The Discourse on the Amount of Savings - Buddhism, Philosophy, and Khmer Literature


Buddhism, Philosophy, and Khmer Literature

The teachings of the Buddha are aimed solely at liberating sentient beings from suffering. The Basic Teachings of Buddha which are core to Buddhism are: The Three Universal Truths; The Four Noble Truths; and The Noble Eightfold Path.

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Thursday, June 13, 2019

The Discourse on the Amount of Savings

The Discourse on the Amount of Savings

1.         A man stores his savings in a deep pit close to water (thinking:)
            When a duty or need has arisen it will be there to help me,
2.         To free me from a king if slandered, or from molestation from a thief,
            Or from a debt, or famine, or accidents. For this kind of help,
            savings are stored up in the world.
3.         Although it is well stored in a deep pit, close to water,
            Still, it cannot help him in all things on every occasion,
4.          Or perhaps those savings are removed from that place, or he forgets the signs
            (telling where they lie), or nāgas take them away, or yakkhas carry them off,
5.         Or the heirs he dislikes extract them unseen,
            And when his merit comes to an end all of it will be destroyed.
6.         But that woman or man who through giving, virtue,
            Restraint, and self-control has well stored up his savings,
7.          (Placing them) in a shrine, or in the Sangha, or in an individual, or a guest,
            Or in his mother or father, also in an elder brother,
8.         Those savings are well stored up they follow one, they do not decay.
            (Riches) he gives up when he has to leave (this life) but this goes along (with him).
9.          It is not shared with others, no thief carries those savings away,
            The wise man should make merit, (for) those savings follow one along.
10.        These savings satisfy every desire of gods and men,
            Whatever they wish for, through this (merit) they receive all.
11.       A good appearance, a good voice, a good shape, a good form,
            Sovereignty, and a retinue, through this (merit) they receive all.
12.        A local kingship, an empire, and whatever happiness a Wheel-Rolling (King) has,
            Also godly kingship in the heavens, through this (merit) they receive all.
13.       Human good fortune, delight in the world of the gods,
            Even the attainment of Nibbāna, through this (merit) they receive all.
14.       With the attainment of (good) friends, devotion to systematic (thought),
            There is the power of understanding and freedom, through this (merit) they receive
15.        The discriminations, and the liberations, and whatever perfections the disciples
            have, Individual Awakening, the Buddhas' ground, through this (merit) they
            receive all.
16.       So this is of great benefit, that is to say, the attainment of merit,
            Therefore the wise and intelligent (always) praise the making of merit.
The Discourse on the Amount of Savings

The Discourse on the section of hidden treasure-pot
1. Nidhi means a hidden treasure-pot, which is to be buried. Kaṇḍa means a section, a part/ a portion, a piece.
Nidhikaṇḍa, therefore, means a section of hidden treasure-pot, which is to be buried.
2. Nidhi is of four kinds. They are:
(l) Thavaranidhi:             =The immovable treasure, namely, silver, gold, land property, a cultivated field, valuable jewellery and so on.
(2) Jangamanidhi:          =The movable treasure, namely, elephant, horse, buffalo, cattle, male and female slaves one is possessed of.
(3) Aṅgasamanidhi:        =(Inseparable) limb-like treasure such as knowledge of art and science, education, etc.,
(4) Anugāmikanidhi:       =(Closely-following) shadow-like treasure that follows us from this life to the next as inheritance (Kamma).
3. There are two kinds of purpose in keeping the properties in a pit. They are:
(1) The purpose of getting the advantage and
(2) The purpose of getting rid of the disadvantage.
The purpose of getting the advantage is to make use of the property buried in the ground in times of need for causing his property to increase.
The purpose of getting rid of the disadvantage is subdivided into five. Thev are:
(i)    The purpose of being free from the danger of tyrants.
(ii)   The purpose of being free from the danger of robber or brigands
(iii) The purpose of being free from debts,
(iv)  The purpose of being free from famine or serious shortages of food,
(v)   The purpose of being free from accidents, ie, the danger of great fire, flood and bad sons and daughters who are unworthy of heirs.
4. The cause of the loss of property is of five types. They are:
(i)    The property itself moves from one place to another.
(ii)   He himself could not remember the place where he has buried it.
(iii) Naga serpents remove it.
(iv)  Ogre, the guardian deity of the earth and the guardian spirit of tree also can carry or convey it to another place.
(v)   The bad sons and daughters who are unworthy of heirs take it away in his absence.
5. The basic or main cause-of the loss of property is that when one's merit is consumed, the whole property or possessions will vanish utterly.
6. Anugāmikanidhi, which cannot be destroyed by anyone:
(1)   Giving a charity (Dāna),
(2)   Morality (Sīla),
(3)   Concentration (Samādhi ), and
(4)   Insight-meditation or wisdom (Paññā).
Three kinds of Dāna:
(1)   Āmisadāna              ~giving material offering,
(2)   Abhayadāna            ~giving sanctuary and protection to animals, and
(3)   Dhammadāna          ~giving doctrinal lectures.
8. Sīla
a. Cāritta Sīla = virtuous conduct; virtue to be followed;
Paying respects, welcoming, making obeisance, showing reverence and attending on one's elders who may be senior in age or in status and one has to fulfill them. Such fulfillment is called virtuous conduct, Cāritta Sīla. (Dic.B.T. page 159)
b. Vāritta Sīla = Morality based on abstinence or avoidance,
Morality, which is based on the observance of abstinence, laid down by the Buddha is Vāritta Sīla. Constant observance of the five precepts etc, Niccasīla is fulfilled through abstinence. (Dic. B.T. page 208)
9. Seven places or objects that we should bury Anugāmikanidhi;
(1) Cetiya.                        = shrine, pagoda, temple,
(2) Sangha                       = the community of the Buddha's disciple,
(3) Puggala                      = person, individual,
(4) Atithi                          = guest,
(5) Matu                           = mother,
(6) Pitu                             = father, and
(7) Jeṭṭha bhātu               = elder brother and sister.
10. What is Cetiya?
A thing, which is honoured, venerated and paid homage to by men, Devas and Brahmas is called Cetiya. It is built up with bricks to some considerable height. (Dic. B.T page 235)
11. Four types of Cetiya;
(1) Paribhoga Cetiya, which is included the Buddha's personal belongings, such as water-strainer, girdle, robes and alms-bowl; also the edifices where anyone of these are enshrined; as well as the Bodhi-tree where the Buddha attained Enlightenment,
(2) Dhātu Cetiyas, which are the Buddha's relic and the stupas or edifices where anyone of these relics are enshrined,
(3) Dhamma Cetiyas, which are the books and palm leaves, etc., on which the Buddha's teachings are recorded and the stupas or edifices where these are enshrined; and
(4) Udissa Cetiyas, which are the images and status of the Buddha.
12. Seven kinds of offerings to the Order; (Saṅghika Dāna)
(1) An offering to the both bhikkhu and bhikkhuni Saṅgha headed by the Buddha,
(2) An offering to both bhikkhu and bhikkhuni Saṅgha after the demise of the Buddha,
(3) An offering to the bhikkhu Saṅgha only,
(4) An offering to the bhikkhuni Saṅgha only,
(5) An offering to the limited number of bhikkhu and bhikkhuni Saṅgha,
(6) An offering to the limited number of the bhikkhu Saṅgha, and
(7) An offering to the bhikkhuni Saṅgha.

13. Fourteen Kinds of donees who are offered by the donors:
(1)   Animal,
(2)   A common wordling without morality,
(3)   A common wordling with morality,
(4)   One who lives detached from sensual pleasure when the Buddha's teaching is absent,
(5)   One who is practicing to attain Sotāpatti fruition,
(6)   One who is a Sotāpanna,
(7)   One who is practicing to attain Sakadāgāmi fruition,
(8)   One who is Sakadāgāmi,
(9)   One who is practicing to attain Anāgāmi fruition,
(10) One who is an Anāgāmi,
(11) One who is practicing to attain Arahatta fruition,
(12) One who is an Arahatta disciple of the Buddha,
(13) A Pacceka-Buddha, and
(14) A Tathāgata who is worthy of special veneration and who is perfectly self­enlightened. (M-3 page 193)
14. Five types of good qualities of Anugāmikanidhi:
(1) It cannot be looted or taken away by the enemies,
(2) It follows us up to Nibbāna,
(3) It is to be carried to the next existence,
(4) It is one's own property unrelated to others, and
(5) It cannot be stolen or taken away by any thief or any robber.
15. The benefits of Anugāmikanidhi:
By perfoming of Dāna, Sīla, Samādhi and Paññā or insight, we can enjoy the following benefits. They are:
(1)  Beautiful appearance,
(2)  Sweet voice,
(3)  Good-looking figure,
(4)  Beautiful form,
(5)  Lordliness or sovereignty,
(6)  Retinue,
(7)  Local Kingship,
(8)  Emperorship,
(9)  The bliss of universal monarchy,
(10)  Every human excellence,
(11)  Any delight in a divine world and
(12)  Deliverance's excellence (Bliss of Nibbāna).
16. Through the performance of Dāna, Sīla, Samādhi and Paññā, we can also enjoy the following benefits of realizing Nibbāna. They are:
(1)  True knowledge (Vijjā),
(2)  Deliverance (Vimutti),
(3)  Discriminations (Paṭisambhida),
(4)  Liberations (Vimokkha),
(5)  Perfection of disciples (Savakapārami),
(6)  The Knowledge of Pacceka-Buddha and
(7)  The Knowledge of Sammasambuddha.
17. Vijjā is of three or eight kinds:
(1)   Pubbenivāsānussatiñāna     = psychic knowledge of past existence,
(2)   Dibbacakkhuñāna                = psychic power of divine sight,
(3)   Āsavakkhayañāna                = the insight, which uproots Āsavas. (M-1 page 34)
(4)   Iddhividhañāna                    = knowledge pertaining to supernormal power,
(5)   Dibbasotañāna                      = celestial/ divine ear,
(6)   Cetopariyañāna                    = knowledge of the mind of others,
(7)   Manomayiddhiñāna             = knowledge of mental creative powers, and
(8)   Vipassanāñāna                     = insight knowledge.

18. Five kinds of emancipation (Vimutti);
(1)   Tadaṅga Vimutti                  = momentary freedom from defilements during the arising of meritorious thought of the sensuous sphere,
(2)   Vikkhambhana Vimutti       = freedom from defilements due to the arising of lofty mentoriuous thought, (Mahaggata Kusala Citta) experienced in sustained mental absorption, (Jhāna Samāpatti)
(3)   Samuccheda Vimutti            = freedom from defilements on the attainment of the four Maggas.
(4)   Patipassaddhi Vimutti          = freedom from defilements brought about by the four fruitions (Phalas), following the attainment of Maggas, and
(5)   Nissarana Vimutti                = freedom from defilements brought about by realization of Nibbāna. (Dic. B.T page 71)
19. Four kinds of Analytical Insight (Paṭisambhidā)
(1)  Attha paṭisambhidā              = analytical insight into the meaning of consequence of things,
(2)  Dhamma paṭisambhidā        = analytical insight into the nature of the doctrine and the Pāḷi language in which it exists and the ongin of things,
(3)  Nirutti paṭisambhidā            = analytical insight into the language, the grammar and the syntax of the language, and
(4)  Patibhana paṭisambhidā      = analytical insight into the nature of the above three kinds of knowledge. (Dic. B.T page 1)
20. Eight stages of deliverance, liberation, release (Vimokkha):
(1)   Possessing from, one sees forms.
(2)   Not perceiving material forms in oneself, one sees  them outside
(3)   Thinking: "It is beautiful, one becomes intents on it".
(4)   By completely transcending all perception of matter by the vanishing of the perception of sense-reactions and by non-attention to the perception of variety, thinking; " Space is intinite". one enters and abides in the space of intinite space.
(5)   By transcending the sphere of infinite space, thinking: "Consciousness is infinite", one enters and abides in the sphere of infinite consciousness.
(6)   By transcending the sphere of Infinite consciousness, thinking: "There is nothing", one enters and abides in the sphere of no-thing-ness.
(7)   By transcending the sphere of no-thing-ness, one reaches and abides in the sphere of neither perception nor non-perception.
(8)   By transcending the sphere of neither perception nor non-perception, one enters and abides in the cessation of perception and feeling.

ITBMU/ DIPLOMA, Suttanta Ven. U Kosalla & U Varasami

*Vocabulary of the Sutta: (from Pāḷi Concise Dictionary)
1 Nidhi (m) hidden treasure >> nidhikumbhi (f) a treasure-pot.
2 Nidheti [ni+dah+e] deposits; hides or puts aside.
3 Gambhīra (adj) deep; profound; hard to perceive. (nt), depth.
4 Odakantika (nt) neighbourhood of water. (adj.), having water as the final ablution.
5 Attha (in) welfare; gain; wealth; need; want; use; meaning; destruction. (attha pres. 2nd plu. of atthi.)
6 durutta (adj) badly spoken. (nt.) bad speech.
7 Pamokkha (m) release; deliverance; letting loose; discharge.
8 Dubbhikkha (nt) a famine; scarcity of food.
9 Āpadā (f) misfortune; distress.
10 Eta (demons. pron) that; this. (mas. sing.); takes this form in some cases.
11 Nidhīyati (pass. of nidheti) is deposited; is buried some treasure.
12 Tāva (in) so much; so long; as far as. + nihita [pp. of nidahati] deposited; buried some treasure.
13 Santa [pp. of sammati] l. calmed; peaceful; 2. tired; wearied. (adj.), existing. (m.), a virtuous man.
14 Sabbadā (adv) always; everyday.
15 Upakappati [upa+kapp+a] approaches; to be beneficial or suitable.
16 ṭhāna (nt) place; locality; condition; reason; office; cause; standing up; stay.
17 Cavati [cu+a] passes away; dies; falls away; shifts; passes from one state of existence into another.
18 Apanāmeti [pa+nam+e] banishes; removes.
19 Yakkha (m) a demon.
20 vāpi (f.) tank; a reservoir for water.
21 Harati>>haranta>>haranti
22 appiya (adj) easily satisfied; desiring little.
23 Uddharati [u+har+a] raises; lifts; pulls out; removes; uproots.
24 Apassaya (m) 1. support; 2. a bolster; 3. a head-rest// apassayati [pa + si + e or aya] leans against; depends on.// apassayi [aor. of apassayati] leaned against; depended on.// apassayika (adj) reclining on./
25 Yadā (adv) whenever; when.
26 Puññakkhaya (in) exhaustion of merit
27 Vinassati [vi + nas + ya] lose; perishes; to be destroyed.
28 Ya (relative pron.) which; what; whatever.
29 saṃyama (m) restraint; self-control; abstinence.
30 Dama (m) taming; subjugation; restraint; mastery.
31 Cetiya (nt) a sepulchral monument; a pagoda.
32 Atithi (m) a guest; stranger.
33 Cāpa (m) a bow.
34 Atha (ind) then; and also.
35 jeṭṭha (adj) elder; supreme; foremost.
36 Bhāta [pp. of bharati] brought up; maintained; reared; born; supported. (m.), a servant.
37 Pahāya [abs. of pajahati] having left or given up; having renounced; having forsaken; having abandoned.
38 Gamanīya (adj) ought to go; fit to be gone.
39 Hādāya [abs. of ādāti] having taken.
40 asādhāraṇa (adj) uncommon.
41 Maññe (ind) methinks; I imagine.
42 hāraṇa (nt)car ymg. //āhāraṇa (nt) bringing.
43 Kayirā [3rd sing. (poten. of kar)] (to do).
44 Dhīra (adj) wise; the wise.
45 Anugāmika (adj) going along with; a follower.
46 Kāmadada (adj) giving what is desire.
47 Yadā (adv) whenever; when.
48 Abhipattheti [abhi + path + e] longs or hopes for.
49 Me [dat. and gen. sing. of amha] to me; my; mine.
50 suvaṇṇa (nt) gold. (adj.), of good colour; beautiful.
51 susaṇṭhāna (adj) having a good design; well featured.
52 Surūpa (adj) handsome.
53 Ādhipacca (nt) lordship; domination; power. + parivara (m) retinue; suite; pomp; followers.
54 Padesarājja (m) a sub-king.
55 Issariya (nt) supremacy; domination; wealth.
56 Cakkavattī (m) a universal monarch.
57 Piya (adj) dear; amiable; beloved. (m.) the husband. (nt) a dear thing.
58 Rajja (nt) kingdom; kingship.  
59 Dippa (adj) divine; celestial.
60 Rati (f) attachment; love; liking for.
61 Payuñjati [pa + yuj + m-a] harnesses; employs; applies.
62 Vimutti (f) release; deliverance; emancipation. = vimokkha (m) deliverance; release; emancipation.
63 Vasībhāva (m) mastery:
64 paṭisambhidā (f) analytic inkight; discriminating knowledge.
65 Sampadā (f) fortune; happiness; success; attainment.
66 pasaṃsati [pa + saṃs+ a] praises; commends.
67 Katapuññata (f) the fact of being meritorious.

(by paññābala)

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