Mahāmaṅgala-Sutta: Explanation (01) - Buddhism, Philosophy, and Khmer Literature


Buddhism, Philosophy, and Khmer Literature

The teachings of the Buddha are aimed solely at liberating sentient beings from suffering. The Basic Teachings of Buddha which are core to Buddhism are: The Three Universal Truths; The Four Noble Truths; and The Noble Eightfold Path.

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Thursday, June 13, 2019

Mahāmaṅgala-Sutta: Explanation (01)

*     1st , 2nd, 3rdSOCIAL ASSOCIATION

*  The 1st Blessing

*     "Bālasevana" non-association with fools

*     Definition of Bāla (a fool)

~     One who thinks, speaks and does evil deeds.
~     One who destroys the present & future benefits of others
~     One who is blind to reason/ wisdom (Andha-puthujjana).
~     An evil-minded (Dummana).
~     One with undeveloped mind (Abhāvita-citta).
~     One who is void of morality, an unvirtuous person (Dussīla)
~     One who lacks in reasoning (Duppañña) & sense of judgment
~   One who is incapable of advice, practical and wholesome
~     One who is heedless of the Dhamma, reckless in action
~     One who is regardless of the consequences
~     One who can not differentiate between right and wrong, good and bad, wholesome and unwholesome, meritorious and demeritorious.
(SnA-11, 11/A-1, 100/M-111,  201 LH-38)

*     Two kinds of Fools(*Dhammapada Stanza No. 63)

      l. One who knows his foolishness. He is curable or corrigible
      2. One who thinks he is wise. He is incurable or incorrigible

*     Definition of Asevana (non-association, SnA-11,10)

~     absence of service (literal meaning - Saddattha)
~     non-association (desired/ implied meaning - Adhippāyattha)
~     not to follow the fools, but to keep away from them,
~     not to take/ accept/ keep them as one's leaders,
~     not to take them as a standard for conduct or personal guidance,
~     not to get entangle with them though they might be old enough.

*     Disadvantages of association with Fools

~     One's character will be lost
~     One's ill/ bad reputation will spread abroad
~     One wanes in good qualities (*LH-38)
~     Their company can only harm
~     It is unfortunate and inauspicious to associate with them
~     One can get no profit from their guidance
~     Their guidance will drag into trouble and danger
~     One tends to give ear to evil advice (because of bad company) (*LH-39)
~     Evil reflections occupy one's mind
~     Mental confusion prevails and the senses are uncontrolled
~     Bodily action and speech are faulty, and five hindrances (Nīvaraṇas) gain strength

*  The 2nd Blessing

*     "Paṇḍita-sevana" association with the wise

*     Definition of Paṇḍita (the wise)

~     One who thinks, speaks and does good deeds (*SnA-11, 10/IB-263)
~     One who does for the benefits and prosperity of oneself and others
~     One who understands the nature of the Dhamma (Kalyāna-puthujjana)
~     One who can solve the questions/ problems of the Dhamma
~     One who makes others happy by one's good deed and speech
~     A learned, experienced and virtuous/ good person (Paññā-vanta) (*LH-38)
~     One who is capable of giving advice, practical and wholesome
~     One who observes the moral practices (Silā-vanta)
~     A good-tempered, kind, generous, broad-minded one (Sumana)

*     Definition of Sevana (Association)

~     Performance of service (literal meaning)
~     Association joining together, being in, somebody's company, friendship (implied meaning)
~     To follow somebody, to be in unison/ harmony/ agreement with somebody
~     To take the wise as one's leaders
~     To take them as a standard for conduct or personal guidance
(*SnA-11, 10)

*     Advantages of Association with the Wise (Paṇḍita-sevana)

~     One's character will improve
~     One's good reputation will spread abroad
~     One can improve good qualities
~     One has opportunity for good advice, rational faith, noble thoughts, clear thinking, self-control, good conduct, and conquest of the five hindrances (Nivaranas)
~     One gains wisdom and liberation consequently
~     Friendship with the wise leads to the realization of Nibbāna
~     One is free from dangers and troubles

*     Seven qualities of those deserving others' association.

1.      Sīla                                    ~ observance of morality
2.      Samādhi                           ~ concentration, self-possession
3.      Paññā                                ~ wisdom
4.      Dāna                                 ~ generosity, liberality, charity, offering, giving
5.      Peyya-vajja                     ~ speaking pleasant words
6.      Atthacariyā                      ~ doing good for others
7.      Samānatthatā                   ~ sociability, impartiality
*NB* These qualities are actually the combination of­:
a ~ Three kinds of Training (Sikkhā), that is, the first three, and
b ~ Four kinds of Kind Treatment (Saṅgaha), that is, the last four.

*  The 3rd Blessing

*     "Pūjaneyya-pūja"Honouring those worthy of honour

*     Eleven persons worthy of Honour

1.      Sammā-sambuddha        = the Enlightened One, the Blessed One
2.      Sangha                             = the Sangha or the Order
3.      Ācariya                            = one's own teacher
4.      Mātā                                 = one's own mother
5.      Pitā                                   = one's own father
6.      Bhātā                                = one's own elder brother
7.      Bhaginī                            = one's own elder sister
8.      Sasura                              = one's father-in-law
9.      Sasu                                  = one's mother-in-law
10.  Vuddhatara                      = one's senior (in age or morality or rank)
11.  Pati, Sāmi                         = one's husband
(*SnA-11, 14)

*     Ten Good Friends/ Benefactors (Kalyāṇamitta, Upakāraka)

1.      Buddha                            = the Enlightened One
2.      Pacceka-buddha              = the Self-awakened One, the Silent Buddha
3.      Arahanta                          = an Arahant
4.      Agga-sāvaka                    = the chief disciples of the Buddha
5.      Mātā                                 = one's own mother
6.      Pitā                                   = one's own father
7.      Vuddha                            = one's elders
8.      Ācariya                            = one's teacher
9.      Hitakāra                           = a beneficent person
10.  Dhamma-kathika            = a preacher
(*Jataka-11, 150)

*     Two kinds of PŪJĀ (Honour/ Homage/ Worship)

1.      Āmisa-pūjā                            = Material worship, worship or honouring with material things
2.      Dhamma/Paṭipatti-pūjā  = Practical worship, worship or honouring with/ through the practice of the Dhamma
Of two, the worship/ honouring through the practice of the Dhamma is better and more praise worthy.
*NB* Offering of four requisites, flowers, water, etc., also included in the Āmisa-pūjā, whereas preaching/ teaching or listening to the Dhamma, paying homage/ respect to the Triple Gem, etc, are all Dhamma-pūjā.

*     Pañca patiṭṭhita-vandanā (Worshipping with five contacts)

            To touch the ground/ floor with two hands, two knees and forehead or five limbs, i.e., hands, legs, forehead, elbows and knees.

*     Advantages of honouring the Worthy

~     Pleasant to associate with
~     To fit well in any society
~     To have the capacity to learn more
~     To possess factors necessary for progress, worldly and supramundane
~     Foundation for humility (Nivāta) (*LH-4O)
"Abhivā Dānasīlissa,
Niccaṃ vuḍḍhāpacāyino
Cattāro dhammā vaddhanti,
Āyu vaṇṇo sūkhaṃ balaṃ"
(Dhp. Stz 3.109)
"For those who always respects and hornours those who are elder and more virtuous, four benefits, viz., longevity, beauty, happiness, and strength will increase."

*     Ten disadvantages of offending a Benefactor

1.      to experience bitter sufferings
2.      loss of property (to suffer)
3.      to suffer loss of life
4.      to be afflicted with diseases
5.     to go mad insane/ deranged
6.      to endure suspension, dismissal or punishment
7.      to face others' accusation
8.      to suffer loss of relatives
9.      to suffer loss of comforts
10.  to lose one's house through fire

*     The  4th , 5th , 6th GOOD LIVING

*  The 4th Blessing

*     " Patirūpa-desavāsa" Residence in an appropriate/ suitable locality

*     Definition of Patirūpadesa (suitable place)

~     Where ten bases of Meritorious Action (Dasa-puñña-kiriya-vatthu) could be fulfilled
~     Where the Teachings of the Buddha prevail
~     Where the Buddha frequented, i.e.;
§  the place of Enlightenment
§  the place of delivering the first sermon
§  the place of showing the twin miracles (Yamaka-pātihāriya)
§  where the Buddha descended from Tāvatiṃsaworld
§  where the Buddha generally lived in Sāvatthi, Bārāṇasi, etc.

*     Choice of the suitable places for present days

§  where rich people live, i.e., where there are banks.
§  where wise and learned people live, i.e., monasteries, schools, colleges, universities, etc.
§  where the influential people live, i.e., government offices
§  where roads, rivers, bridges are there for communications or trading and commerce
§  where physicians and doctors are available, i.e., hospitals and health centers, clinics, surgeries
§  Means of communication, such as, post office, telegraph office, telephone office etc.
*N.B* The places where these things are present are called the suitable places for the people nowadays because they are quite essential.

*     The Extent of the Central Region (Majjhimadesa)

      It extend on the east to Kajaṅgalatown and Mahāsāla; South-East to the river Sallavatī, south to Setakaṇṇika town, West to the village Thūṇa, north to the Usiraddhaja mountain.
      It is 300 yojanas long, 250 yojanas wide and 900 yojanas in circumference. This region is also taken as Patirūpadesabecause herein the Buddhas, the Silent Buddhas and Universal Monarchs appear.
~     where agreeable friends and healthy enviroment are available
~     where there are good communication and transport
~     where there are markets, bazaars, museums, etc. These are also the suitable places for the people in general.

*     Eight unsuitable places for the realization of the Dhamma (Aṭṭhakkhaṇa)

1.      Paccantajo                       ~ where the Teachings of the Buddha are not available
2.      Arūpino                           ~ existence in the four formless spheres
3.      Vitaliṅgo                          ~ one who has defective limbs by birth
4.      Asaññajo                         ~ existence in the mindless sphere
5.      Micchādiṭṭhi                   ~ one who holds the wrong views
6.      Peto                                  ~ existence in the plane of departed ghosts
7.      Tiracchāno                      ~ being reborn in the animal kingdom
8.      Nerayiko                          ~ existence in woeful states (hell)

*     Another set of unsuitable places

1.      Rebirth in a hell,
2.      Rebirth in the animal kingdom,
3.      Rebirth in the plane of the departed ones,
4.      Rebirth in the mindless planes and rebirth in the formless planes,
5.      Rebirth as a defective person in the central region (Majjhimadesa),
6.      One who holds wrong views though being a person with three-root-condition (Tehetuka),
7.      A remote place where the Teachings could not exist,
8.      Rebirth in the world void of the Buddha

*     Some unsuitable places (at present)

~     Where quarrelsome and trouble-making people live
~     Wherein there is a corrupt government
~     Where the climate is inimical with frequent ravages with floods, famines, earthquakes and epidemics
~     Where the air is charged with hatreds and mutual suspicions
~     Where freedom of thought and action are reduced to minimum           (*LH-41)
      In brief, residence in a place having many factors and conditions obstructive to the practice of Dhamma and not conducive to physical, moral and spiritual wellbeing, is just the opposite of what is meant by a suitable enviroment.
      When selection of a place for residence is considered, a Buddhist bears in mind the advantages of being near a source of Dhamma, besides of course, more mundane advantages such as nearness to his work place.

*  The 5th Blessing

*     "Pubbe-katapuññata" Having merits done before/ in the past

Pubba (adj) past existence; even in this life/ existence the time before now, i.e., at least, last/ previous year/ month/ week/ days are all includeed in Pubba.

*     Consequences of former/ past merits

Long life, fair complexion, free from disease, wealth high birth, wisdom,  lack ofanger & conceit, etc,. are all the consequences of the past merits.
SIRĪ (Glory, grace, reputation, nobility) is the synonyms of wisdom and merit. This is also the consequence of the merits done in the past.

*     Five Great Rich Men "Pañca-amitabhoga,"

      Five men possessed of limitless wealth (*Dh. A.1.243)
1.      Jotika               ~ a treasurer of Rājagaha who later became an Arahant *PP-1,968
2.      Jatila                ~ a treasurer of Magadha*PP- 1,931
3.      Meṇḍaka         ~ a very rich householder of Bhaddiya-nagara in Aṅga. lle was the father of Dhanañjaya and, therefore the grandfather of Visākhā *PP- 11,654
4.      Puṇṇaka          ~ a treasurer of Rājagaha, father of Uttarā-nandamātā, he bad been once a poor man and had worked for the rich man named Sumana *PP-11,221
      5. Kākavaliya       ~ one of the five hankers (Seṭṭhis) of limitless wealth in Bimhisara'skingdom. *PP­1,558

*     Five Persons of great Merits/ Fortune (Pañca-Mahāpuñña)

1.      Meṇḍaka                          ~ the treasurer
2.      Candapaduma                 ~ his chief wife
3.      Dhanañjaya                     ~ his eldest son
4.      Sumanadevī                    ~ wife of the eldest son
5.      Puṇṇa                               ~ servant of Meṇḍaka                           (*Dh. A. 1,243)

*     Fourteen different kinds of consequences of the Past kamma

1.      Short life                         ~ because of much killing done in the past
2.      Long life                          ~ because of avoidance of killing
3.      Much ailing                     ~ because of harming/ hurting others
4.      Lack of ailing                 ~ because of avoidance of harming/ hurting
5.      Ugliness                           ~ because of lots of anger
6.      Beauty                              ~ because of lack of anger
7.      Influential                        ~ because of lack of jealousy
8.      Non-influential               ~ because of lots of jealousy
9.      Poverty                             ~ because of lack of charity/ offering
10.Richness                          ~ because of lots of charity/ offering
11.Low birth                        ~ because of lots of conceit
12.High birth                        ~ because of lack of conceit
13.Ignorant                           ~ because of lack of inquires, questioning
14. Wise                                 ~ because of lots of inquires, questioning   (*M-111, 243)

*     The Significance of Kamma *Cuḷakamma-vibhaṅga-Sutta

      Every living being has Kamma as
1.      its own
2.      its inheritance
3.      its cause
4.      its kinsman
5.      its refuge Kamma is that which differentiates living beings into low and high states.

*  The 6th Blessing

*     "Attasammā-paṇidhi" Keeping oneself in the right course

*     Definition of Atta

1.      Oneself                            ~ as in "attāhi attano nātho" " oneself is one's own refuge (*Dh-stz160)
2.      Mind                                ~ as in "Alaṃ phāsuvihārāya, pahitattassa bhikkhuno" happiness goes to the monk who has sent his mind to Nibbāna
3.      Nature                              ~ "Micchatta-niyatā" that which has the changeable nature and firm in producing results
~ "Sammatta-niyatā" that which has the unchangeable nature and firm in producing results
      4. Creator "Paramatta" & Soul "Jīvatta",
~       "Sabbe dhammā anattā" ~All the phenomena are non-self, that is, void of creation
~       "Attasammā-paṇidhi"       ~Atta - oneself, sammā - well, paṇidhi - keeping/ establishing.
~       "Sammā-paṇidhi"              ~to keep oneself well in accordance with the Teachings of the Buddha, by refraining from evil deeds/ actions, bodily, verbally or mentally. It also implies to develop faith, good volition, morality, concentration and wisdom in oneself.

*     Four Powers for the attainment of Fortune (Sampatti-cakka)

1.      Paṇḍita-sevana               ~ association with the wise/good people
2.      Patirūpadesavāsa           ~ living in a suitable place
3.      Pubbe katapuñña            ~ having merits done in the past
4.      Atta-sammāpaṇidhi       ~ right self-regulation
      "Atta" in Attasammāpaṇidhi denotes both Body & Mind. To keep Body & Mind well-established is to fulfill this blessing. Fulfilment or non-fulfilment of this blessing would place one in a high or low position/ status/ rank in a society/ community.

*     Five benefits of fulfilling this Atta-sammāpaṇidhi

      One will become
      (1) a wise and able person,
      (2) a person of morality,
      (3) a disciplined person
      (4) an honest person, and
      (5) a benevolent person
*N,B*As for one who fails to fulfill this blessing he will reap the reverse consequences of mentioned above.

*     Good establishment of Body & Mind

~     to keep the house and kitchen spick and span
~     to keep the body clean, well-dressed
~     to eat, drink, sleep, rise, bathe, etc., regularly and moderately
~     to keep bodily and verbal action well-disciplined and decent
~     to be kind and friendly to others
~     to spread loving-kindness towards others
~     not to harbour hatred, ill-will, malevolence in oneself

*  The 7th, 8th,9th,10th, EDUCATION

*  The 7th Blessing

*     "Bāhusacca" Vast knowledge/ learning

*     Three kinds of Learning

     1. Vijjā                 ~ knowledge of literature, music, fine arts
     2. Sippa                ~ knowledge of craft work, handicraft, manual work
     3. Kamma            ~ cultivation, industry and commerce

*     Two kinds of knowledge (Suta)

1. Lokiya-pañña                         ~ secular/ mundane/ worldly knowledge
2. Lokuttara-pañña                    ~ supramundaneitranscendental knowledge
                                                (Pariyatti-Learning + Paṭipatti-Learning.)
*N.B* The second one is related to the Teachings of the Buddha,whereas the first one is not.
Literary knowledge, oral knowledge, intellectual knowledge, knowledge acquired through seeing, hearing, thinking, reading, writing, speaking are included in this blessing. Knowledge of subject such as, history, mathematies, medicine, etc., books of Tipitaka, Vedas, Astrology, Astronomy, etc., law, such as civil or criminal, rulings, judgements, etc., ethics such as Lokanīti, Cāṇakyanīti, Mahārahanīti, etc., science such as physics, chemistry and so on.

*     Advantages of having Vast Knowledge

~ One can impart one's knowledge to others
~ One can be free from others' cheat
~ One can give proper assessment, decision judgement, advice
~ One can overcome difficulties easily
~ One can succeed in examinations as well as in life
~ One can become a chief or a leader
~ Other people will rely upon him
~ One can solve the problems instantly

*     Disadvantages of having little knowledge

~ One cannot help others in terms of knowledge
~ One will be subject to other's cheat
~ One can not give proper advice, instructions to others
~ One will have to face many difficulties in life
~ One can not expect any success, opportunity, propsperity in life
~ One will never be offered the chief position by others
~ Nobody will seek any refuge from him
~ One cannot solve the problems of oneself and others'

*     Some important points

~ An illiterate person is just like a blind man
~ Knowledge/ Learning can never be stolen or robbed off
~ Knowledge is just like a gold-pot with which we can buy everything
~ Knowledge is just like our limbs which are always with us
~ Knowledge is beneficial not only in this life, but also in the life hereafter
~ Mere possession of knowledge is not a blessing, only by keeping that knowledge in practice, it becomes a blessing.

*  The 8th Blessing

*     "Susikkhita-sippa" Skill in art and handicraft

*     18 kinds of traditional Arts (Aṭṭhārasa-sippa)

1. Suti                         ~ General knowledge/ study
2. Samuti                   ~ Knowledge/ Art of law, both old and new
3. Saṅkhyā                 ~ Mathematics including arithmetic, algebra
4. Yoga                      ~ Carpentry, masonry, painting, carving, etc.
5. Nīti                         ~ Ethics
6. Visesaka                ~ Knowledge of predestined time/ event, employing astrological means in order to achieve one's ends
7. Gandhaba              ~ Prosody, poetics, art of composing poems & songs
8. Ganika                   ~ Art of calculating with fingers
9. Dhanuveda           ~ Art of using weapons such as bows and arrows, archery, shooting, deployment of troops, fencing etc.
10. Purāṇa                 ~ Knowledge of tales, legends, proverbs, sayings
11.Tikicchā               ~ Pharmacology (study of medicines)
12. Itihāsa                  ~ Legendary lore, tradition, history
13. Joti                       ~ Knowledge of Vedas, astronomy
14. Māyā                    ~ Magic
15. Chanda                ~ Pāḷi or Sanskrit prosody in terms of syllables
16. Ketu                     ~ Diplomacy
17. Manta                  ~ Art of chanting incantations
18. Sadda                   ~ Grammar, rules for forming words into sentences

*     Ten kinds of Myantnar traditional Arts (Pan-se-myo)

1. Pan-htain                     ~ Goldsmith, silversmith, art of making interns in gold or silver
2. Pan-bai                        ~ Black smith
3. Pan-tin                         ~ Art of making items cast or wrought from bronze, copper or brass
4. Pan-pu                         ~ Art of carving wood or ivory[1]
5. Pan-poot                      ~ Craft of turner; turnery
6. Pan-chee                     ~ Art of painting, drawing pictures
7. Pan-yoon                     ~ Art of making lacquer[2] ware
8. Pan-taw                       ~ Art of making decorative work in relief with stucco[3]
9. Pan-tamaw                  ~ Art of stone sculpture
10. Pan-yan&Pan-ywe   ~ Craft of a mason; masonry and Art of lapidary

*     Two kinds of Handicraft

      a. Agārika-sippa                         ~ Lay handicraft such as goldsmith, painting etc.
      b. Anāgārika-sippa                    ~ Monastic handicraft such as sewing/ stiching of robes, baking the lid of earthern bowls, etc.

*     The difference between the two blessings

      a. Bahusacca          ~ This especially is related to the knowledge on Art such as literary and intellectual knowledge.
      b. Sippa                   ~ This especially is related to the knowledge on Science such as Physics, Chemistry, Biology and all handicrafts and industrial work

*  The 9th Blessing

*     "Susikkhita-Vinaya" Good learning in moral discipline

"Susikkhita"     à Su-well, sikkhita-learned. This word covers learning, comprehension, obedience and practice.
"Vinaya"           àmeans moral discipline, moral rules, and moral conducts.

*     Two kinds of Discipline Morality

1. Agariya-vinaya           ~ lay discipline
2. Anagariya-vinaya      ~ monastic discipline
Monastic Discipline - It includes in brief 227 Vinaya rules as defined in the Pātimokkha (a collection of monastic rules), and in detail ninety-one thousand million (91,805,036,000)rules as coming from the five Vinaya Books which are included in the Vinaya-Pitaka.

*     Lay Discipline

~ Abstinence from ten types of evil conducts
~ Performance of social duties towards parents, teachers, etc.
~ Observance of the civic rules
~ Obedience of the state/ country law

*     Four kinds of Morality Virtue

                  1. Pātimokkhasaṃvara-sīla         ~ Observance of the Monastic Rules (by means of faith/ Saddhā)
                  2. Indriyasaṃvara-sīla                 ~ Restraint of six sense-faculties (by means of mindfulness/ Sati)
                  3. Ājīvapārisuddhi-sīla                ~ Purification of Livelihood (by means of effort/ Viriya)
                  4. Paccayasannissita-sīla             ~ Wise contemplation of four requisites (by means of wisdom/ Pañña)
*Path of Purification PP16-17

*     Two kinds of Moral Conduct (Do's and Don'ts)

1.Cāritta-Vinaya             ~ Keeping, observing (Do's)
2. Vāritta-Vinaya           ~ Avoiding, abstaining (Don't's)

*      Ten types of Evil Wrong Conducts (Duccarita) "Dasa-akusala-kammapatha"

3 Bodily Actions
1. Pāṇātipāta                              ~ Killing of living beings
2. Adinnādāna                           ~ Stealing of others' property
3. Kamesu-micchācāra            ~ Committing sexual misconduct
4 Verbal Actions
4. Musāvāda                              ~ Telling lies, lying
5. Pisuṇāvācā                            ~ Slandering, gossiping[4], backbiting[5]
6. Pharusāvācā                          ~ Rude or harsh speech
7. Samphappalāpa                    ~ Vain/ frivolous talks
3 Mental Actions
8. Abhijjhā                                 ~ Covetousness
9. Byāpāda                                 ~ ill-will or hatred
10. Micchādiṭṭhi                       ~ False/ Wrong View
Among these ten,
~     the 1st ,6th and 9th     ~arise out of hatred/ dosa generally,
~     the 3rd ,8th and 10th   ~arise out of greed/ lobha generally,
~     the 2nd, 4th, 5th and 7th~arise out of either lobha or dosa.

*  The 10th Blessing

*     "Subhāsita -Vācā" Having well-spoken words

~ To speak words which are fruitful both in this and next existence
~ To speak good, true, heneficial/ fruitful and pleasant words
~ To preach the Dhamma is also included in this blessing.

*     Four constituents of Words

1. Words should be well-spoken, and innocent.
2. Words should he righteously spoken, and create unity among people.
3. Words should be pleasant, and free of rudeness.
4. Words should he free of lying, and true.

*     Four kinds of Unwholesome Verbal Actions

l. Musāvādā                    ~ False speech, falsehood
2. Pisuṇavācā                  ~ Backbiting, slanding, gossiping
3. Pharusavācā               ~ Rude or harsh speech
4. Samphappalāpa          ~ Vain or frivolous talk

*     Six kinds of Words

1. A word which is true, fruitful, pleasant
2. A word which is true, fruitful, but unpleasant
3. A word which is true, not fruitful yet pleasant
4. A word which is true, not fruitful, unpleasant
5. A word which is neither true, nor fruitful, yet pleasant
6. A word which is neither true, nor fruitful, unpleasant
*M-11, 57, MA-11, 77
*N.B* Among these six words, only the first two should he spoken and the last four should be avoided because they are not Subhāsitavāca (well-spoken words), and the first is the best and the last one is the worst.

*     Musāvāda (Falsehood)

~ Words which turn the truth into untruth
~ Words which turn the untruth into truth
~ Words which side with the unlawful acts
~ Words which stand for worong courses of action

*     Pisuṇāvācā (Backbiting)

~ Words which cause dissension/ disunity among friends
~ Words which cause hatred among one another
~ Words which destroy love/ affection of two friends Words which describe ill of others

*     Pharusāvācā (Harsh speech)

~ Words which are obscene
~ Words which are unworthy of listening
~ Words which are rude
~ Words which are unpolite

*     Samphappalāpa (Vain talk)

~ Words which give no moral lessons
~ Words which are meaningless/ senseless, and fruitless

*  The 11th, 12th, 13thATTENTION

*  The 11th Blessing

*     "Mātāpitu-Upaṭṭhāna" Attention to one's parents

"Mātā-Pitu" Mother and Father or Parents

*     "Upaṭṭhāna"

      l. To support adequately
      2. To look after properly
      3. To wait on/ attend to patiently
      4. To render proper service to

*     Two kinds of Service towards parents

1. Ordinary service
(a) to provide parents with food and water for drinking, bathing and washing
(b) to provide lodging,clothing,medicine for them
(c) to massage, bathe, anoint them with oil, wash their clothes, etc
2. Special service
(a) to establish parents in the firm faith, in morality, generosity, and wisdom
(b) to let them be ordained and look after them

*     Comparison of the qualities of parents

If compared to the qualities of parents
1. This great earth is like a bamboo-leaf.
2. The highest mount Meru is like a newly springing cow-horn.
3. The huge universe is like a little needle case.
4. The vast ocean is like a tiny rain-drop.

*     Four titles of parents

They deserve the title of
1. Brahma - Because they extend the four kinds of Divine States (Brahmavihāra), that is, loving­kindness (Metta), compassion (Karuṇā), sympathetic joy (Muditā) and equanimity (Upekkhā).
2. Chief Deity - because they desire the benefits of their children.
3. The First Teacher - because they teach the children at home before they are mature enough to go to schools, how to behave, how to speak and how to think.
4. The Worthy Recipient/ Donee - because they render a lot to their children, by providing food, clothes, lodging, medicine, education, instructions, etc.

*     Five Duties of Children towards their parents

1. To provide them with food
2. To perform their obligations
3. To be worthy of inheritence
4. To share merits after their death and
5. To protect/ safeguard one's clan or lineage

*     Greatness of the qualities of parents

"Monks, one can never repay these two persons, that is, Mother and Father.
(a) Even if one should carry them on his shoulder for a hundred years, serving them by anointing with unguents, kneading, bathing and rubbing their limbs, and they should even void their exrements upon him and
(b) even if one should establish them in supreme authority of a universal monarch, not even thus could he repay his parents.
However, monks, whosoever could establish his unbelieveing parents in the faith, in morality, in liberality, and in wisdom. Such a one, by doing so, does repay what is due to his parents."

*  The 12th Blessing

*     "Puttadāra-Saṅgaha" Support of one's spouse and children

      ~ To earn money/ livelihood and support wife
      ~ To look after and bring up children

*     Fourfold Treatment Support (Saṅgaha)

      1. Dāna                            ~ Offering, generosity, liberality
      2. Peyyavajja                   ~ Exchange of pleasant words/ speech
      3. Atthcariya                   ~ Practice of others' benefits/ welfare
      4. Samaṇattata                ~ Sociability or Impartiality

*     Four persons revered respected by Sakka (King of Deities)

1. One who does meritorious deeds
2. One who observes precepts
3. One who takes refuge in the Triple Gem
4. One who righteously supports one's wife and children

*     Three kinds of son

1. Atijāta        Superior son        ~ One who excels his parents in moral conducts
2. Anujāta      Medium son        ~ One who equals his parents in moral conducts
3. Avajāta      Inferior son         ~ One who does not catch up his parents in conducts

*     Four kinds of sons

1. One who dies in conception
2. One who dies after birth
3. One who is depraved
4. A distinguished/ outstanding son

*     Seven kinds of wife

1. Vadhakasamā             ~A murderous/ slayer wife
2. Corīsamā                     ~A thievish wife
3. Ayyāsamā                    ~A domineering wife
4. Mātāsamā                    ~A motherly wife
5. Bhaginīsamā               ~A sisterly wife
6. Sakhīsamā                   ~A friendly wife
7. Dāsīsamā                     ~A slavish/ handmaid wife.
Of them, the first three are bad, and the last four are good wives.

*  The 13th Blessing

*     "Anākula-Kammanta" Performance of Unconflicting/ Unconfused Actions

Ākula (adj)             ~ entangled, confused, conflicting that destroys welfare/ development
Anākula(adj)          ~ unconfused, unconflicting, pure, clean (business)

*     Eight kinds of Akula (Confusion/ Conflict)

1. Kālātikkamana                 ~ to waste the time, not to respect the time
2. Alasatā                              ~ indolence, laziness
3. Appatirupa-karaṇa          ~ performance of inappropriate things
4. Sithila-karaṇa                   ~ heedlessness/ disrespect of work
5. Byāsaniyatā                      ~ wastage, loss, destruction
6. Asati                                  ~ carelessness, negligence
7. Asuci-karaṇa                    ~ performance of impure bodily and verbal actions
8. Anisammakārī                  ~ injudicious/ thoughtless action/ performance

*     Five kinds of Inconfused (Clean/ Pure Performance)

1. To know the appropriate/ proper/ right time, to respect time
2. To performe apppropriately
3. To performe without indolence
4. To performe with great exertion
5. Not to cause damage/ ruin to one's business/work

*     Unconfused Occupations

      1. Agriculture, cultivation, and industry
      2. Cattle-raising/ breeding
      3. Trading which are free from unwholesome states

*     Four factors of Success/ Accomplishment

      1. Uṭṭhāna-sampadā                   ~ Endowment with energy
      2. Ārakkha-sampadā                 ~ Endowment with safe-guarding
      3. Kalyāṇamitta-sampadā         ~ Endowment with good friends
      4. Samajīvita-sampadā              ~ Endowment with balance of incomes

*     Six Defects in Commerce

1. Disunity
2. Lack of investment
3. Dishonesty
4. Lack of confidence among members
5. Narrow-mindedness
6. Lack of perseverance

*     Four kinds of Happiness accrued from this Blessing

      1. Atthi-sukha                 ~ Happiness at the thought of possession
      2. Bhoga-sukha              ~ Happiness through consumption
      3. Ānaṇya-sukha            ~ Happiness because of debtlessness
      4. Anavajja-sukha          ~ Happiness because of innocence.

*     Five Ways to Prosperity

      1. Proper thinking
      2. Frugality (to be economical)
      3. Vigilance/ awakeness
      4. Diligence
      5. Steady perseverance

*     Conflicting/Confused Performances/Actions

      ~ distillation, trafficking in opium and heroin
      ~ blackmarketing, cheating, stealing, robbing, etc.
    ~ dishonest trading/ dealing
      ~ indulgence in drinking intoxicants, gambling, playing cards, etc.
    ~ indulgence in excessive conforts/ luxuries.

*  The 14th, 15th,16th,17thOBSERVANCE

*  The 14th Blessing

*     "Dāna" Offering/ Giving/ Charity/ Generosity/ Liberality

*     Two kinds of Offerings

1. Āmisa-dāna                ~ Giving of material things, such as, food, drinks etc.
2. Dhamma-dāna            ~ Giving of instructions, teachings, knowledge

*     Another two kinds

1. Vatthu-dāna                ~ material offering
2. Cetanā-dāna               ~ pure volition with one offers.

*     Ten kinds of Materials for Offering

1. Annaṃ                         ~ food
2. Pānaṃ                          ~ drinks
3. Vatthaṃ                      ~ clothes
4. Yanaṃ                         ~ vehicles
5. Mālā                             ~ garlands
6. Gandho                        ~ scents
7. Vilepanaṃ                  ~ perfumes
8. Seyya                           ~ seats, beds, chairs
9. Āvasatho                     ~ lodging
10. Padīpeyyam              ~ fire, light

*     Two kinds of Giving (in terms of mentality)

1. Pure Giving       ~ Giving associated with knowledge through compassion loving-kindness, wishing others' welfare
2. Impure Giving    ~ Giving through craving, hatred, fear, delusion without knowledge

*     Five kinds pf False Dāna Offering

1. Majja-dāna           ~Offering of intoxicants, alcoholic drinks
2. Samajja-dāna        ~Offering of entertainments, such as, plays, dancing, etc.
3. Itthi-dāna              ~ Offering of women, girls for sexual purpose
4. Usabha-dāna         ~Offering of bulls for hybridization/ breeding
5. Citta-kamma         ~Offering of obscene pictures, paintings which could arouse passion/ lust

*     Five kinds of Praiseworthy Offering (Sappurisa-dāna) A-11,152

1. Saddhā-Dāna              ~Offering associated with faith in kamma
2. Sakkacca-Dāna          ~Respectful offering
3. Kāla-Dāna                   ~Timely/ Opportune offering
4. Anuggaha-Dāna         ~Offering as a support or honour
5. Anupahacca-Dāna     ~Offering without affection, oneself and others

*     The Powers of Dāna

1. It tames the untamed.
2. It accomplishes everything.
3. It attracts others to one's side.
4. It pacifies the arrogant.

*     Five Advantages of Dāna

1. It wins the affection, respect of others.
2. One's reputation spreads abroad.
3. Virtuous persons will frequent oneself
4. One can enter any assembly with confidence.
5. One will be reborn in the divine world after death.

*     The Effectiveness of Dāna

1. It is a ladder to climb up the divine world.
2. It is the packet of provisions for the long journey of Saṃsāra.
3. It is the direct way to a good destination.
4. It is the support to attain Magga, Phala and Nibbāna.

*     Difference between Pūjā and Dāna

Pūjā          ~Offering with reference to the recipient's attributes.
Dāna         ~Offering in order to attain Nibbāna.


*  The 15th Blessing

*     "Dhamma-Cariya" The practice of the Dhamma

*     The practice of the Dhamma:

            ~Ten types of good conduct (Dasa-Sucarita) or

            ~Ten courses of wholesome action (Dasa-Kusala-Kammapatha)
3 Wholesome Bodily Actions (Kusala-Kāya-kamma)
4 Wholesome Mental Actions (kusala-vacī-kamma)
3 Wholesome Menial Acttons (Kusala-mano-kamma)
*N.B* If these ten things are reversed, it will become Ten types of bad/evil conduct (Dasa-Duccarita) or Ten courses of unwholesome action (Dasa-akusala-kammapatha)
      If these ten types are multiplied by the following four, they will be 40 in number­
(a) done by one (b) suggested by one (c) encouraged/ praised by one (d) agreed/ permitted by one. The ten courses of unwholesome action lead to four unhappy states (Apāya), whereas the ten courses of wholesome action lead to the happy states and Nibbāna.

*     Four Advantages of practising the Dhamma

1. To be respected by others
2. To have confidence in entering the assemblies
3. No loss/ decrease of wealth
4. To enjoy rightful opportunity

*     Five Advantages of Morality

1. Development of wealth
2. Good reputation
3. Confidence in entering the assemblies
4. Death without bewilderment
5. Rebirth in the happy states after death

*     Four dangers because of negligence of Dhammacariya

1. Attānuvāda ~Misery of self-accusation
2. Parānuvāda ~Misery of others' accusation
3. Daṇḍa ~Misery of punishment
4. Duggati ~Misery of rebirth in the unhappy states

*  The 16th Blessing

*     "Ñātaka-Saṅgaha" Support of relatives, relations

Ñāti                ~relatives, relations, inner people, inmates, household members
Saṅgaha         ~"To support" means to supply with clothes, food, lodging, medicine in case of necessity and with fourfold kind treatment/ support (ref. p17)

*     Seven Former Preceding Generation of Relatives (Myanmar tradition)

1st G~Bha (Father)
2ndG~Bho (Grand-father)
3rdG~Bhay (Great-grandfather)

*     Seven Later/ Succeeding/ Following  Generation of Relatives

1stG ~Thā (Son)
2ndG ~Myay (Grand -son)
3rdG ~Myit (Great -grandson)
4thG ~Tee
5thG ~Toot
6thG ~Kyoot
7thG ~Kyoot-sat

*     Genuine Real Relatives

l.  One who helps/ supports through bodily loving-kindness
2. One who helps/ supports through verbal loving-kindness
3. One who helps/ supports through mental loving-kindness

*     False/ Sham Relatives

l.  One who helps/ supports not through toddy loving-kindness
2. One who helps/ supports not through verbal loving-kindness
3. One who helps/ supports not through mental loving-kindness

*     Three Classes of Relatives

1. Rich ones
2. Medium (debtless) ones
3. Poor ones

*  The 17thBlessing

*     "Anavajja-Kamma" Performance of blameless actions

*     Two kinds of Kamma

l.  Sāvajja-Kamma-Blameable/ faulty Action
2. Anavajja-Kamma-Blamless/ innocent Action

*     Vajja -Fault,  taint, defect - Two kinds of Vajja (Faults)

1. Loka-vajja-Secular/worldly fault, punishment, penalty, offence
2. Dhamma-vajja ~Moral fault, unwholsomeness
If one transgresses the first, one will be arrested, imprisoned, punished and even hanged. If one commits the second through greed, false view, conceit, hatred or delusion, one will be cast into the hell by one's own evil kamma.

*     Blameless Actions (Anavajja-Kamma)

~Offering, morality and meditation
~Performance of duties towards parents, elders, etc.
~Homage or respect to the Triple Gem.
~Observance of five/ eight/ nine/ ten precepts
~To contribute money or labour for the welfare of the people.
~To volunteer one's service for the villages or countries.
~To help /build educational institutions, hospitals, etc.
~To help/ construct pagodas, bridges, roads, rest-house, etc.
~To dig wells, ponds for drinking water and bathing water
~To set up water-pots of drinking water for travellers
~To plant trees, gardens, groves for the public use
~All innocent performance, wholesome actions

*     Blameworthy Actions (Sāvajja-Kamma)

~Performances which can harm the people
~Actions which could destroy the welfare of the public
~To destroy the public buildings, vehicles and properties
~Transgression of the laws, traditions of the country
~To obstruct the development/ welfare of the public
~To fell/cut down the trees planted for the public

*     The Difference

*     l. Anākula-Kamma (Unconfused action) ~in the 13thBlessing

This action is uncomplicated with any wrong-doing or demerit, but it has nothing to do with welfare work or social service, it is simply a proper means of livelihoood. It lays emphasis on the nature of the work/ activities with which one is occupied.

*     2. Anavajja-Kamma (Blameless action) ~in this Blessing

This action is mainly associated with welfare and social activities, like building roads and bridges, giving free tuition to the poor and other social work during one's spare time. It stresses the making of Kamma which will not lead to obstacles and hindrances in the future. One could say that here the intention in the mind is more stressed.

[1]ivory (n) (plural ivories)  1 a hard yellowish-white substance like bone that forms the TUSKS (= long teeth) of elephants and some other animals//     2 an object made of ivory// 3 a yellowish-white colour
[2]lacquer {speaker} noun, verb         »              noun //   1a liquid that is used on wood or metal to give it a hard shiny surface//  2 a liquid that is sprayed on the hair so that it stays in place//          » verb     1 to cover sth such as wood or metal with lacquer// 2  to put lacquer on your hair
[3]stucco {speaker}, AmE {speaker} noun: a type of PLASTER that is used for covering ceilings and the outside walls of buildings// »      stuccoed adjective
[4]gossip {speaker}, AmE {speaker} noun, verb
        »      noun
        1      informal talk or stories about other people’s private lives, that may be unkind or not true
        2      a conversation about other people and their private lives
        3      a person who enjoys talking about other people’s private lives
        »      gossipy {speaker}, AmE {speaker} adjective
        »      verb to talk about other people’s private lives, often in an unkind way
[5]backbiting {speaker} noun unpleasant and unkind talk about sb who is not present

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