Ghost And Deity Are One-Facultied Natures - Buddhism, Philosophy, and Khmer Literature


Buddhism, Philosophy, and Khmer Literature

The teachings of the Buddha are aimed solely at liberating sentient beings from suffering. The Basic Teachings of Buddha which are core to Buddhism are: The Three Universal Truths; The Four Noble Truths; and The Noble Eightfold Path.

Post Top Ad

Post Top Ad

Tuesday, August 23, 2022

Ghost And Deity Are One-Facultied Natures

CAMBODIAN DICTIONARY defines the term ‘Adissamānakāya’ (‘invisible corporeal creature’) as those who have body, but cannot be seen such as a ghost, phantom, deity, demon and so on. According to the Buddhist Doctrine, Yoni (being’s birth) was divided into four kinds. Invisible corporeal creatures (Adissamānakāya) are the apparitional, floating to be spontaneously born in the air. The apparitional include Niraya (woeful state), Pettavisaya (ghost sphere), and Asurakāya (host of demons) ..., these three groups are categorized into backward planes because of their mind separating from prosperity. Deity beings are categorized into pleasure blissful planes because their minds are heavenly and good process depending on their great meritorious mark mind while they were existed as humans.

The Buddha said that human beings are born after death in the form of invisible corporeal creature according to the effect of the moral or immoral mind while they were existed as humans. For instance, those who are about to die, at this moment investigating-consciousness which is unmeritorious mark mind arises and ceases, think astray painfully about objects caused by bad function of substances and frightful mind. When their mind arises and ceases in such manner, the departing-consciousness arises, ceases will be linked and appeared immediately in woeful state, ghost sphere and host of demon, the beings spontaneously are completed body according to the natural law. Contrariwise, if the beings are reborn, they will be foolish (departing and relinking-consciousness are the mark mind arises and ceases only for on thought-moment).

As for beings who are about to die kept well full, tranquil, peaceful mind to concentrate on any meritorious objects, after death they will be reborn or appeared in pleasure blissful planes by powerful of one’s wisdom, because the mind arises and ceases in the point of Javana-process, then arises Registering-process where the eight great mark mind existed.

In conclusion, invisible corporeal creature is a being that has life, consciousness, mind, wisdom, but the body just only cannot be seen by person. This is because the four great forming substances, in which life, consciousness and mind reside, are the minutest atoms in the space. On the other hand, mind is the nature also invisible mentality (nāma-dhamma), but the materiality is visible and touchable. This is the reason why the defilers cannot see the life of being in the space due to their impure mind. Buddhist Doctrine classified invisible corporeal creatures into such many divisions according to the kinds of mind which human firmly desire the pleasure object or any meritorious or unmeritorious objects. As to Cambodian people divided them only into good and bad ghost which obviously manifests.

Human being has life, consciousness, and mind, its body is visible. The invisible corporeal creature has life, consciousness, and mind, but its body is invisible. Referring to Buddhist metaphysics, universe is the accumulation of all substances. The human being is naturally formed from the four great forming substances associated with 24 Dependent materialities. The 28 elements of matter were separated by the Buddha’s Wisdom-Eye into minutest particle, which was then inseparable, called Kalāpa (Unit). It is called atom, if compared with chemical or physical decomposition. The Buddha still see a unit includes at least eight elements which cannot be separable any more called eight Avinipphoga-rūpas or Unit (Kalāpa): earth, water, fire, wind, colour, odour, taste, and nutriment. Millions of units heaping up constitute Matter Pile, which conditions visible and touchable human body.

There are likewise the four main substances in the space, but they are the molecule combining with gases. In that case the substances are too minute to see with the eyes. Since the four great forming substances existed as the nebulas as long as they were forming the big and small planets that nowadays we see everywhere in the space. Wherever the Four Great Forming Substances are, life and consciousness could always reside according to the norm of nature. Human mind always arises and ceases i.e., sometimes lazy, sometimes happy, sorrowful, angry, and jealous of others’ dignity and wealth, and sometimes desirous of this object or that corporeality unforgettably, even though they are in bed asleep, they still have the dream.

The mind can process in such ways because pleasure object touched the mind-door, there often the mind arises and adheres to the object. After the mind of this kind has already been existing, it always adheres to the object i.e., human beings, animal beings or various things. If the adhesive mind is great effect, that object always comes to adhere to the mental element or the heart, then the mind always remembers it without forget. The mind which already existed in heart in such a way is called mark mind (Vipāka citta), it made mark on the mind that resided in the matter pile of each individual and never disappear.

The Buddha compared our physical body to the house and our mind to the householder. The physical body is a positive object and the mind is also a positive nature. They always appear in the same time and exist together. When the house is old or is on the fire, the owner gets away to reside in another new house. Likewise, the physical body—when it decomposed, the mind departs from the old body and resides in new state, new materiality because the new materiality exists round the old one which is starting to decompose any element. The cause that the mind can reside in the new state depends on the following conditions:

- The weather which surrounds humans consists of four great forming substances as human body, it is called external materiality.

- The mind which is attaching to any external object is the existing mind. We cannot make this mind disappear, but only the attainment to non-feeling success (Vedayita nirodha samāpatti).

- The disordered mind attaches to the objects outside or one’s body across the weather surrounding. When the last expiration is out, the old matter pile can be determined that they decomposed one wind element. Life and mind do not exist in the old matter pile anymore.

- The last mind arises together with the last expiration and immediately conceptualizes in the new materiality which surrounds the old one because the new one in the space consists completely of substances already better than the old that just decomposed one.

- The materiality in our matter pile changes successively from the infancy until the senility. The mind arises in the matter pile at any moment while matter pile ceases; the mind ceases at this moment too. The new matter pile arises at the moment of inspiration and also the new mind. The state of such mind process is very and very fast. Therefore, one may raise the question, “If the new mind arises, why it knows something old?”

- The answer is that mind has two positions: one position is in the blood assembling in our heart. It is the mark of object in the mind or called mark mind (Vipāka-citta). Even though real object did not touch any sense-door, when we desire the existing mark mind to take place, it will arise intentionally at mental door. The other is at the five sense-doors depending on the outside object touches it at any moment, the mind arises there. The mind arises at the five sense-organs because of the outside object entering to touch, the first mind arises and ceases and then the new mind arises and ceases many moments with the same object monotonously.

- The Buddhist Metaphysics affirms that the happy mind arises and ceases seventeen moments, whilst the matter pile arises one moment and ceases, then the new one appears and as well as the new happy mind arises—the new arising mind still continues to be the same happy with the same old object. Thus, we confuse such mind that it is the only one happy mind or the old. After the visual object goes away the happy mind adheres as mark to the blood, there it could arise and cease again, if there is any causality.

- The materiality starts to decompose its substances; whilst the breath does not inspire, as well as not being able to make it appear again. The last existing mind depends on the last expiration of the old materiality which lastly appears. The last mind transmits outside together with the last expiration and this mind links up immediately external materiality because there are four main substances enough to reside.

The Buddha said that human mind is powerful. When it existed and attached to any object, it is very difficult to be disappeared, i.e., it still attaches to that object until it becomes the mark mind residing in the blood or in our heart. Whilst body decomposes substance, the mind departs from the old materiality and relinks immediately up in the new one according to the nature law. The new corporeality appears in completed-form body different from the womb-born, egg-born, and putrescence-born creatures. In the space, there is no nutriment, but only vapour as gases.

So, the invisible corporeal creatures that do not have food to eat like the human beings swallow only the saliva which is the water element of theirs.

As to the creatures have divine food and mansion depending on the great meritorious mind which they had made merit when they were human beings. The Buddha stated that the twelve unmeritorious minds: four greed minds accompanied by pleasure, four greed minds accompanied by neutrality, two hatred minds and two ignorant minds are unwise and weak. While a bad situation takes place, those minds are quickly afraid and confused, especially when the death comes. The twelve unmeritorious minds are the impure mind, if studying magic Vedas to spit, blow, sprinkle in order to cure a sick person and make prayer to protect someone from misfortune and cataclysm, the minds are not intentionally effective. On the other hand, if we need such twelve minds to concentrate on the forty concentrative objects to gain successful concentration, those minds are useless.

The eight great meritorious minds are the pure minds because they are far away from greed, hatred, and ignorance called the moral minds. Needing them to sprinkle holy water and make prayer, they are powerfully effective or to cure a sick person, he will relieve quickly. If we need those minds to concentrate on a single object, they will achieve the best quality (concentration). When the concentrative mind positively occurs, it can concentrate sharply on only one object. While the invocation was taken place, the mind will have success and power. The object which is invoked will metamorphose as various things as intent.

On these reasons, some invisible corporeal creatures have divine food to eat and mansions to live. As for the unmeritorious minds separate from morality virtue and wisdom, they are full of greed, hatred and ignorance, and they are the obscure minds. After death, they will go to appear in woeful state, ghost sphere, and host of demons having phlegm and saliva as their food. They are thirsty and hungry as much as they were human personality. Such minds are not tranquil and peaceful and are without powerful success. The Buddha said that the woeful-beings, ghosts, and Asura demons have no divine food to eat and mansion to live.

As to the Brahma beings had full mind due to concentration factor in the time when they were alive as human personality, they after death have the same full mind as their food.

Matter units which the invisible corporeal creatures in pleasure planes do not have like the human beings are nose-decade, tongue-decade, sex-decade, and body-decade. Relating to sex-decade, the deities in the pleasure plane who still desires sexual passion must use their mind to metamorphoses to male or female. In the Brahma world, there is no sex because Brahma beings always, when they were alive as human personality, sat to develop the tranquillity mind, the pure mind detaching from pleasure object, male and female. To those who can see ghosts and deities are to develop in advance the concentration of forty concentrative objects until attaining concentrative mind, then they use such a mind to look about the mental element in the space, and then they could see ghosts and deities.

To those who did not do good action for the society, they adopted only oppression, exploitation, cheating, injustice, robbery, jealousy, and killed each other, after death, they could not find pleasure blissful planes because they have no powerful perfection of meritorious minds. The evil actions took place due to the twelve unmeritorious minds.

The death men could take nothing (wealth) with them, but they could take only mind. If they had morality virtue, they could take the result of meritorious mind. Only such a result could to be used to find peace in the world of invisible corporeal creatures.

Nowadays, the morality virtues which are conditions of human peace almost fade away, the creatures in the planes of invisible corporeal creatures could not metamorphose to perform success obviously as the previous time when the human beings remained pure mind. Then again, the human beings created technological cultures successfully for their needs. This achievement makes people believe in self-confidence higher and higher, while external beliefs are not effective anymore. According to the above cause, people would start abandoning beliefs on worshiped nature law step by step and they assemble to establish social morality, social law and to enforce the law which is more obvious and regular than the nature law.

As result scientific tradition cultures have been established until now.

No comments:

Post a Comment

Post Top Ad