Lecture No. 5: Buddhism in Lower Myanmar - Buddhism, Philosophy, and Khmer Literature


Buddhism, Philosophy, and Khmer Literature

The teachings of the Buddha are aimed solely at liberating sentient beings from suffering. The Basic Teachings of Buddha which are core to Buddhism are: The Three Universal Truths; The Four Noble Truths; and The Noble Eightfold Path.

Post Top Ad

Post Top Ad

Monday, June 17, 2019

Lecture No. 5: Buddhism in Lower Myanmar

Lecture No. V
Buddhism in Lower Myanmar

1.   In lower Myanmar there was a Mon Kingdomwhich was a con­temporary[1]of Inwa Kingdom. Peguor Hamsavadiwas its capital and the founder the dynasty that ruled Mon Kingdomwas Wareru[A.D. 1287-1296].
2.   During his reign as well as the reigns of his successors, Buddhism continued to flourish in spite of political changes. It was in Wareru'stime that monastic scholarship pro­duced a code law known as "Wareru Dhammathat". It was compiled by some Mon learned monks who based their Dhammathaton ancient Hindu Codes of Law.
3.   There was the revival[2]of the tradition of pilgrimage of Lankadipa (Sri Lanka) by Myanmarmonks. Two hoted Monbhikkhus who went to Sri Lanka to get new ordination in MahaviharaMonastery were Ashin Buddhavamsa and Ashin Mahanaga. To be ordained in the Kalayani Simaon the bank of the River Kalayani near Mahavihara, bhikkhus from aboard were required to revert to laymen. The orthodox Mahavihara believed that it was of the utmost importance that ordination be handed down in an unbroken tradition from the time of the Buddha. In this case foreign bhikkhus had to abandon their previous ordained ages and had to consider that their former ordination was not valid. This orthodox concept of ordination in the Kalayani Simaposed an issue for Myanmarbhikkhus.
4.   It was King Dhammazedi who settled this issue. He was the 16th King in the Wareru dynasty. His reign lasted 20 years [A.D. 1472-1492]. He was an ex-monk[3]whom Queen Shin Sawpu [A.D. 1453-1472] chose as her successor to the throne by marrying him to her daughter, Princes Royal.
5.   The Kalayani stone inscriptions at Pegu set up in the precincts[4]of Kalayani Sima record great achieve­ments of King Dhammazedi. He unified the Samgha in his kingdom and purified the Order of Bhikkhus. He built many pagodas, monasteries and repaired and renovated old ones. He sent a mission to Bodhgaya to repair and renovate[5]Mahabodhitemple and make ground plans and architectural drawing of it, so that he could build duplicates in his kingdom.
6.   He himself had been a learned Mon monk who received education in monasteries at Inwa, which adhered to the Vinaya of the Singhalese Samgha. The Singhalese Samgha accepted Mahaviharaof Sri Lankaas the ultimate authority in religious matters. When he became king he started a reform movement to improve the discipline of the Samgha Order in Lower Myanmar.
7.   He chose 22 senior learned bhik­khus to lead the reform movement. He requested them to go to Sri Lanka and receive the Upasampada ordi­nation in the Kala­yani Sima, and brought back home that "Seed of religion" and plant it and cause it to sprout forth by conferring[6] such type of ordination on men of good birth in his kingdom.
8.   In A.D. 1476, 22 bhikkhus and 22 disciples journeyed by sea to Sri Lankain two ships. One ship reached it in two months. The other took 6 moths to arrive there due to bad weather.
9.   In the Wazo [July] of A.D. 1476 from 17th to 20th July were re-ordained in true tradition of KalayaniSima under Mahavihara Maha Theras. Alto­gether 44 monks received ordination in the KalayaniSima.

[1]           contemporary {speaker}, (adj) ~ (with sb/sth) belonging to the same time: We have no contemporary account of the battle (= written near the time that it happened). // belonging to the present time SYN MODERN: life in contemporary Britain»
(n) (plural contemporaries) a person who lives or lived at the same time as sb else, especially sb who is about the same age:
She and I were contemporaries at college. • He was a contemporary of Freud and may have known him. • Give or take a few years, they are contemporaries.
[2]           (n) an improvement in the condition or strength of sth// the process of sth becoming or being made popular or fashionable again// a new production of a play that has not been performed for some time
[3]           (n) (plural exes) a person’ former wife, husband or other partner//  (prep) not including st
[4]           (n) a commercial area in a town where cars cannot go// one of the parts into which a town or city is divided in order to organize elections// a part of a city that has its own police station; the police station in this area// the area around a place or a building, sometimes enclosed by a wall
[5]           (v) to repair and paint an old building, a piece of furniture, etc. so that it is in good condition again//            » renovation {speaker} noun
[6]           confer {speaker} verb (-rr-)   1 ~ (with sb) (on / about sth) to discuss sth with sb, especially in order to exchange opinions or get advice//  2 ~ sth (on / upon sb) to give sb an award, a university degree or a particular honour or right

No comments:

Post a Comment

Post Top Ad