Mahāmaṅgala-Sutta: Explanation (02) - Buddhism, Philosophy, and Khmer Literature


Buddhism, Philosophy, and Khmer Literature

The teachings of the Buddha are aimed solely at liberating sentient beings from suffering. The Basic Teachings of Buddha which are core to Buddhism are: The Three Universal Truths; The Four Noble Truths; and The Noble Eightfold Path.

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Thursday, June 13, 2019

Mahāmaṅgala-Sutta: Explanation (02)

*  The 18th Blessing

*     "Papa-Āratī" Avoidance of evil thought (from afar)

Pāpa         ~All ten types of Evil Actions (Duccarita)
Akusala    ~States which have defects and produce evil consequences
Āratī         ~To avoid evil mental actions from a distance
~To avoid before the commission of evil actions occurs
~To distract one's mind from evils
~Not to do any evil
~To purify one's mind
~The wise should guard the mind
~The guarded mind brings about happiness
~The mind delights in evil.
~If mind is protected from commission of evil actions, speech and body are already safe and protected.
~To protect the mind from evils means not to allow the occurrence of evils in one's mind.
~Proper effort should he put Forthin order to protect the mind from evils

*     Four kinds of Supreme Efforts

1. To discard/ get rid of evils that have arisen.
2. To prevent the arising of unrisen evils.
3. To bring about the arising of unrisen good.
4. To further/ augment arisen good.

*  The 19th Blessing

Pāpa         ~All ten kinds of Evil Action (Duccarita)
Viratī        ~Especial, extraordinary avoidance

*     Three kinds of Viratī (Avoidance)

(a) Sampatta-viratī               ~Avoidance on facing evils without necessarily observance of moral conducts
(b) Samādāna-viratī             ~Avoidance by observance of moral conducts
(c) Samuccheda-viratī         ~Avoidance through destruction by Maggas

*     Three Viratī-Cetasika (Mental Factors of Avoidance Abstinence)

(a) Sammā-vācā                   ~avoiding four evil verbal actions
(b) Sammā-kammanta         ~avoiding three evil bodily actions
(c) Sammā-ājīva                   ~avoiding all evil verbal & bodily actions

*     Differences

Āratī                                 ~To refrain from evils through Mind
Viratī                                ~To refrain from evils through Body and Word
Dhammacariyā               ~To refrain from evils through customs & traditions
Āratī-Viratī                     ~To refrain from evils through special practice

*     Two kinds of Offences

(a) Loka-Vajja                ~Worldly offences, such as punishment, penalty, etc.
(b) Saṃsāra-Vajja          ~Samsāric offences, such as bad destiÑātions, etc.

*     Ārati-Viratī is also called.

(a) Lokapāla because it prevents people from (doing) evils through moral shame and dread
(b) Devadhamma because it is the factor of becoming three Deities
1. Visuddhi-deva      ~Pure Deva, i.e, the Buddha and Arahants
2. Upapatti-deva       ~ Spontaneous being, such as deities and Brahmas
3. Sammuti-deva      ~A nominal Deva, i.e. kings and rulers

*     Three ways of avoiding evils

~By way of arousing moral shame and dread with respect to (a) oneself (b) one's enviroment (c) the Dhamma.

*  The 20thBlessing

Majja        ~intoxicating,
Pāna          ~drinking,
Samyama ~to refrain from

*     Five kinds of Intoxicating Liquor (Surā)

1.      Piṭṭha-Surā                                  ~intoxicant made of flour (of grain etc)
2.      Pūva-Sura                                    ~intoxicant made of barley meal
3.      ODāna-Surā                                ~intoxicant made of boiled rice
4.      Kiṇṇa-Pakkhitta-Surā                ~intoxicant having yeasts cast into
5.      Sambhāra-Saṃyutta-Surā         ~intoxicant made of a mixture of myrobalan, mustard seed, etc.

*     Five kinds of Fermented Liquor (Meraya)

1.      Pupphāsava                     ~Liquor fermented by flowers of such as, palm and coconut, and Bassia latifolia etc
2.      Phalāsava                         ~Liquor fermented by fruit juice of jack-fruit etc
3.      Madhvāsava                    ~Liquor fermented by grape, wine
4.      Guḷāsava                          ~Liquor fermented by sugar-cane juice
5.      Sambhāra-saṃyutta       ~Liquor fermented by a mixture of fruits &flowers

*     Six disadvantages of taking intoxicants

1. Loss of wealth
2. Outbreak of quarrels, disputes, enmities, hostilities
3. Suffering/ affliction of diseases
4. Bad reputation, loss/ lack of fame
5.  Shamelessness, lack of shame
6. Lack or weakness of intelligence
~Rebirth in the hell after death
~Rebirth as a mad one in the human world and animal kingdom, etc.


*  The 21stBlessing

Dhamma ~Ten Bases of meritorious action
Appamāda ~Vigilance, earnestness, heedfulness, carefulness

*     Ten Bases of meritorious action (Puñña-kiriya-vatthu)

1. Dāna                             ~offering, giving, charity, generosity, liberality
2. Sīla                               ~morality, observance of precepts
3. Bhāvanā                      ~meditation both calm and insight
4. Apacāyana                  ~reverence to elders and holy persons
5.  Veyyāvacca               ~service in wholesome deeds
6. Pattidāna                      ~transference of merit
7. Pattānumodanā           ~rejoicing in other's merit
8. Dhammassavana        ~listening to the Dhamma
9. Dhammadesanā          ~preaching/ teaching the Dhamma
10. Diṭṭhijukamma         ~straightening one's views
Dh. stz-21
Heedfulness is the way to Nibbāna,
Heedlessness is the way to death.
The heedful never die whereas The heedless are as if dead.

*     Five advantages of mindfulness

1. To sleep in happiness or soundly
2. To wake up in happiness
3. Not to dream bad dreams
4. To be looked after by good deities
5. No emission of semen or spermatic fluid

*  The 22ndBlessing

      Gāravameans to respect the respectable persons, to pay attention to them, to honour them;     (a) with polite/ decent bodily action
            (b) with   ................     verbal ........
            (c) with   ...............      mental......

*     Advantages of paying respect

1. To be praised by others in this very life
2. To be reborn in happy states (divine and human worlds)
3. To enjoy happiness in divine and human worlds
4. To be born of a high-class family
5. To attain Nibbāna

*     Ten kinds of Respect (Gārava)

1. Buddha-Gārava                ~respect to the Buddha
2. Dhamma-Gārava              ~........... the Dhamma
3. Sangha-Gārava                 ~......... ..the Sangha
4. Sikkhā-Gārava                  ~........... the training
5. Samādhi-Gārava               ~ ….......the concentration
6. Appamāda-Gārava           ~........... the heedfulness
7. Paṭisandhāra-Gārava       ~........... the friendly conversation
8. Hiri-Gārava                       ~........... the moral shame
9. Ottappa-Gārava                ~........... the moral dread
10. Aññamañña                    ~........... mutuality or mutual respect

*     Three kinds of Respect (Gārava)

l. Attā-Dhipateyya                      ~ respect to oneself
2. Lokā-Dhipateyya                   ~..................others/ the world
3. Dhammā-Dhipateyya            ~…..............the discipline or traditions

*     Twelve persons who dislike to pay respect

l . One who abounds in lust
2. One who abounds in hatred
3. One who abounds in delusion
4. One who abounds in conceit
5. One who does not know gratitude
6. One who is arrogant
7. One who is uncultured
8. A domineering one
9  One who is wicked
10. One who is impoverished /poor
11. One who is greedy/ ambitious
12. One who is engrossed in work

*     Three kinds of beneficial Respect

(1)   Respect to one's parents (2) parents-in-law (3) husband

*  The 23rdBlessing

~to lower oneself irrespective of lineage, clan, caste, wisdom, wealth, complexion, etc.
~to lower oneself without showing conceit and arrogance
~to treat other people with respectful manners, pleasant words
~to lower oneself just like
(a) a cloth for rubbing feet dry
(b) a snake with broken fangs
(c) a bull with broken horns

*     Three kinds of Pride/ Conceit

1. Setta-Māna      ~proud of one's higher/ superior status
2. Sadisa-Māna   ~proud of one's equality with others
3. Hīna-Māna      ~proud of one's inferiority, indifference or unconcern

*     Another three kinds

1. Panīta-Māna          ~the high pride
2. Majjhima-Māna    ~the medium pride
3. Hīna-māna            ~the low pride     '

*     Another three kinds

1. Jāti-māna               ~proud of one's birth
2. Gotta-māna           ~proud of one's clan
3. Issariya-māna       ~proud of one's power/ influence

*     Three kinds of Arrogance or Pride

1. Ārogya-Mada       ~proud of one's health
2. Yobbana-Mada     ~proud of one's youth
3. Jati-Mada              ~proud of one's (high) birth
Causes of Pride:
birth, clan, wealth, wisdom, beauty, relatives, influence, fame, fortune, etc.

*     Difference

Gārava                  ~Respectful volition is stressed, concerning youths
Nivāta                   ~Volition to bring down the pride is stressed, and it is concerned with young and old, high and low.

*  The 24thBlessing

~satisfacton, gratification, fulfilment of one's desire/ wish, delight
~to be easily satisfied with what one has got

*     Three kinds of Contentment

1. Yathālābha-Santuṭṭhī      ~contentment with what one has
2. Yathābala-Santuṭṭhī         ~contentment within one's capacity/ ability (in accordance with one's wealth, earnings)
3. Yathāsāruppa-Santuṭṭhī ~contentment in accordance with one's status or rank

*     Four mainstays of Life

(a) Food (b) Clothing (c) Lodging (d) Medicne
If three Contentments are multiplied by 4 Mainstays of life then there become 12 kinds of Contentment.

*     Three things hard to satisfy

~Fire, Ocean A greedy person

*  The 25thBlessing

~It means thankfulness or gratefulness for having done such as, offering of material things including food, drink, clothes, rendering service including help or support or favour to oneself, at least giving instructions, advice, learning, knowledge contributing to oneself.
      ~One owes gratitude to those who have done for one’s welfare and happiness
~Not only to acknowledge gratitude cotributed to oneself, but also to repay/ return gratitude in any possible way.
~Just only/ merely recalling others’ gratitude is not enough, and not a real blessing. Both acknowledging and repaying gratitude is really a full-fledged blessing
~Gratitude also means any kind of goodness, welfare, kindness or help which others have done upon oneself, saving one’s life, taking care of oneself, giving help in any form, at any place, or at any time

*     Two Rare Persons

1. Pubbakkārī                        ~One who first does any gratitude
2. Kataññuta-Katavedī        ~One who acknowledges and repays gratitude
~One owes gratitude to a person who offers even a mouthful of food, and a cupful of water, or allows a night’s pass at his home, then one would never offend such a grateful person whatsoever.
~One happens to take rest under the shade of a tree, one should not even break its branch at least.
Guṇa (Virtue) belongs to oneself, it is one’s attributes or abilities
Kata (Gratitude) refers to other’s goodness.
~It is easy to receive gratitude, but difficult to offer it.
~Who does not know gratitude is selfish, and one who knows gratitude is selfless and generous.

*  The 26thBlessing

~A1l the Dhamma included in the Suttanta,Vinaya and Abhidhamma Pitakas preached by the Buddha throughout his life-time of 45 years
~10 Dhammas (4 Maggas, 4 Phalas, Nibbāna, Pariyatti)
~ Sappurisa Dhamma- the Dhammas practised by the virtuous ones

*     Seven Dhammas of the Virtuous Ones (Sappurisa Dhamma/Saddhamma)

1. Saddho                   ~faith in the Triple Gem, and in Kamma & its effects.
2. Hirītā                      ~shame in doing unwholesome things
3. Ottappī                   ~dread in doing unwholesome things
4. Bahussuto              ~possession of vast knowledge
5. Āraddha-viriyo     ~Sustained/strong effort
6. Upaṭṭhita sati         ~distinct mindfulness
7. Pannava                 ~Possession of wisdom

*     Seven Virtuous of the Virtuous Ones

1. Dhammaññū         ~cleverness in Pāḷi or moral conduct
2. Atthaññū                ~cleverness in the meaning or consequences
3. Attaññū                  ~cleverness in one’s own affairs
4. Kālaññū                 ~cleverness in the time/ dutation/ condition
5. Mattaññū               ~moderation
6. Parisaññū               ~the nature of the assembly
7. Puggalaññū           ~the nature of persons

*     Seven Treasures of the virtuous persons

1. Saddhā -faith                   4. Ottappa -moral dread            7. Paññā -wisdom
2. Sīla -morality                   5. Suta -knowledge
3. Hīri -moral shame                 6. Cāga -generosity

*     Seven Constituents of the Virtuous Persons

1. Pīya                   ~affection of others
2. Guru                  ~being worthy of other's respect
3. Bhāvanīya         ~vanalytical knowledge
4. Vatta                  ~viability to solve problems
5. Vacanakkhama ~patience for accusations
6. Gambhīra          ~ability to preach the profound Dhamma
7. Nocāthāna        ~non-suggestion for doing inproper actions

*     Five advantages of hearing the Dhamma

1  To hear what one has never heard
2. To stengthen ones knowledge through repeated hearing
3. To remove one's doubts
4. Rectification of one's belief
5. Purification/Peace of mind

*     Three main purpose of hearing the Dhamma

1. Purification of mind
2. Removal of suffering and establishment of peace of mind
3. Acquisition of merits and knowledge

*  The 27thBlessing

*     Not to get angry on being

(a) abused/reviled.
(b) ill treated
(c) attacked/assailed
(d) offended
~It is an essence as, it is hard to practise, and beneficial to the multitude.
~Patience       ~to excuse/forgive/pardon without taking any offence
                        ~to bear the suffering from eating, clothing, lodging without any complaint
                        ~to hear criticism of others without retort or challenge
                        ~to control/ contain/ restrain one's temper
                        ~to show forbearance.generositv.perseverance.braverv
                        ~to he patient to cold and heat (weather)

*     Five advantages of Patience

1. Affection of others
2. No quarrels nor disputes with others
3. Lack of faults or defects
4. Death without delusion/ perplexity/ bewilderment
5.Rebirth in the happy/ blissful states/ planes

*     Five disadvantages of Non-patience

1. Hatred/ contempt/ malignity of others
2. Many quarrels and disputes
3. Abundance of faults or detects
4. Death with delusion/ perplexity/ bewilderment
5. Rebirth in the unhappy/ miserable worlds, states

*     Two kinds of Khantī

1. Diṭṭhi-nijjhāna-Khantī     ~compliance/ agreement with others' performances
2. Samādāna-Khantī             ~tolerance of others' ill-treatment

*     Another two kinds of Khantī

1. Balava-Khantī            ~tolerance of a powerful one upon the weak
2. Dubbala-Khantī          ~tolerance of a weak one towards the powerful

*     Another two kinds of Khantī

1. Titikkhā-Khantī                     ~tolerance upon the external enemies
2. Adhivasana-Khantī   ~tolerance upon the internal enemies

*  The 28thBlessing

~Not to retort the parents & elders who teach, instruct or advice
~To accept their teaching,instruction or advice with delight
~To accept the words of those who help/support one is not a real obedience,but to accept the words of those who instruct one in accordance with the Dhamma is a real one
~To deem those who instruct with critical remarks as treasure-offerers

*     Two kinds of persons

1. Suvaca ~An obedient person, i.e, one who is easy to instruct or advise, a corrigible one, and one who easily admits one's faults if there are any.
2. Dubbaca
~A disobedient person, i.e, one who is very difficult to instruct or advise, an incorrigable and one who does not admit his faults or defects even if there are any.
~A disobedient person can never become (a) a good man or a man possessed of morality or (b) a learned man.

*     Two kinds of Instruction

1. Fault-finding instruction:      in order to prevent from wrong doing
2. Non-fault-finding instruction           in order to enlighten or to impart knowledge

*     Five contituents of Instruction

1. Patirūpa                       ~to be appropriate/suitable
2. Sacca                            ~to be true
3. Sukhuma                     ~to be gentle
4. Hita                              ~to be related to welfare
5. Metta-Pubbaṅgama    ~to keep loving-kindness as a chief factor

*     Disadvantages of negligence of this Blessing

a.To experience suffering through improper or unusual faults
b.To become an inefficient or incapable person who will have no opportunity of development

*  The 29thBlessing

~One who deserves honour, religious or holy person, a monk
~Arahants who have got rid of defilements
~Those who have pacified defilements
~Those who strive for the destruction of defilements

*     Four kinds of Samaṇa

1. Sotāpanna       ~a stream-winner
2. Sakadāgāmi     ~a once-returner
3. Anāgāmi          ~a non-returner
4. Arahanta          ~an Arahant
Dassana                     ~not only seeing but service to/on them, remembering or hearing them, to see their virtues through one's wisdom.
Samaṇa-Dassana      ~service, seeing remembrance of monks, listening to them or their Dhamma, listening to talk about them are blessing.

*     Advantages of seeing Monks

a. Opportunity of offering
b. Opportunity of worshipping
c. Opportunity of seeing
d. Opportunity of listening

*     Two kinds of Seeing

a. Maṃsa-cakkhu     ~to see with flesh eyes (not real seeing)
b. Ñāṇa-cakkhu        ~to see with/ through wisdom-eyes, i.e., to see their virtues (a real seeing)
~if one is not possessed of a noble insight/ cannot be called a right seer or observer.

*     22 Virtues of the Worldling-Monks (Puthujjana-Bhikkhu)

In the eyes of devotees, they seem:
1. to be the noble ones who strive for Arahantship
2. to be Arahants
3. to possess the same morality with the noble ones
4. to have the same dwelling with the noble ones
5. to have the same sense-faculties with the noble ones
6. to have the same sufferings with the noble ones
7. to have the same patience with the noble ones
8. to resort to solitude
9. to delight in solitude
10. to dwell in solitude
11. to have moral shame in evil actions
12. to have moral dread in evil actions
13. to exert an effort in the virtuous practices
14. non-heedlessness in wholesome deeds
15. to stay away from sensual pleasures
16. to learn Pali scriptures
17. to learn the Commentaries
18. to have delight in morality, concentration and wisdom
19. lack of passion
20. to observe the disciplinary rules
21. to don/wear the yellow robes
22. to shave heads

*  The 30thBlessing

~Kālena: timely, at an opportune or suitable time
1.      all the Dhamma included in the Suttanta, Vinaya and Abhidhamma Pitakas
2.      all conditions of mundane and supramundane development
~Sākacchā: mutual discustium, discussing together

*     Beneficial Discussion

~discussion that develops/enhance good mood, respect to the Dhamma, effort, mindfulness, concentration and wisdom.
~Fruitless Discussion ~hot discussions such as discussion that arouses quarrels, disputes or hostilities are not advisable.

*     Two means of Dhamma-sākacchā

1. To go to the preacher in order to listen to the Dhamma.
2. To invite the preacher to come to one's home or residence

*     Two kinds of Response

1.      Either to talk about the fruitful Dhamma.
2.      To keep silent if the subject is fruitless

*     Disadvantages of negligence of this blessing

1. To waste time in talking frivolous talk.
2. To keep on looking for talking partners.
3. To commit mistakes through talkativeness.
4. To miss one's business

*     Five kinds of Questions

1.      Adiṭṭhacodanā-pucchā        ~asking because of non-understanding
2.      DiṭṭhasaṃsanDāna-pucchā ~asking for the sake of discussion
3.      Vimaticchedanā-pucchā      ~asking for expelling one's doubts
4.      Kathetukamyatā-pucchā     ~asking for introducing the answer
5.      Anumati-pucchā                   ~asking for the cmpliance with oneself

*  The 31stBlessing

~ restraint including mindfulness and effort
~ to control six sense-faculties, namely,
1. Cakkhundriya (eye-faculty)
2. Sotindriya (ear-faculty)
3. Ghānindriya (nose-faculty)
4. Jivhindriya (tongue-faculty)
5. Kāyindriya (body-faculty)
6. Manindriya (mind-faculty)
~ to observe precepts on sabbath days, telling rosary beads, and to practice both calm and insight meditation in order to keep away from sensual pleasures.
~ to refrain from.conforts, luxuries which increase craving, lust, etc.
~ to be economical does not mean Tapa, but to strive for getting rid of sensual pleasures and to observe preecepts in order to stay away from unwholesome states.

*     Three kinds of Tapa

1. Kāmasukhallika-nuyoga       ~Self-indulgence in sensual pleasures
2. Attakilamatha-nuyoga           ~Self-morification
3. Majjhima-paṭipadā                ~The Middle Path

*  32nd Blessing

*     Four kinds of Noble Practice (Brahmacariya)

1. Methuna-virati-Brahmacariya   ~to refrain from sexual intercourse
2. Samaṇa-Brahmacariya                ~the ascetic practice of extinguishing defilements
3. Sāsana-Brahmacariya                  ~to practise according to the Teaching
4. Magga-Brahmacariya                  ~practice of the Noble Path.
~     Tapa (Self-restraint) is conducive to Brahmacariya(Noble Practice)
~     Brahmacariya is conducive to Ariyasacca-dassana (Realization of the Noble Truths)

*     Three kinds of Training (Sikkhā)

1. Adhi-Sīla-Sikkhā       ~training in the higher morality (+Tapa)
2. Adhi-Citta-Sikkhā      ~training in the higher mentality (+Brahmacariya)
3. Adhi-Panna-Sikkhā   ~training in the higher wisdom (+Ariyasacca-Dassana)
Brahmacariya is symbolized by
(a) Dāna (offering)
(b)Veyyāvacca (Service to the elders, parents,etc.)
(c) Observance of precepts, four Sublime States, Eightfold Noble Paths
(d) Avoidance of sexual intercourse (Sallekha-Sutta)

*  The 33rdBlessing

Ariyasacca ~ the Truth which could be realized by the noble persons

*     Four kinds of Ariyasacca (Noble Truths)

1. Dukkha-Sacca ~The Truth of Suffering
2. Samudaya-Sacca ~The Truth of the Origin of Suffering
3. Nirodha-Sacca ~The Truth of the Cessation of Suffering
4. Magga-Sacca ~The Truth of the Way to the Cessation of Suffering

*     Four modes of Realization of the Noble Truths

1. Paṭivedha-kicca          ~the act of realizing (1st Noble Truth)
2. Pahāna-kicca              ~the act of removing/ giving up (2nd -)
3. Sacchikiriya-kicca     ~the act of attaining (3rd -)
4. Bhāvanā-kicca            ~the act of developing (4th-)

*     Four means of Realization of the Noble Truths by common people

1. Anubhodha-ñāṇa       ~wisdom through studying Scripture
2. Sutamaya-ñāṇa           ~wisdom through learning or hearing
3. Cintāmaya-ñāṇa         ~wisdom through reasoning/thinking
4. Anumāna-ñāṇa           ~wisdom through infering

*     The Eightfold Noble Path (Aṭṭhaṅgika-Ariyamagga)

Wisdom group (Paññā)
1.Sammā-Diṭṭhi              ~right view/understanding
2. Sammā-saṅkappa       ~right thought
Morality group (Sīla)
3. Sammā-vaca               ~right speech
4. Sammā-kammanta     ~right action
5. Sammā-ājīva               ~right livelihood
Concentration group (Samādhi)
6. Sammā-vāyama          ~right effort
7. Sammā-sati                 ~right mindfulness
8. Sammā-samadhi         ~right concentration

*     Advantages of realization of the Four Noble Truths

To understand actually (that),
a. Craving for existence is conducive to round of existences,
b. as long as Craving does not cease, there is no cessation of Suffering,
c. there are no creators such as gods or deities except Craving,
d. the real happiness can be achieved only by the cessation of Craving.

*  The 34thBlessing

Nibbāna ~A supramundane or transcendental state, having the characteristic of sublime peace attained by the cessation of Craving which is the chief cause of all Suffering.

33rd Blessing ~To realize the Asaṅkhata-Nibbāna (Unconditioned) in the Nirodha-Sacca by means of Magga (the Noble Path)
34thBlessing ~To realize the Arahanta-phala-citta which is so-called Nibbāna by means of Arahanta-phala-ñāṇa and Pacca-vekkhana-ñāṇa (Recollecting Wisdom). This indicates the attainment of Arahantship, the highest stage in life.

*     Characteristics of Nibbāna

Nibbāna (is)
a. supramundane (Lokuttara),
b. realized by wisdom of the four Noble Paths,
c. an object of Paths and Fruits,
d. "Ni" a departure from "Vāna" cord-like craving,
e. an objective state (Padaṃ),
f. deathless (Accutaṃ,Amataṃ)
g. absolutely endless (Accantaṃ),
h. non-conditioned (Asaṅkhataṃ), and
i. incomparable (Anuttaraṃ)

*     Two kinds of Nibbāna

1. Saupādisesa-Nibbāna-Dhātu ~The element of Nibbāna with the substrata remaining. It is also called Kilesa-Nibbāna because all the defilements are annihilated here. In other words, it is called Diṭṭhadhammika-Nibbāna because it could be realized in this life.
2  Anupādisesa-Nibbāna-Dhātu ~The element of Nibbāna without the substrata remaining. It is also called Khandha-Nibbāna because all Five Aggregates dissolve here. In other words, it is called Saṃparāyika-Nibbāna because it is to be experienced after death.

*     Three kinds of Nibbāna

1. Suññataṃ              ~Void of greed, hatred and delusion
2. Animittaṃ             ~Signless
3.Appaṇihitaṃ          ~Longing-free

*  The 35thBlessing

Akampana (unshakable)
~Not to be affected either by good or bad aspects of life, i.e., not to be overjoyed while meeting with gain, fame, etc., nor to be sorrowful/grieved when facing the loss, shame, bleme, etc.

*     Eight kinds of Noble persons

1. Sotāpatti-Magga-ṬṬhāna           ~One who attains the Path of Stream-entry
2. Sotāpatti-Phala-ṬṬhāna              ~One who attains the Fruition of Stream-enty
3. Sakadāgāmi-Magga-ṬṬhāna      ~One who attains the Path of Once-returning
4. Sakadāgāmi-Phala-ṬṬhāna        ~One who attains the Fruition of Once-returning
5. Anāgāmi-Magga-ṬṬhāna           ~One who attains the Path of Non-returning
6. Anāgāmi-Phala-ṬṬhāna             ~One who attains the Fruition of Non-returning
7. Arahatta-Magga-ṬṬhāna            ~One who attains the Path of Worthiness
8. Arahatta-Phala-ṬṬhāna              ~One who attains the Fruition of Worthiness
      The first seven persons are called Sekkha (persons under training) as they are striving/ practising for the attainment of Arahantship, the highest stage of nobility. The last one is called Asekkha (persons who has been already trained and not necessary to be trained any more) as he has finished his training and practised that is to be practised, and Arahanta as he is worthy of offerings and honours of human and divine beings.

*     Eight kinds of Vicissitudes (Lokadhamma)

*Good aspects (niṭṭha)                                                      *Bad aspects (aniṭṭha)
1. Lābho -gain                                                                       2. Alābho -loss
3.Yaso -fame, lots of followers                                          4. Ayaso -shame, lack of followers
5. Pasaṃsā -praise                                                               6. Nindā -blame
7. Sukhaṃ -happiness                                                         8. Dukkhaṃ -misery, suffering

*  The 36thBlessing

~Lack of sorrow because of voidness of defilements & cankers
~To remain unaffected by grief on meeting with the loss of one's rrelatives, loss of wealth, etc.
~Soko (worry) covers Parideva (Lamentation), Dukkha (Pain), Domanassa (Grief), Upāyāsa (Distress) as well.

*     Five kinds of Sorrow

1. Ñāti-Byasana              ~Loss of kin/relatives
2. Bhoga-Byasana          ~Loss of wealth/means
3. Roga-Byasana            ~Loss/Deterioration of health
4. Sīla-Byasana               ~Breach of morality
5. Diṭṭhi-Byasana            ~Dissolution of noble concepts

*     Twenty-five kinds of Dangers

1-5.The same with the list of Sorrow
6. Tyrants
13. whirlpools
20. Cowardice
7. Thieves
14. Crocodiles
21. Reliance of others
8. Enemies
15. Leviathans
22. Conception
9. Famine
16. Repentance
23. Ageing
10. Fire
17. Accusation
24. Ailing/Disease
11. Flood
18. Punishment
25. Death
12. Waves
19. Downfall

*  The 37thBlessing

*     Three kinds of Impurities

l. Lobha -greed
2. Dosa -hatred
3. Moha –delusion

*  The 38thBlessing

~Absence of danger of four Bonds (Yoga)
~It is called Yoga because it binds beings to get involved in Saṃsāra

*     Four kinds of Bonds (Yoga)

1. Kāmayoga             ~Attachment to sensual pleasures
2. Bhavayoga            ~Attachment to the existences
3. Diṭṭhiyoga             ~Attachment to false views
4.Avijjāyoga              ~Attachment to ignorance
      Dangers arise because of these Four Bonds. If there are no such Bonds there will be no dangers at all.

*     Seven methods to get rid of Cankers (Sabbāsava-Sutta, M-I, 8-15)

1. By Vision (Dassana)
      Such evils, which are 16 kinds of Doubts and 6 kinds of Wrong Views occur to a worldling (Puthujjana) who wiews things unwisely. Such a person will not be free from rebirth, ageing, death, grief, lamentation, pain, destress and despair. These Doubts and Wrong Views could be got rid of by wise Vision.

2. By Control (Saṃvara)
      Having reflected wisely, a monk could control the six sense organs, that are eye, ear, nose, tongue, body and mind, and thus gets rid of the cankers.

3. By Use/Consumption (Paṭisevana)
      Having reflected wisely, a monk uses/consumes four requisites, namely, robes, food,  lodging and medicine, and thus gets rid of the cankers.

4. By Endurance (Adhivāsanā)
a) Having reflected wisely, a monk bears/endures cold, heat, hunger, thirst, bite of gadflies, mosquitoes; harsh speech, acute pain, etc., and thus gets rid of the cankers.

5. By Avoidance (Parivajjana)
      Having reflected wisely, a monk avoids fierce animals, dangerous places and evil companions, and thus gets rid of the cankers

6. By Elimination (Vinodana)
      Having reflected wisely, a monk eliminates three kinds of evil thoughts, namely,
a. Kāmavitakka               ~thought of sense-pleasures,
b. Byāpādavitakka         ~malevolent thought,and
c. Vihimsavitakka          ~thought of harming others, and thus gets rid of the cankers.

7. By Development (Bhāvanā)
      Having reflected wisely, a monk develops the seven Awakening Factors (Saṃbhojjhaṅga), that is,
1. Mindfulness (Sati)
2. Wisdom (Dhamma-vicaya)
3. Energy (Vīriya)
4. Rapture (Pīti)
5. Tranquility (Passaddhi)
6. Concentration (Samādhi)
7. Equanimity (Upekkhā)

Thus there are seven ways to get rid of Evils or Cankers.

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