 first-jhāna cittasassociate with 35 types of cetasikas: the 13 aññasamānas and 22 sobhana mental states except the 3 virati.
2.         The 3 second-jhāna cittasassociate with 34 types of cetasikas as before apart from vitakka.
3.         The 3 third-jhāna cittasassociate with 33 types of cetasikas as before apart from vitakka and vicāra.
4.         The 3 fourth-jhāna cittasassociate with 32 types of cetasikas as before apart from vitakka, vicāra and pīti.
5.         The 15 fifth-jhāna cittasassociate with 30 types of cetasikas as the fourth-jhāna cittas apart from the two types of appamañña.
(5)        The supramundane jhāna cittas:
1.         The 8 first-jhāna cittasassociate with 36 types of cetasikas: 12 aññasamānas and 23 sobhana mental states except the 2 appamaññas.
2.         The 8 second-jhāna cittasassociate with 35 types of cetasikas as before apart from vitakka.
3.         The 8 third-jhāna cittasassociate with 34 types of cetasikas as before apart from vitakka and vicāra.
4.         The 8 fourth-jhāna cittasassociate with 33 types of cetasikas as before apart from vitakka, vicāra and pīti.
5.         The 8 fifth-jhāna cittasassociate with 33 types of cetasikas as before apart from vitakka, vicāra and pīti.
Special Note
1.         There are 20 types of cetasikas that differentiate the number of cetasikas associated with cittas, namely vitakka, vicāra, pīti, sukha, 3 virati, 2 appamañña and paññindriya.
2.         There are 11 types of cetasikas that only sometimes associate with cittas. They are as follows:
- Issā, macchariya and kukkucca sometimes and separately arise depending on dosamūla cittas.
- Māna sometimes arises depending on lobhamūla cittas disconnected from wrong view.
- Thina and middha sometimes, but always together, arise depending on lobhamūla and dosamūla cittas with promptitude.
- The 3 viratis and the 2 appamaññnas sometimes, and separately, arise depending on some cittas.
3.         There are 72 types of cittas associated with "hetu". They are classified into 3 types according to the hetu associated with them. They are as follows:
(i)         Ekāhetuka:      The citta associated with one hetu.
This comprises the 2 mohamūla cittas which have one hetu: moha.
(ii)        Dvihetuka:      The citta associated with two hetus. They are altogether 22:
the 8 lobhamūla, the 2 dosamūla and the 12 kāmāsobhana cittas disconnected from knowledge.
(iii)       Tihetuka:         The citta associated with three hetus. They are altogether 47:
the 12 kāmāsobhana cittas connected with knowledge, the 15 rūpāvacara, the 12 arūpāvacara and the 8 lokuttara cittas.

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