Lecture No. 6: Buddhism in Lower Myanmar [continued] - Buddhism, Philosophy, and Khmer Literature


Buddhism, Philosophy, and Khmer Literature

The teachings of the Buddha are aimed solely at liberating sentient beings from suffering. The Basic Teachings of Buddha which are core to Buddhism are: The Three Universal Truths; The Four Noble Truths; and The Noble Eightfold Path.

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Monday, June 17, 2019

Lecture No. 6: Buddhism in Lower Myanmar [continued]

Lecture No. VI
Buddhism in Lower Myanmar [continued]

1.    After stayingthere and studying Buddhist literature they returned home. Their return journey met withdisaster. One group arrived safe and sound. The other group took three years to get back to Bago. Ten Bhikkhus died during journey.
2.    Dhammazedibuilt a duplicate of Kalayani Sima at Bagowith the sand and water brought from the Kalayani River; in that duplicate Kalayani Sima at Bago those who believed and desired to receive ordinationat the hands of the bhikkhus who were ordained or re-ordained in the Kalayani Sima in Sri Lankawere ordained or re-ordained. But those who did not desire were allowed as they were, without affecting their already attained seniority in vasa.
3.    According to ordination rule, a chapter of five bhikkhus is needed to confer the ordination. One bhikkhu, qualified to serve as preceptor [Upajjhaya]. Another bhikkhu to serve as teacher [Acariya]. They must have attained at least 10 years of ordained age in Kalayani Sima in Sri Lanka. But none of the 34 monks ordained ordained in the Kalayani Sima of Sri Lanka had attained 10 years of ordained age. But fortunately there still lived in Bagotwo bhikkhus who went to Sri Lanka and received the Kalayani ordination at the beginning of the 15th century. These two old Maha Theras acted as Preceptor and teacher and they conferred ordination to many bhikkhus in the duplicate Kalayani Sima at Bago. Dhammazedibuilt as many as 396 Kalayani Ordination halls throughout this kingdom, in which 15,666 ordinations took place among them some bhikkhus from neighbouring countries such as Laos, Chiangmai, Cambodia and Ayuthia were included.
4.    Himself, having been in monkhood for many years King Dammazedi knew how to reform and improve Samgha Order with tact and prudence. First he approached influential learned senior bhikkhus and obtained their consent[1]to his programme of religious reforms. Then he appointed[2]a Samgha Council to tackle[3]the issue of laxity[4]in Vinaya.
5.    As the King being a layman could not defrock[5] a bhikkhus if he had not broken any of the four "Parajikarules". So he issued the order threatening to punish the parents, relatives, lay supporters and donors of a bhikkhu who broke the rules of Vinaya. That was an indirect action taken against a misbehaving bhikkhu by way of circumvention or he would have the Samgha council to take direct action against the sinner bhikkhu.
6.    Dhammazedishowed that only a secular power could protect the Samgha Order from malcontents[6]who took advantage of the respect given to the yellow robe by stopping support.
7.    Dhammazedi's fame spread beyond the borders of kingdom because of his successful religious reforms.
8.    Bhikkhus from other Buddhist countries came to his domains[7] to receive Kalayani ordination and study Buddhism at monasteries.
9.    Kalayanistone inscriptions at Kalayani Simaat Bagorecord Dhammazedi's religious reforms and works.

[1]              consent {speaker} noun, verb » (n) ~ (to sth) permission to do sth, especially given by sb in authority / see also AGE OF CONSENT//  agreement about sth//  an official document giving permission for sth
            » (v) ~ (to sth)to agree to sth or give your permission for sth
[2]           appoint {speaker} verb ~ sb (to sth) | ~ sb (as) sth to choose sb for a job or position of responsibility// to arrange or decide on a time or place for doing sth
[3]           tackle {speaker} verb, noun » (v) to make a determined effort to deal with a difficult problem or situation// ~ sb (about sth) to speak to sb about a problem or difficult situation SYN CONFRONT// to deal with sb who is violent or threatening you
            » (n) an act of trying to take the ball from an opponent in football, etc.; // the equipment used to do a particular sport or activity, especially fishing//
[4]           laxity {speaker} noun [U]: the moral laxity of today’s society»
[5]           defrock {speaker}, AmE {speaker} verb [VN] [usually passive] to officially remove a priest from his or her job, because he or she has done sth wrong: a defrocked priest
[6]           malcontent{speaker}, AmE {speaker} noun [usually pl.] (formal, disapproving) a person who is not satisfied with a situation and who complains about it, or causes trouble in order to change it: The strike was engineered by a handful of malcontents.
[7]           domain {speaker}, AmE {speaker} noun (n) an area of knowledge or activity; especially one that sb is responsible for// lands owned or ruled by a particular person, government, etc., especially in the past

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